ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (3): 648-659.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00648

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


王东美(), 项可嘉   

  1. 南京大学社会学院心理学系, 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-26 出版日期:2022-03-15 发布日期:2022-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 王东美
  • 基金资助:

Facilitating the client change: A perspective from the therapeutic zone of proximal development

WANG Dongmei(), XIANG Kejia   

  1. Department of Psychology, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2021-03-26 Online:2022-03-15 Published:2022-01-25
  • Contact: WANG Dongmei


作为心理治疗的有效区域, 治疗性最近发展区是指当事人当前适应问题经验的能力和通过治疗师的协助能够达成的潜在能力之间的距离。早期的同化模型理论更注重对心理治疗改变过程的描述, 治疗性最近发展区理论则能够进一步解释治疗师在不同阶段的帮助策略。在研究上, 治疗性最近发展区理论建立在非传统的方法论基础上, 通过不断累积个案的质性研究, 帮助治疗师理解和解释不同咨询效果的互动过程, 并使理论得到持续发展; 在临床上, 治疗性最近发展区为理解心理治疗过程中倒退现象提供了新视角, 并能够有效指导在治疗过程中采取挑战性还是支持性策略。未来研究可从临床上探索经验丰富的治疗师的实践智慧, 也可选取较大跨度的治疗对话序列, 对不同流派的特点, 从不同参与者的视角出发进行研究, 进而深化对心理治疗过程机制的理解。

关键词: 治疗性最近发展区, 同化模型, 倒退, 治疗协作, 治疗过程


Therapeutic zone of proximal development (TZPD) is an extension of Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development in the field of psychotherapy. Based on the assimilation model, TZPD represents the space between the actual development level and the potential development level of clients within a developmental sequence. As a new concept to understand the change process of psychotherapy, it can enhance the understanding of setbacks in psychotherapy, provide an easy-to-operate theoretical framework for promoting the change of the client, and provide precise guidance for the therapist to choose supportive or challenging intervention strategies. In terms of research, TZPD theory is based on an unconventional methodology of Theory-Building Qualitative Research. TZPD theory is built upon accumulating observations in qualitative case studies in which TZPD helped the therapist understand and interpret the psychotherapy process. Under this methodology, researchers mainly use a therapeutic collaboration coding system (TCCS) as a research tool to analyze different case studies, understand the causes and characteristics of different counseling cases, and compare the effects of good and bad results based on TZPD, to describe the characteristics of the psychotherapy process. This kind of practice will provide a richer perspective for future research on the theoretical construction of psychological counseling and therapy and the understanding of psychological treatment mechanisms. In clinical practice, as the working area of psychotherapy, TZPD provides a new perspective for understanding the setback phenomenon in the psychotherapy process. Early researchers regarded setbacks as a hindrance in the psychotherapy process, but the TZPD suggests that setbacks may be therapists' exploration of the clients' TZPD boundaries and preparation for subsequent progress. The key point of therapists' work is not to avoid setbacks, but to discover and differentiate the phenomenon of setbacks under the enlightenment of TZPD theory, and choose the appropriate intervention technique at the appropriate stage. The future of TZPD hinges on further exploration of the clinical wisdom of experienced therapists. It's also worthy of carrying out theoretical exploration from different approaches and perspectives, which might ultimately explain setbacks in the process of assimilation and lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of the psychotherapy process.

Key words: therapeutic zone of proximal development, assimilation model, setbacks, therapeutic collaboration, psychotherapy process