ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Conceptual Framework
    Psychological development mechanism of in-group favoritism during fairness norm enforcement
    ZHANG Zhen, LI Haiwen, XIONG Jianping, ZHAO Hui, LIU Ruixue, QI Chunhui
    2021, 29 (12):  2091-2104.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02091
    Abstract ( 78 )  
    Group norms and fair values run through human society and play an important role in individual development and social prosperity. Based on the analysis of the existing literature, we found that there are three scientific issues that need to be resolved urgently in this field. First, people sometimes were more likely to accept an unfair offer from in-groups, reflecting the pattern of in-group favoritism, but sometimes people were also more likely to punish norm violations from in-group members, revealing the form of the so-called black sheep effect. Therefore, the robustness of the in-group favoritism during fairness norm enforcement needs to be verified. Second, previous studies have shown that both cognitive control and mentalizing are related to group norms and fair values, and there is a large overlap with the two in the trajectory of psychological development. Therefore, the role of cognitive control and mentalizing in this phenomenon still needs to be revealed. Third, one theory considers that the in-group favoritism during fairness norm enforcement increases with age, while another theory believes that it remains stable or gradually decreases with age. Hence, during childhood and adolescence, it is still unclear how individuals integrate the gradually formed group norms and fair values. In summary, to improve the fairness perception and norm enforcement of children and adolescents in inter-group interactions, it is an essential issue in the field of educational psychology about how to reveal the interactive mechanism of group norms and fairness values during individuals’ psychological development.
    From a methodological point of view, the existing research still has the following shortcomings. First, most studies use questionnaires, which are easily affected by social participation. Second, most of the research uses scenario experiments with an emphasis on the final behavioral output of social interaction while failing to effectively grasp the dynamic process of social decision-making. Finally, electroencephalogram (EEG) studies with the high temporal resolution are still lacking to reveal the dynamic process of the brain. This project aims to clarify these issues by employing a cognitive neuroscience method. Specifically, multilevel techniques, including self-reported, cognitive-behavioral, eye-tracking, and electrophysiological techniques, were used to examine the mechanism behind in-group favoritism of fairness norm enforcement from childhood to adolescence. We designed three series of experiments to explore the developmental process, and the role of cognitive control and mentalizing of this phenomenon from the perspective of psychological development.
    Study 1 uses the minimal group paradigm to manipulate group identity, requires participants as responders to complete classic ultimatum game tasks with the ingroup and outgroup members, and reports their perception and behavioral data, aiming to investigate the perception-behavior trajectory of the development of the in-group favoritism during the second-party norm enforcement. Using the eye movement technology, study 2 manipulates group identity with the help of gender cues and requires subjects to act as responders to complete the mini ultimatum game task with the ingroup and outgroup members, thereby revealing the eye movement attention pattern of the development of the in-group favoritism during the reciprocal norm enforcement. Using the electrophysiological technology, study 3 adopts nationality clues to manipulate group identity, requires participants to act as responders and complete third-party punishment game tasks with both in-group and out-group players, and then investigates the brain dynamic mechanism of the development of the in-group favoritism during the third-party norm enforcement.
    This project aims to clarify the psychological development trajectory of the interaction between group norms and fair values and its cognitive mechanism. Findings will support moral education in primary and secondary schools. Meanwhile, findings can cultivate students' sense of fairness and justice, and ultimately promote the construction of a civic moral education system.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Exploring the trajectories of organizational citizenship behavior and its mechanism from the organizational socialization perspective
    ZHANG Liangting, WANG Bin, FU Jingtao
    2021, 29 (12):  2105-2118.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02105
    Abstract ( 51 )  
    The highly competitive and uncertain external environment requires higher levels of organizational flexibility and adaptability. Organizations and scholars have paied more attention than ever to employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) because OCB can lead to series of desirable employee and organizational outcomes, such as improved viability, competitiveness, and performance. Although scholars have exerted considerable efforts to investigate OCB, the dominant approach in the existing literature is to frame OCB as a relatively stable variable and examine its antecedents and outcomes through a static perspective. This static approach can explain the reason why some employees are more proactive than others at a certain point in time, but it’s hard to explain why OCB may change over time. In other words, there is a omission of the dynamic understanding of OCB in the existing literature. Limited research with a dynamic perspective has adopted two research methods. The first method is the cross-lagged research design. Researchers usually use the antecedent at T1 to predict the changes of OCB at T2 or use the OCB at T1 to predict the outcomes at T2. Although the changes in OCB have been identified, these studies fail to explain why OCB may change over time. In another research stream using repeated measurement design, researchers usually use the experience sampling method to explore the effects of transitory mood, affect, justice, and exhaustion that cause individuals to alter the frequency of their OCB over a short period. These studies have showed that OCB is dynamics at within-individual level in minutes, days, and weeks. However, despite the great advances of the experience sampling method used in the OCB literature, this approach measures OCB at daily level and predicts the within-individual variation of OCB in a short period. In contrast, using a relatively long time framework to study the dynamic of OCB may be critical for understanding the stable trend of OCB because in relatively long periods OCB will show less fluctuation.
