ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1980, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 77-82.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

我国古代心理测验方法试探

林传鼎   

  1. 北京师范学院教育科学研究所
  • 出版日期:1980-03-25 发布日期:1980-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 林传鼎

A SKETCH ON THE METHODS OF MENTAL TESTING IN ANCIENT CHINA

Lin Chuan--ting Institute of Pedagogical Sciences, Beijing Normal College   

  • Online:1980-03-25 Published:1980-03-25

摘要: <正> 心理测验在我国有着悠久的历史,自西汉末年至南北朝(约从公元初年到第六世纪)人们对忖度人心的尝试极感兴趣。当时的封建统治对人才选拔的问题十分重视,不少文人学者对才能和性格的种种表现分析甚详,在当时的条件下为招贤育才做出了一定的贡献。这种传统一直延续至唐宋,第十世纪以后仍有所发展。现据札记所得,将古代测验方法片断介绍如次。

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Abstract: The author found that the interest and effort in diagnosing personality andconduct for the appointment of men on their merits had already prevailed inChina about the beginning of the Christian era. At that time Chinese scholarstended to advocate that, being the voice and picture of one's mind, our speech(word) and handwriting should be used in mental testing. Hence the speed ofspeaking and writing was used as an index of intelligence, and method ofinterrogation as important means in personality assessment. The procedures usedat the end of 1920s by H. Hartshorne and M. A. May in their CEI Tests formeasuring honesty, service and self-control had been proposed in Cnina aboutthe 20s of the third century. Completion tests were widely used in the imperialexaminations since 8th century. Various methods of paired antithetical phrasessimilar to the opposite analogies in Stanford-Binet scale were devised by Chinesepoets later on. Ever since the middle of 6th century, some kinds of sensori-motor tests similar to the Buhler's and Gesell's had been applied to the babiesat their first birthday in south part of China as a traditional practice untilrecently. Long before the appearance of Seguin's form board, a 7-piece puzzleanalogous to and much more difficult than the Kempf's diagonal form board,had been developed as a non-verbal intelligence test. not yet standardized. Theso-called shape analysis tests now used elsewhere abroad are only a simplifiedform and the paper-pencil type of this puzzle. It is mentioned in this sketch that the first distraction test of the world wasconducted thirteen centuries ago by a well-known Chinese literary critic. In thistest subjects were asked to draw a square with left hand and a circle withright one simultaneously. Also noted are the rudimental data from historicaltimes concerning the predictive value of test results, the method for rating thevividness of auditory imagery and the interpretation of achievement in termsof group reference.

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