ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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15 December 2021, Volume 29 Issue 12

Conceptual Framework
Regular Articles
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Conceptual Framework
 Exploring the trajectories of organizational citizenship behavior and its mechanism from the organizational socialization perspective ZHANG Liangting, WANG Bin, FU Jingtao 2021, 29 (12):  2105-2118.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02105 Abstract ( 35 )   The highly competitive and uncertain external environment requires higher levels of organizational flexibility and adaptability. Organizations and scholars have paied more attention than ever to employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) because OCB can lead to series of desirable employee and organizational outcomes, such as improved viability, competitiveness, and performance. Although scholars have exerted considerable efforts to investigate OCB, the dominant approach in the existing literature is to frame OCB as a relatively stable variable and examine its antecedents and outcomes through a static perspective. This static approach can explain the reason why some employees are more proactive than others at a certain point in time, but it’s hard to explain why OCB may change over time. In other words, there is a omission of the dynamic understanding of OCB in the existing literature. Limited research with a dynamic perspective has adopted two research methods. The first method is the cross-lagged research design. Researchers usually use the antecedent at T1 to predict the changes of OCB at T2 or use the OCB at T1 to predict the outcomes at T2. Although the changes in OCB have been identified, these studies fail to explain why OCB may change over time. In another research stream using repeated measurement design, researchers usually use the experience sampling method to explore the effects of transitory mood, affect, justice, and exhaustion that cause individuals to alter the frequency of their OCB over a short period. These studies have showed that OCB is dynamics at within-individual level in minutes, days, and weeks. However, despite the great advances of the experience sampling method used in the OCB literature, this approach measures OCB at daily level and predicts the within-individual variation of OCB in a short period. In contrast, using a relatively long time framework to study the dynamic of OCB may be critical for understanding the stable trend of OCB because in relatively long periods OCB will show less fluctuation.Employees who have sufficient work experience tend to develop relatively stable and satisfactory patterns to accommodate their jobs and organization. In other words, from a long-term perspective, most employees in the organization have an equilibrium level of their behaviors so that it could be reasonable to do the static or momentary studies without considering its trajectories. This assumption is only applied to those who have sufficient work experience, while those who just entering an organization (newcomer) or experiencing lateral moves or are promoted (job changer) will experience a socialization process.. In the socialization process that emphasizing employees acquire knowledge about and adjust to their new tasks or surroundings, employees may show the fluctuation of their behaviors because they experience shocks that constantly affect their behaviors. Thus, we mainly focus on employees’ OCB trajectories from an organizational socialization perspective. Additionally, employees will participate in some types of OCB more often than others, thus we need to differentiate OCB dimensions when exploring OCB trajectories. In the current study, we mainly focus on two dimensions of OCB at work: affiliative behaviors and challenging behaviors. That is because employees are more sensitive to risks in the socialization process. Thus, it’s reasonable to treat affiliative behavior and challenging behavior differently in their progression. Moreover, this research intends to explore the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of the OCB’s trajectory through combining it with AMO (ability-motivation-opportunity) theory. From the theoretical perspective, framework proposed in this study will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of dynamic changes in OCB in the workplace. In terms of practical implications, the current study will enable us to understand how to achieve sustained high levels of OCBs, and help both employees and organizations to benefit from the organizational socialization process.
 Customer response to pro-customer deviance behavior: A theoretical model based on moral emotion HU Jiajing, ZHANG Meng, MA Xiuli, LIU Yan 2021, 29 (12):  2119-2130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02119 Abstract ( 57 )   Pro-customer deviant (PCD) behavior occurs when frontline employees intentionally deviate from the formal organizational regulations or prohibitions to help customers or act in the best interests of customers. PCD puts managers in a dilemma because of its double-sided moral attributes reflecting either altruistic motivation or deviation from the norms of organization. Thus, it is critical to understand customer’s moral cognitive evaluation of PCD, complex moral emotions and behavioral responses to PCD to determine employees’ intrinsic motivations to conduct PCD behaviors. However, there are barely no divergent results on the impact of PCD on customers’ responses since most existing studies have only focused on one side of moral attributes of PCD. Therefore, there is a need to address how PCD exerts double-edged-sword effect.Utilizing the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm, taking PCD’ s dual moral attributes (e.g., altruistic motivation, deviation from the norms of organization) as the logical origin, this study develops a model to examine simultaneously both the positive and negative effects of PCD on customer moral emotions and re-patronage intention. Specifically, Study 1 explores customers’ moral cognition evaluation and complex moral emotional responses to PCD. According to the Cognitive Appraisal Theory, PCD evokes customers’ inner moral cognitive and emotional reactions through a multi-level cognitive appraisal of PCD. In the primary appraisal stage, customers evaluate the perceived benefits they could gain from the perspective of the altruistic motivation of PCD, which in turn generate feelings of gratitude. In the secondary appraisal stage, customers evaluate the perceived harm due to the actual deviation from the organizational rules, and generate feelings of guilt or shame. Study 2 examines the mediating effect of complex moral emotions on the relationship between PCD and re-patronage intention. On the basis of