    Employees who have sufficient work experience tend to develop relatively stable and satisfactory patterns to accommodate their jobs and organization. In other words, from a long-term perspective, most employees in the organization have an equilibrium level of their behaviors so that it could be reasonable to do the static or momentary studies without considering its trajectories. This assumption is only applied to those who have sufficient work experience, while those who just entering an organization (newcomer) or experiencing lateral moves or are promoted (job changer) will experience a socialization process.. In the socialization process that emphasizing employees acquire knowledge about and adjust to their new tasks or surroundings, employees may show the fluctuation of their behaviors because they experience shocks that constantly affect their behaviors. Thus, we mainly focus on employees’ OCB trajectories from an organizational socialization perspective. Additionally, employees will participate in some types of OCB more often than others, thus we need to differentiate OCB dimensions when exploring OCB trajectories. In the current study, we mainly focus on two dimensions of OCB at work: affiliative behaviors and challenging behaviors. That is because employees are more sensitive to risks in the socialization process. Thus, it’s reasonable to treat affiliative behavior and challenging behavior differently in their progression. Moreover, this research intends to explore the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of the OCB’s trajectory through combining it with AMO (ability-motivation-opportunity) theory. From the theoretical perspective, framework proposed in this study will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of dynamic changes in OCB in the workplace. In terms of practical implications, the current study will enable us to understand how to achieve sustained high levels of OCBs, and help both employees and organizations to benefit from the organizational socialization process.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Customer response to pro-customer deviance behavior: A theoretical model based on moral emotion
    HU Jiajing, ZHANG Meng, MA Xiuli, LIU Yan
    2021, 29 (12):  2119-2130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02119
    Abstract ( 76 )  
    Pro-customer deviant (PCD) behavior occurs when frontline employees intentionally deviate from the formal organizational regulations or prohibitions to help customers or act in the best interests of customers. PCD puts managers in a dilemma because of its double-sided moral attributes reflecting either altruistic motivation or deviation from the norms of organization. Thus, it is critical to understand customer’s moral cognitive evaluation of PCD, complex moral emotions and behavioral responses to PCD to determine employees’ intrinsic motivations to conduct PCD behaviors. However, there are barely no divergent results on the impact of PCD on customers’ responses since most existing studies have only focused on one side of moral attributes of PCD. Therefore, there is a need to address how PCD exerts double-edged-sword effect.
    Utilizing the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm, taking PCD’ s dual moral attributes (e.g., altruistic motivation, deviation from the norms of organization) as the logical origin, this study develops a model to examine simultaneously both the positive and negative effects of PCD on customer moral emotions and re-patronage intention. Specifically, Study 1 explores customers’ moral cognition evaluation and complex moral emotional responses to PCD. According to the Cognitive Appraisal Theory, PCD evokes customers’ inner moral cognitive and emotional reactions through a multi-level cognitive appraisal of PCD. In the primary appraisal stage, customers evaluate the perceived benefits they could gain from the perspective of the altruistic motivation of PCD, which in turn generate feelings of gratitude. In the secondary appraisal stage, customers evaluate the perceived harm due to the actual deviation from the organizational rules, and generate feelings of guilt or shame. Study 2 examines the mediating effect of complex moral emotions on the relationship between PCD and re-patronage intention. On the basis of Differential Emotions Theory, this study proposes that customers’ feelings of gratitude, guilt and shame triggered by PCD respectively mediate the relationship between PCD and customer’s re-patronage intention. Moreover, this study examines the interaction effect of customer’s feeling of gratitude and guilt, and customer’s feelings of gratitude and shame on customer’s re-patronage intention. Study 3 examines the moderating effect of customer attribution of responsibility (self- attribution vs. other- attribution) and service context (in the presence of others vs. in the absence of others) on the relationship between PCD and customer moral emotions and re-patronage intention. This study reveals the existences of crowding-in and crowding-out effects of complex moral emotion on customer’s re-patronage intention with different types of customer attribution of responsibility and service settings.
