ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (10): 1498-1508.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01498

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-18 出版日期:2014-10-25 发布日期:2014-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 莫雷, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Improvements in Children’s Fluid Intelligence with Working Memory Training

PENG Jun; MO Lei; HUANG Ping; ZHOU Ying; WANG Jing; ANG Chen   

  1. (Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2013-06-18 Online:2014-10-25 Published:2014-10-25
  • Contact: MO Lei, E-mail:


目前已有许多研究证据表明, 工作记忆训练能提高成人、儿童的流体智力成绩, 然而这种训练是否能够提高幼儿的流体智力表现, 更为重要的是, 如果训练确有成效, 那么这种训练效果能否长期保持?为此, 本研究选择了幼儿园4~5岁幼儿进行工作记忆训练任务, 考察工作记忆训练对流体智力的提升及保持效应。实验中设立3个组:实验组、控制1组和控制2组。实验组采用单个空间n-back的工作记忆游戏程序进行训练, 控制1组采用“水果忍者”的游戏程序进行训练, 两组进行游戏训练的时间均为14天, 每天15 min; 控制2组不进行任何训练。结果发现, 训练后实验组幼儿被试的流体智力成绩明显优于两个控制组, 在6个月后再进行测试, 这种优势仍然保持。本研究结果表明, n-back工作记忆训练可以提高幼儿的流体智力成绩, 并且这种训练效果具有持续的稳定性。

关键词: 工作记忆训练, 刷新功能, 流体智力, 幼儿


Fluid intelligence is one of the general intelligence types originally proposed by Cattell (1963), which refers to the innate ability of analytically solving novel problems and logically identifying new patterns and relationships. Increasing evidence has shown that cognitive training, especially those aiming at enhancing working memory, can significantly improve fluid intelligence. Moreover, central executive functions, especially working memory updating, were reported to positively correlate with individual intelligence. Thus, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to investigate whether working memory training can improve fluid intelligence. Recent studies have shown that, after short-term working memory training, performance in fluid intelligence tests, including running memory task and n-back paradigm, was improved both in adults and school-aged children. It is therefore suggested that the transfer of an improved working memory updating ability contributed to the reported training effects. However, there remain 2 major unsolved problems. On the one hand, although training has been reported effective for adults and school-aged children, few studies have focused on pre-school children. On the other hand, the demonstration of long-term effects was unreliable, because the reported studies either failed to examine lasting effects or lacked time for confirmation. In our study, 96 children aged 4-5 from one kindergarten participated in the experiment. They were randomly selected from 3 classes and assigned to 3 groups - experimental group, control group 1, and control group 2. Participants in experimental group were trained for 15 minutes per day for a period of 14 days using an n-back working memory training program displayed on tablet computers. In this program, participants were shown a series of stimuli and asked to judge whether the current stimulus is the same as the one displayed before the previous n items. As n increased, the task difficulty increased, resulting in higher demands of working memory. Each participant started training at 1-back level with n being continuously adjusted based on their performance. To account for the possibility that better fluid IQ performance is essentially due to attention improvement, participants in control group 1 played the Fruit Ninja game for the same period of time, which was designed to yield comparable attention improvements. For control group 2, children received no training. Parallel versions of Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-4) were used to assess participants’ fluid intelligence in pretest, posttest and a follow-up test 6 months after training respectively. All experimental manipulations and the data analysis were designed and performed double-blinded. Results indicated that, after 14-day training, participants’ task performance in the training task was significantly improved. Children in experimental group significantly outperformed 2 other control groups in the posttest, which remained equally significant 6 months after training. As task motivation and attitude were balanced, our results were convincing in demonstrating training effects. In conclusion, our results proved that the n-back working memory task can efficiently improve kindergarten children’s fluid intelligence, whose effect is sustainable in the long term.

Key words: working memory training, working memory updating, fluid intelligence, kindergarten children