Differential Emotions Theory, this study proposes that customers’ feelings of gratitude, guilt and shame triggered by PCD respectively mediate the relationship between PCD and customer’s re-patronage intention. Moreover, this study examines the interaction effect of customer’s feeling of gratitude and guilt, and customer’s feelings of gratitude and shame on customer’s re-patronage intention. Study 3 examines the moderating effect of customer attribution of responsibility (self- attribution vs. other- attribution) and service context (in the presence of others vs. in the absence of others) on the relationship between PCD and customer moral emotions and re-patronage intention. This study reveals the existences of crowding-in and crowding-out effects of complex moral emotion on customer’s re-patronage intention with different types of customer attribution of responsibility and service settings.The present research examines customer’s diversified and complex response to PCD from the perspective of moral emotions and makes the following theoretical and practical contributions, First, this study identifies PCD as an ethical behavior in the service encounter and examines the effects of PCD on customers’ complex moral emotions. Since limited studies have simultaneously examined both sides of PCD’s dual moral attributes, this study provides an empirical perspective for PCD. Second, this study presents a theoretical model, which integrates PCD, perceived self-benefits, perceived harm to others, gratitude, guilt, shame and customer’s re-patronage intention to better understand of how PCD influence re-patronage intention through moral emotions. More specifically, this study indicates that gratitude and guilt (or shame) mediate the relationship between PCD and customer’s re-patronage intention, which broadens and deepens the theoretical application of moral emotions, and fills the gap in previous literature that has only focused on the mediated role of one specific moral emotion. Third, this study responds to the calls for studies, along with corresponding practical implications, by investigating how customer attribution of responsibility and service context moderate the influence of PCD on customers’ moral emotions and re-patronage intention. This study finding provides managerial implications for service enterprises to take advantage of the positive effect of PCD.
Regular Articles
 The influence of blindness on auditory vocabulary recognition FENG Jie, XU Juan, WU Xinchun 2021, 29 (12):  2131-2146.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02131 Abstract ( 63 )   Language is one of the most important human cognitive abilities. The language skills of sighted people are based on auditory and visual information. During a conversation, people with normal vision view the movements of the lips and chin during pronunciation, as well as facial expressions and body movements, etc. These visual cues play an important role in individual language acquisition and development. However, blind people lack the input of vivid visual information in the process of language acquisition. This lack of visual experience results in a series of adaptive changes in auditory vocabulary recognition.In a review of previous research, we found that: (1) In terms of auditory vocabulary processing, blind people show specific auditory compensation effects. For example, blind people have more sensitive speech perception, better oral memory and faster vocabulary judgment. (2) In terms of semantic understanding of vocabulary, unlike sighted people, blind people tend to use non-visual features (e.g., touch, hearing, and smell) to represent and understand some vision-related words (e.g., words representing specific objects, and words representing “beauty”). In addition, blind people have weaker semantic processing and understanding of some vision-related words (such as color words) compared with people with normal vision. (3) The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying blind people’s auditory vocabulary processing cause a series of plastic changes. For example, the right occipital cortex of blind people is involved in speech processing; the left occipital cortex of blind people is involved in various speech processing tasks, such as the processing of words, and the degree of activation in the occipital cortex appears to be mainly related to semantic processing; and the connection between the prefrontal language functional areas and the visual cortex in blind people is stronger than that in sighted people.The current study proposes that further research in this field should examine the following areas in more depth: First, when studying auditory vocabulary recognition in blind people, vocabulary processing should be classified and discussed according to the visual relevance of the vocabulary terms. For example, vocabulary terms can be divided into non-vision-related words, weakly vision-related words, and strongly vision-related words. Second, the mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory vocabulary in blind people should be investigated in comprehensive and systematic research examining multiple dimensions, such as phonetics, glyphs and semantics, as well as the interactions among them. A processing model should be developed that can reflect the characteristics of blind people’s auditory vocabulary recognition. Third, neurophysiological mechanisms underlying auditory vocabulary recognition in blind people should be studied in more depth, including: (1) the specific functions and roles, in blind people, of the language function area in the left frontal-temporal lobe, the visual cortex in the occipital lobe, and the visual word form area, during auditory vocabulary processing; (2) The differences between the semantic representation of words with different levels of visual relevance in the brains of blind people and individuals with normal vision; (3) The brain processing pathways and brain network characteristics in the whole process of auditory vocabulary recognition from speech input to semantic comprehension. Finally, in blind children, the lack of visual experience may cause greater variability and higher complexity in auditory vocabulary recognition compared with normally-sighted children. For example, in terms of vocabulary and speech processing, blind children may experience a transition from disadvantage to compensatory advantage; in terms of semantic understanding and learning of words, blind children who lack visual experience and have weak cognitive abilities may exhibit more difficulty. Researchers should focus on language acquisition and development in blind children and carry out more in-depth developmental research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of the lack of visual experience on auditory vocabulary recognition in blind people.