    The present research examines customer’s diversified and complex response to PCD from the perspective of moral emotions and makes the following theoretical and practical contributions, First, this study identifies PCD as an ethical behavior in the service encounter and examines the effects of PCD on customers’ complex moral emotions. Since limited studies have simultaneously examined both sides of PCD’s dual moral attributes, this study provides an empirical perspective for PCD. Second, this study presents a theoretical model, which integrates PCD, perceived self-benefits, perceived harm to others, gratitude, guilt, shame and customer’s re-patronage intention to better understand of how PCD influence re-patronage intention through moral emotions. More specifically, this study indicates that gratitude and guilt (or shame) mediate the relationship between PCD and customer’s re-patronage intention, which broadens and deepens the theoretical application of moral emotions, and fills the gap in previous literature that has only focused on the mediated role of one specific moral emotion. Third, this study responds to the calls for studies, along with corresponding practical implications, by investigating how customer attribution of responsibility and service context moderate the influence of PCD on customers’ moral emotions and re-patronage intention. This study finding provides managerial implications for service enterprises to take advantage of the positive effect of PCD.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Regular Articles
    The influence of blindness on auditory vocabulary recognition
    FENG Jie, XU Juan, WU Xinchun
    2021, 29 (12):  2131-2146.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02131
    Abstract ( 73 )  
    Language is one of the most important human cognitive abilities. The language skills of sighted people are based on auditory and visual information. During a conversation, people with normal vision view the movements of the lips and chin during pronunciation, as well as facial expressions and body movements, etc. These visual cues play an important role in individual language acquisition and development. However, blind people lack the input of vivid visual information in the process of language acquisition. This lack of visual experience results in a series of adaptive changes in auditory vocabulary recognition.
    In a review of previous research, we found that: (1) In terms of auditory vocabulary processing, blind people show specific auditory compensation effects. For example, blind people have more sensitive speech perception, better oral memory and faster vocabulary judgment. (2) In terms of semantic understanding of vocabulary, unlike sighted people, blind people tend to use non-visual features (e.g., touch, hearing, and smell) to represent and understand some vision-related words (e.g., words representing specific objects, and words representing “beauty”). In addition, blind people have weaker semantic processing and understanding of some vision-related words (such as color words) compared with people with normal vision. (3) The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying blind people’s auditory vocabulary processing cause a series of plastic changes. For example, the right occipital cortex of blind people is involved in speech processing; the left occipital cortex of blind people is involved in various speech processing tasks, such as the processing of words, and the degree of activation in the occipital cortex appears to be mainly related to semantic processing; and the connection between the prefrontal language functional areas and the visual cortex in blind people is stronger than that in sighted people.
    The current study proposes that further research in this field should examine the following areas in more depth: First, when studying auditory vocabulary recognition in blind people, vocabulary processing should be classified and discussed according to the visual relevance of the vocabulary terms. For example, vocabulary terms can be divided into non-vision-related words, weakly vision-related words, and strongly vision-related words. Second, the mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory vocabulary in blind people should be investigated in comprehensive and systematic research examining multiple dimensions, such as phonetics, glyphs and semantics, as well as the interactions among them. A processing model should be developed that can reflect the characteristics of blind people’s auditory vocabulary recognition. Third, neurophysiological mechanisms underlying auditory vocabulary recognition in blind people should be studied in more depth, including: (1) the specific functions and roles, in blind people, of the language function area in the left frontal-temporal lobe, the visual cortex in the occipital lobe, and the visual word form area, during auditory vocabulary processing; (2) The differences between the semantic representation of words with different levels of visual relevance in the brains of blind people and individuals with normal vision; (3) The brain processing pathways and brain network characteristics in the whole process of auditory vocabulary recognition from speech input to semantic comprehension. Finally, in blind children, the lack of visual experience may cause greater variability and higher complexity in auditory vocabulary recognition compared with normally-sighted children. For example, in terms of vocabulary and speech processing, blind children may experience a transition from disadvantage to compensatory advantage; in terms of semantic understanding and learning of words, blind children who lack visual experience and have weak cognitive abilities may exhibit more difficulty. Researchers should focus on language acquisition and development in blind children and carry out more in-depth developmental research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of the lack of visual experience on auditory vocabulary recognition in blind people.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The neural mechanisms for human voice processing: Neural evidence from sighted and blind subjects
    MING Lili, HU Xueping
    2021, 29 (12):  2147-2160.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02147
    Abstract ( 38 )  
    The human voice, as an important part of one’s auditory environment, contains a large amount of paralinguistic information to help identify other individuals. Especially for blind individuals, the lack of visual face experience makes voice information the main source of perceiving another person's individual characteristics. The present study attempts to analyze and summarize the universal human voice processing mode and the specific voice processing mechanism of blind individuals by combining the research on sighted and blind groups (mainly including voice-selective processing and voice-identity processing).
