ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 329-339.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00329

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


张振1, 齐春辉1(), 王洋2, 赵辉1, 王小新1, 高晓雷3()   

  1. 1 河南师范大学教育学部, 新乡 453007
    2 国网天津市电力公司东丽供电分公司, 天津 300300
    3 西藏大学教育学院, 拉萨 850000
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-22 出版日期:2020-02-15 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 齐春辉,高晓雷;
  • 基金资助:
    * 河南省哲学社会科学规划项目(2019CJY030);河南省软科学研究计划项目(192400410021);国家自然科学基金(31860280);河南省教育厅人文社会科学研究项目(2020-ZDJH-152);河南师范大学博士科研启动基金(QD18043);河南师范大学青年科学基金资助(2019QK31)

In-group favoritism or the black sheep effect? Group bias of fairness norm enforcement during economic games

ZHANG Zhen1, QI Chunhui1(), WANG Yang2, ZHAO Hui1, WANG Xiaoxin1, GAO Xiaolei3()   

  1. 1 Faculty of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China
    2 State Grid Tianjin Power Corporation Dongli Supply Company, Tianjin 300300, China
    3 Educational College of Tibet University, Lhasa 850000, China
  • Received:2019-03-22 Online:2020-02-15 Published:2019-12-25
  • Contact: QI Chunhui,GAO Xiaolei;


公平规范执行代指人们自愿损耗利益来惩罚违反公平原则行为的意愿和行为, 被视为人类社会的重要特征及维持合作行为的关键因素。群体认同是指个体对其所属群体身份的知觉及其所付诸于该群体身份上的价值与情绪, 直接影响着群际互动中人们的公平规范执行行为。基于多种资产分配任务, 国内外学者发现公平规范执行中群体偏见存在两种矛盾的表现形式:人们有时更愿意接受内群体成员的不公提议, 表现为内群体偏爱现象(the in-group favoritism, IGF), 有时又更愿意拒绝内群体成员的不公提议, 表现出黑羊效应(the black sheep effect, BSE)。当前, 纯粹偏好理论和规范聚焦理论常被用来解释上述两种相悖的现象。未来研究应侧重从多种视角揭示公平规范执行偏见的边界条件, 比较多种线索操纵所致偏见的差异性, 促进两种理论的融合与补充, 并增强其潜在神经机制的探索。

关键词: 公平规范执行, 群体偏见, 纯粹偏好理论, 规范聚焦理论


Fairness norm enforcement refers to the willingness to incur personal costs to punish violations of fairness norms, which was thought to be a hallmark of human society and play a key role in cooperative interactions. Group identity refers to some knowledge of one’s group membership together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership, which directly influences people’s fairness norm enforcement during inter-group context. Using a variety of asset allocation game, researchers found group bias exerted a critical effect on fairness norm enforcement, while existing in two opposite patterns. Sometimes, people were more likely to accept unfair offer from in-groups, reflecting the pattern of in-group favoritism, but sometimes people were also more likely to punish norm violations from in-group members, revealing the form of the so-called black sheep effect. Currently, norms focused theory and mere preferences theory have usually been used to explain the above contradictory phenomena. Based on this review, future research directions should explore the boundary conditions of this bias, compare the difference of this parochial altruism induced by variable group identity, emphasize the integration of different theories, and enhance the exploration of its underlying neural mechanisms.

Key words: fairness norm enforcement, group bias, mere preferences theory, norms focused theory