 The neural mechanisms for human voice processing: Neural evidence from sighted and blind subjects MING Lili, HU Xueping 2021, 29 (12):  2147-2160.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02147 Abstract ( 32 )   The human voice, as an important part of one’s auditory environment, contains a large amount of paralinguistic information to help identify other individuals. Especially for blind individuals, the lack of visual face experience makes voice information the main source of perceiving another person's individual characteristics. The present study attempts to analyze and summarize the universal human voice processing mode and the specific voice processing mechanism of blind individuals by combining the research on sighted and blind groups (mainly including voice-selective processing and voice-identity processing).The existing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature has found that compared with non-vocal sounds, the bilateral superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/G) showed stronger neuronal activation for the human voice, indicating that the STS/S were voice-selective regions and appeared stronger in the right hemisphere. FMRI research among blind individuals once again verified the conclusion that the right STS plays an essential role in voice-selective processing. However, it has also been found that the voice-sensitive response of the left STS in the blind group was higher than that in the sighted group, which may indicate that the blind group showed a reduced hemispheric lateralization tendency. A similar conclusion has also been found at different levels of voice information, such as voice identity, voice emotion and speech processing. In addition, the reduced hemispheric lateralization tendency of voice processing is not only positively correlated with the age of onset of blindness but also may be explained by the more coordinated auditory processing mechanism between the two cerebral hemispheres in blind individuals.In addition to the core system of voice processing, the right anterior fusiform gyrus (aFG), generally identified as face-selective processing and face-identity processing, can also be involved in voice-selective processing and voice-identity processing in blind individuals. As such, we suggest that the right aFG in blind individuals may exhibit cross-modal brain reorganization to participate in voice processing. The evidence from how deaf individuals’ "temporal voice area" participates in face-selective and face-identity processing further supports this elaboration of cross-modal reorganization in the brain regions associated with individual identification. Furthermore, because the "temporal voice area" in deaf individuals enhances the connection strength with the visual cortex, the neural basis of cross-modal reorganization may arise from the "unmasking effect" after sensory deprivation; for example, the visual brain region (aFG) in blind individuals can recruit and enhance existing auditory or tactile inputs to process (nonvisual) information about a speaker's identity. However, this inference needs to be further tested. Notably, the fusiform region in the sighted group was also involved in voice processing. More specifically, the fusiform face area (FFA) showed cross-modal information (without visual cues) or was integrated and facilitated by visual information (with known visual cues) in voice-identity recognition/identification. Therefore, the voice processing mechanism in the blind and sighted groups did not follow the same pattern: the visual region in blind individuals demonstrated long-term cross-modal reorganization, while the visual region in sighted individuals performed short-term cross-modal information processing or multimodal information integration; however, both emphasized the close relation between face identity and voice identity processing.In summary, after systematically combing and analyzing fMRI research on voice processing in blind and sighted groups, the following questions need to be further explored and clarified: (1) How are the voice processing strategies (driven by top-down and bottom-up processing) of blind individuals different from those of sighted individuals? (2) Are the functions of the fusiform gyrus modality-specific or modality-general representations? (3) How are different levels of voice information integrated to realize the dynamic perceptual process of multiple cues in auditory speech flow?Answering these questions will improve our current understanding of the theoretical system and neuroanatomical mechanism of voice processing and, further, have important implications for auditory processing, speech cognition and artificial intelligence.
 The relation between non-symbolic magnitude representation and symbolic fraction representation MAO Huomin, LIU Qin, LV Jianxiang, MOU Yi 2021, 29 (12):  2161-2171.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02161 Abstract ( 33 )   A fundamental research question in numerical development concerns the relation between early emerging non-symbolic magnitude representation and symbolic numbers and mathematics learning. Especially, whether non-symbolic magnitude representation is a cognitive foundation for symbolic numbers and mathematic learning. Since early infants, one can represent the magnitude of a set of items (single magnitude) and the proportion between two magnitudes non-verbally (i.e., non-symbolic magnitude representation). Many of existing studies have examined the relation between non-symbolic representations for single magnitudes and symbolic number or mathematics learning. In contrast, few studies have investigated whether and how non-symbolic representations for the proportion between magnitudes relate with symbolic numbers or mathematics. Given that fraction is a critical concept of symbolic proportion, and it is an important concept taught in elementary mathematics, the present article reviewed and summarized studies on the relations between the representations for non-symbolic proportions and symbolic fractions. Previous studies showed that the precision of individuals’ non-symbolic magnitude representations for proportions were correlated with the precision of representations for symbolic fractions. In addition, both non-symbolic proportions and symbolic fractions activate some common brain regions, suggesting their common neural foundations. However, these correlational findings may not necessarily mean that non-symbolic magnitude representations for proportions provide a cognitive foundation for learning of symbolic fractions. First, when examining the relation between representations for non-symbolic proportions and symbolic fractions, most of existing studies did not rigorously control for general cognitive abilities. Therefore, it is not clear if non-symbolic proportion representations are uniquely correlated with symbolic fraction representations. Second, while most studies found the concurrent correlations between non-symbolic proportion and symbolic fraction representations, little has been done to examine if the two are related longitudinally. Third, besides demonstrating the correlations, more studies are needed to reveal how symbolic fraction representations are built on non-symbolic proportion representations. These discussions are also informative for mathematics education.
 Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods for cognitive diagnosis LI Jia, MAO Xiuzhen, ZHANG Xueqin 2021, 29 (12):  2272-2280.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02272 Abstract ( 41 )   The Q-matrix plays the role of bridging between the observable responses, the unobservable item characteristics and the knowledge state of participants. It is of vital importance to obtain accurate Q-matrix. In the past decade, researchers have conducted extensive studies and proposed a number of methods for the estimation (validation) of Q-matrix. In general, the existing methods of Q-matrix estimation and validation are classified into: 1) parameterized methods in the CDM perspective, including item differentiation, model-data fit index and parameter estimation; 2) non-parametric methods in the statistical perspective, including the distance between observed and expected response vector, abnormal responses index and factor analysis.The core thought of the optimal item discrimination methods is to select the attribute pattern with the optimal item discrimination from all possible attribute patterns as the q-vector of item. Among them, theδ (de la Torre, 2008) and ς 2 (de la Torre & Chiu, 2016) methods determine the q -vector based on the absolute optimal item discrimination index; the γ (Tu et al., 2012) method adopt the effect size test based on attribute discrimination; the stepwise (Ma & de la Torre, 2020) method and the likelihood ratio test (Wang et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2020) focus on the performance of search algorithm and significant difference test in Q-matrix estimation (validation). Secondly, the key to the methods of absolute fit index based on model-data is to construct the difference or consistency index that reflects the probability distribution of observed response and expected response. For instance, S statistic (Liu et al., 2012) judges the difference between the observed and the expected distribution of all participants from all the items; Likelihood ratio D2 statistics (Yu et al., 2015), RMSEA(Kang et al., 2019) and R(Yu & Cheng, 2020) are used to judge the difference between the observed and expected distributions of the item j from all the participants; the residual method (Chen, 2017) is based on the absolute error of the correlation or logarithmic ratio of the item pairs. It is still an effective way to estimate (validate) Q-matrix by taking the elements of Q-matrix as parameters to be estimated. In this line of research, MLE and MMLE methods (Wang et al., 2018) are common parameter estimation methods, which are simple and easy to understand, but iterative EM algorithm is often time-consuming. Bayesian parameter estimation methods (Chung, 2019; Chen et al., 2018; DeCarlo, 2012; Templin & Henson, 2006) obtain the posterior distribution of the parameters to be estimated based on the prior distribution, and then use the mean value of the posterior distribution or the sample mean value as the estimated value.The non-parametric methods based on statistical analysis express the degree of fit between the observed reaction and the ideal reaction by calculating the distance between the discrete observed response vector and the ideal response vector or the abnormal response index. For example, the Euclidean distance $\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{N}{{{({{Y}_{ij}}-{{\eta }_{ijc}})}^{2}}}$(Barnes, 2010; Chiu, 2013; Hang , 2020), the Hamming distance$\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{N}{\text{I(}{{Y}_{ij}}\ne {{\eta }_{ijc}}\text{)}}$ (Wang et al., 2018) or the Manhattan distance$\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{N}{\left| {{Y}_{ij}}-{{\eta }_{ijc}} \right|}$ (Liu , 2020). In addition, based on a large amount of reaction data, the non-parametric methods also regard the elements of the Q-matrix as the factor structure between item and potential attributes for factor analysis, which are essentially the estimation of the factor structure (e.g., Close, 2012; Wang et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2020).Finally, several directions for future research are proposed. 1) The influence of item quality, characteristics of participants and test conditions on all methods should be investigated comprehensively. 2) The characteristics of existing methods should be explored based on complex models such as more general cognitive diagnostic models, response time models or higher-order cognitive diagnostic models. 3) The estimation (validation) methods of Q-matrix should be concerned when items or attributes are polytomous or the number of attributes is unknown. 4) It is possible to introduce the estimation errors of item parameters and knowledge states to improve the estimation accuracy of Q-matrix. 5) The Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods can be applied to the on-line calibration and the joint calibration of Q-matrix and item parameters.