    The existing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature has found that compared with non-vocal sounds, the bilateral superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/G) showed stronger neuronal activation for the human voice, indicating that the STS/S were voice-selective regions and appeared stronger in the right hemisphere. FMRI research among blind individuals once again verified the conclusion that the right STS plays an essential role in voice-selective processing. However, it has also been found that the voice-sensitive response of the left STS in the blind group was higher than that in the sighted group, which may indicate that the blind group showed a reduced hemispheric lateralization tendency. A similar conclusion has also been found at different levels of voice information, such as voice identity, voice emotion and speech processing. In addition, the reduced hemispheric lateralization tendency of voice processing is not only positively correlated with the age of onset of blindness but also may be explained by the more coordinated auditory processing mechanism between the two cerebral hemispheres in blind individuals.
    In addition to the core system of voice processing, the right anterior fusiform gyrus (aFG), generally identified as face-selective processing and face-identity processing, can also be involved in voice-selective processing and voice-identity processing in blind individuals. As such, we suggest that the right aFG in blind individuals may exhibit cross-modal brain reorganization to participate in voice processing. The evidence from how deaf individuals’ "temporal voice area" participates in face-selective and face-identity processing further supports this elaboration of cross-modal reorganization in the brain regions associated with individual identification. Furthermore, because the "temporal voice area" in deaf individuals enhances the connection strength with the visual cortex, the neural basis of cross-modal reorganization may arise from the "unmasking effect" after sensory deprivation; for example, the visual brain region (aFG) in blind individuals can recruit and enhance existing auditory or tactile inputs to process (nonvisual) information about a speaker's identity. However, this inference needs to be further tested. Notably, the fusiform region in the sighted group was also involved in voice processing. More specifically, the fusiform face area (FFA) showed cross-modal information (without visual cues) or was integrated and facilitated by visual information (with known visual cues) in voice-identity recognition/identification. Therefore, the voice processing mechanism in the blind and sighted groups did not follow the same pattern: the visual region in blind individuals demonstrated long-term cross-modal reorganization, while the visual region in sighted individuals performed short-term cross-modal information processing or multimodal information integration; however, both emphasized the close relation between face identity and voice identity processing.
    In summary, after systematically combing and analyzing fMRI research on voice processing in blind and sighted groups, the following questions need to be further explored and clarified: (1) How are the voice processing strategies (driven by top-down and bottom-up processing) of blind individuals different from those of sighted individuals? (2) Are the functions of the fusiform gyrus modality-specific or modality-general representations? (3) How are different levels of voice information integrated to realize the dynamic perceptual process of multiple cues in auditory speech flow?Answering these questions will improve our current understanding of the theoretical system and neuroanatomical mechanism of voice processing and, further, have important implications for auditory processing, speech cognition and artificial intelligence.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The relation between non-symbolic magnitude representation and symbolic fraction representation
    MAO Huomin, LIU Qin, LV Jianxiang, MOU Yi
    2021, 29 (12):  2161-2171.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02161
    Abstract ( 41 )  
    A fundamental research question in numerical development concerns the relation between early emerging non-symbolic magnitude representation and symbolic numbers and mathematics learning. Especially, whether non-symbolic magnitude representation is a cognitive foundation for symbolic numbers and mathematic learning. Since early infants, one can represent the magnitude of a set of items (single magnitude) and the proportion between two magnitudes non-verbally (i.e., non-symbolic magnitude representation). Many of existing studies have examined the relation between non-symbolic representations for single magnitudes and symbolic number or mathematics learning. In contrast, few studies have investigated whether and how non-symbolic representations for the proportion between magnitudes relate with symbolic numbers or mathematics. Given that fraction is a critical concept of symbolic proportion, and it is an important concept taught in elementary mathematics, the present article reviewed and summarized studies on the relations between the representations for non-symbolic proportions and symbolic fractions. Previous studies showed that the precision of individuals’ non-symbolic magnitude representations for proportions were correlated with the precision of representations for symbolic fractions. In addition, both non-symbolic proportions and symbolic fractions activate some common brain regions, suggesting their common neural foundations. However, these correlational findings may not necessarily mean that non-symbolic magnitude representations for proportions provide a cognitive foundation for learning of symbolic fractions. First, when examining the relation between representations for non-symbolic proportions and symbolic fractions, most of existing studies did not rigorously control for general cognitive abilities. Therefore, it is not clear if non-symbolic proportion representations are uniquely correlated with symbolic fraction representations. Second, while most studies found the concurrent correlations between non-symbolic proportion and symbolic fraction representations, little has been done to examine if the two are related longitudinally. Third, besides demonstrating the correlations, more studies are needed to reveal how symbolic fraction representations are built on non-symbolic proportion representations. These discussions are also informative for mathematics education.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Trust in automated vehicles
    GAO Zaifeng, LI Wenmin, LIANG Jiawen, PAN Hanxi, XU Wei, SHEN Mowei
    2021, 29 (12):  2172-2183.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02172
    Abstract ( 48 )  
    Automated driving (AD) is one of the key directions in the intelligent vehicles field. Before full automated driving, we are at the stage of human-machine cooperative driving: Drivers share the driving control with the automated vehicles. Trust in automated vehicles plays a pivotal role in traffic safety and the efficiency of human-machine collaboration. Therefore, it is vital for drivers to keep an appropriate trust level to avoid accidents. Here we proposed a new dynamic trust framework for AD, elaborating core factors affecting trust at different stages of trust development. The framework distinguishes four stages of trust (i.e., dispositional, initial, ongoing, and post-task trust), which are predominately affected by three distinct factors, including driver, AD system, and driving-related situation.
    Dispositional trust is the initial stage of trust development and represents a driver’s overall trust propensity. It is predominately affected by the driver’s inherent trait, which refers to stable biological or social characteristics of the drivers (e.g., personality, age, cultural background, etc.). Initial trust reflects drivers’ trust status when they begin to use the AD system. In this stage, drivers have already learned the knowledge about the AD system or the driving situation, and the trust level is predominately influenced by driver’s trust propensity and prior knowledge. The prior knowledge largely comes from others’ descriptions of the AD system and drivers’ previous experience with similar systems. When a driver is adopting the AD, ongoing trust functions and impacts driver’s AD-reliance behavior dramatically. Because the level of ongoing trust directly affects whether and the extent a driver adopts the AD system, the ongoing trust is the crucial stage that trust calibration must pay attention to. During driving, the objective factors regarding the AD system (e.g., capability of AV system, the process of the AD system in fulfilling a task) and driving situation (e.g., weather, road conditions) directly influence the AD performance. However, the objective factors do not directly affect ongoing trust, but are transformed into subjective property through the driver's cognitive system. Subjective property hence is the direct factor affecting ongoing trust. The appropriate level of ongoing trust depends on driver's accurate comprehension of these objective factors. Meanwhile, the driver factor also affects the ongoing trust, by exerting a direct impact over ongoing trust and modulating the process of transforming objective factors into subjective property. Finally, post-task trust is a post-hoc evaluation of ongoing trust after completing the overall driving task. Factors affecting post-task trust hence largely overlap with the ones affecting ongoing trust.
    According to the dynamic trust model, ongoing trust is the key to successful trust calibration. To achieve this aim, trust calibration could be achieved from the following three ways. First, the system monitors the drivers’ trust state and offers proper interventions in time when the drivers under- or over-trust the AD system. Second, training the drivers so that they have a more accurate mental model of the AD system. Third, since the human-machine interface (HMI) plays a key role in raising the transparency and understandability of system factor and situation factor, optimizing the HMI design is an important manner. In this way, driver’s transformation of objective factors into subjective property is improved, and a higher-level situation awareness is reached for the driver. Finally, basing on the dynamic trust framework as well as existing studies, we consider that the following six perspectives can be explored in future studies: (1) the influence of driver’s characteristics on trust, (2) the influence of HMI design on ongoing trust, (3) the sensitive measurement of ongoing trust, (4) the functional specificity of trust, (5) the mutual trust mechanism between the driver and AD system, and (6) improving the external validity of trust research.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Can the presence of human teacher promote video learning?
    KUANG Ziyi, ZHANG Yang, WANG Fuxing, YANG Xiaomeng, HU Xiangen
    2021, 29 (12):  2184-2194.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02184
    Abstract ( 36 )  
    With the increasing popularity of online teaching, online platforms such as MOOC have been one of the research focuses for educational researchers all over the world. However, online courses still face many challenges. The most noticeable challenge is the higher than usual dropout rate. It is reasonable to assume that these challenges are likely due to its most used format, namely video-based content delivery. Typical video-based content delivery is direct broadcast or taped lectures of the human teachers. The primary goal of this review paper is to explore possible roles of human teachers in such video-based online learning environments. High percentages of teachers are inexperienced “actors” so they focus more on the correctness of the content they lecture and pay less attention to the presentation of themselves. They may not fully be aware when and how to be part of the video. When they are in the video, what would be the most engaging gestures and their potential influence on students’ learning. One simple fact is often observed that the appearance of the teacher in video lectures may help students engage. The importance of the potential roles of the teachers can be explained by several theories, such as parasocial theory, social presence theory, and social agent theory. These theories suggest that real human teachers in video-based learning environments promote learning; Other theories such as cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive load theory believe that real human teachers may hinder learning. While different theories predict teachers’ roles differently, in this review article, we found such inconsistencies in several empirical studies. We observed in the selected studies that real human teachers only have a small impact on students' learning, subjective experience, and attention process. Specifically, in video-based lectures, the presence of teachers only has a weak effect on learning (retention test, d = 0.23 and transfer test, d = 0.1). From the selected 20 studies on retention tests, only 4 studies (20%) show that real human teachers in the video can improve students' retention test, and 2 (10%) of the studies show that real human teachers can hinder students' retention test. From a total of 12 studies that measure transfer, 3 (25%) of them show that real human teachers can improve students' transfer test scores. In terms of subjective experience, teachers' influence on students has a medium effect size on perceived learning (d = 0.49), learning interest (d = 0.5) and large effect size on learning satisfaction (d = 2.21). Of the 5 studies that discussed perceived learning, 3 of which (60%) found that real human teachers can improve students' perceived learning and 1 of which (20%) found that real human teachers can reduce students' perceived learning. Of the 7 studies that explored the influence of real human teachers on students' learning interest, 3 (42%) of which showed that real human teachers promote students' interest in learning. Of the 3 studies that explored the impact of real human teachers on satisfaction, 2 of which (67%) found that adding real human teachers to videos increased students' satisfaction ratings. With regard to the attention of the processing, the presence of teachers reduced the fixation time of learners (d = -2.02). Of the 4 studies included in this report 3 of which (75%) found that learners' total fixation time on learning materials was significantly less than the condition with teachers than that without teachers. Our review of the literature suggests that future research needs to pay close attention to the following four aspects of video-based learning 1) presentation of real teachers, we need to explore the effects of factors that had been mostly ignored, such as nonverbal cues (such as gazing and gesture) and proportion of teachers’ image and learning contents. 2) learners' characteristics, especially learners' cultural differences and learning preferences (such as visual preferences). 3) learning materials, the levels of difficulty of learning materials, different domains (such as humanity or STEM) and types of knowledge (such as procedural and declarative). These factors interactively determine teachers' influence on students’ learning; We also understand that there are challenges for systematically studying the effect of teachers with the three variables. One of the challenges is to select the right research methods. We suggest that objective methods would be a good first choice to explore cognitive processing (such as eye gaze, attention switching between task interest areas) and cognitive neural activities (such as EEG) that teachers affect students' learning.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The modulatory effects of oxytocin on learning and memory: Evidence from animal and human studies
    ZHOU Menghan, ZHANG Yuan, GAO Shan, Keith M. Kendrick, YAO Shuxia
    2021, 29 (12):  2195-2208.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02195
    Abstract ( 39 )  
    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the magnocellular cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Previous studies have found that OT plays an important role in modulating social cognition and emotional processing. A systematic review of the modulatory effects of OT on cognitive behavior can not only deepen our understanding of the mechanism underlying OT's effects on learning and memory but can also serve to motivate and guide future studies in this important field. The present systematic review details of studies using different methodologies to investigate the specific regulatory effects of OT on learning and memory and its underlying neural mechanisms in both animal models and humans. These studies demonstrate firstly that the effects of OT on animal learning are highly complex, with OT promoting either facilitatory or inhibitory effects dependent upon injection locations (e.g., hippocampal dentate gyrus vs. dorsal raphe nucleus), doses, and types of learning (passive avoidance vs. spatial learning). In human studies, OT is primarily administered intranasally (usually as a 24 IU dose) in order to modulate learning and its effects are mainly dependent upon the type of learning involved. Significant effects of OT have been demonstrated in social learning, fear conditioning, and extinction, perhaps by regulating the functional state of core hubs in emotional processing and learning networks, including the amygdala and hippocampus. On the other hand, no significant effects of OT have been found in the context of learning involving monetary rewards. Secondly, studies in animal models have reported that the effects of OT on memory are mainly dose-dependent, with intracerebroventricular injections at low-doses facilitating memory performance while high-doses have an inhibitory effect. In human studies, significant modulatory effects of OT have mainly been found for the memory of social stimuli, particularly for emotional faces. These studies have shown that whether a facilitatory or inhibitory effect is observed is dependent upon when OT is administered (before vs. after memory encoding), test intervals, stimuli used (e.g., valences and types), etc. These effects of OT may act via the binding of externally administered OT to OT receptors extensively distributed in key learning and memory brain networks including the dopamine reward pathway and limbic system (specifically the amygdala and hippocampus). In summary, although OT has an important modulatory effect on learning and memory, this is highly complex, with either facilitatory or inhibitory effects being reported dependent upon experimental paradigms, stimulus materials, locations and time points of administration, and doses used. In order to overcome current limitations in this field, it is necessary for future studies to combine the respective methodological advantages of animal models with human studies and to standardize experimental protocols and treatment procedures. Further research is also required to explore the therapeutic potential of OT for learning and memory dysfunction in psychiatric disorders.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder: A perspective from the social motivation theory
    WANG Lei, HE Huizhong, BI Xiaobin, ZHOU Li, FAN Xiaozhuang
    2021, 29 (12):  2209-2223.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02209
    Abstract ( 57 )  
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent deficit in communication and social interaction, and restricted patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The etiology of ASD has not yet been fully elucidated. Social deficits are at the core of ASD symptoms. Previous studies proposed that a deficit in theory of mind caused social impairment from a social cognitive perspective, but individuals with ASD already exhibited social motivation deficits traits prior to acquiring theory of mind. Moreover, some individuals who were able to pass theory-of-mind tests continued to show decreased motivation when engaging in social interactions. Social motivation theory suggests that social motivation is an important internal force for human evolution, motivating and sustaining individual social activities. It is also considered as a prerequisite for the development of social cognitive abilities. The theory of mind impairments and social deficits in individuals with ASD explains that these are due to deficits in social motivation. This theory can help to reverse the understanding of social impairments mechanism, achieving a shift from a social cognitive perspective to a socially motivated perspective. It can also have a positive impact on the clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation of ASD. For example, impaired neural mechanisms of social motivation can be used as an early warning biological indicator for diagnosis, for this reason, educators need to pay more attention to the impact of social motivation on the rehabilitation of ASD.
    Social motivation theory provides a new interpretation of social deficits in ASD in terms of behavioral performance, neuroscience, and biology. Social stimuli elicit activity in the midbrain dopaminergic limbic reward system (considered to be the amygdala-striatal-orbital frontal cortex), which is seen as the neurobiological mechanism of social motivation. However, previous studies have shown that individuals with ASD process social rewards differently than typically developing individuals. For example, low levels of neurotransmitters are projected onto the midbrain dopaminergic limbic reward system in individuals with ASD during the processing of social stimuli. Meanwhile, individuals with ASD demonstrated attenuated ERP amplitudes and insufficient activation of the midbrain dopaminergic limbic reward system, especially the ventral striatum, in response to social stimuli. In addition, the major areas of the brain related to the processing of social sounds were inadequately connected to the reward system. This makes it difficult to obtain reward value from processing social stimuli and participating in social interaction. This further leads to a lack of motivation to actively explore social stimuli for individuals with ASD, specifically at the behavioral level, characterized by impaired social orientation, low levels of social seeking and liking, and deficits in social maintenance. Considered as a whole, these results suggest that individuals with ASD have processing deficits for social stimuli and lack motivation for social interaction. Meanwhile, insufficient social motivation deprives social information input and social learning opportunities during growth, especially during the critical period of social cognitive development, for individuals with ASD. This results in a lack of experience with social stimuli, and a traumatic development of normalized and specialized neural networks responsible for processing social information, ultimately leading to the emergence of social deficits in individuals with ASD.
    In the future, it is important to further refine research on the role of two types of neural systems, namely the amygdala-striatum-orbital frontal cortex and midbrain dopaminergic limbic reward systems, in social motivation and the relationship between them. Further in this study, the scope of the application of social motivation theory in autism spectrum disorder groups is clarified. For instance, whether anxiety affects the level of social motivation in individuals with ASD? Moreover, the application of social motivation theory to assessment diagnosis and clinical rehabilitation is employed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Decision effect in multiple dated intertemporal choice and its psychological mechanisms
    SUN Hai-Long, AN Xin-Ru, XIONG Guan-Xing
    2021, 29 (12):  2224-2235.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02224
    Abstract ( 33 )  
    In everyday life, decisions that require weighing outcomes at different points in time are referred to as intertemporal choices. Intertemporal choices include single-dated and multiple-dated outcomes. The former limits the intertemporal choice task to a trade-off between the outcomes of two single dates while the latter involves trade-offs of two or more outcomes at multiple points in time. At present, compared to the single-dated intertemporal choice, where research is abundant and the understanding of the psychological mechanism of which is increasingly consistent, research on multiple-dated outcomes in intertemporal choice is relatively weak. Increasingly, research shows that multi-dated intertemporal choice and single-dated intertemporal choice have different psychological mechanisms and produce different decision effects. Thus, what are the decision effects in multiple-dated intertemporal choices? What are the characteristics of these decision effects? This paper discusses the decision effect and its psychological mechanism in the multiple-dated intertemporal choice from two-dated outcomes and sequential outcomes.
    The intertemporal choice task of the two-dated outcome is composed of the added outcome in the options of paired single-dated intertemporal choice tasks. Depending on the nature (zero, non-zero) and location (before, during, and after the original option) of the added outcome, many decision effects have been found in the intertemporal choice of the two-dated outcome, including the hidden zero effect, symbolic effect, extra-dated money effect, and front-end amount effect. The sequential outcome of intertemporal choice is a sequence result (such as increasing, decreasing, and constant) composed of two or more time point results. Studies have shown that in the face of intertemporal choice of sequence results, individuals prefer increasing sequences to decreasing sequences with the greatest utility, which is called the sequence effect.
    In view of the above decision effect, researchers have proposed different theoretical models to explain it. Mainstream theories mainly include trade-off and sequence models. The trade-off model deviates from the assumption of a time discount, and the trade-off model of the single-dated intertemporal choice domain was developed to adapt to the multi-dated intertemporal choice scenario. The sequential model is based on the assumption of time discounting. First, it is aimed mainly at the intertemporal choice of sequential outcomes, and new parameters are introduced on the basis of the discount model to construct the model to explain decision effects, such as the sequence effect. Restricted by the theory itself, we believe that the dimensional-based trade-off model is more suitable for explaining many decision effects in the intertemporal choice of two-dated outcomes, while the sequence model is better suited to explain the sequence effects in the sequential intertemporal choice.
    At present, research on decision effect in intertemporal choice of multi-dated outcomes is still relatively general and the process mechanism has not yet been explored. To expand on the mechanism explanation of decision effect in multi-dated intertemporal choice, for example, focusing on the causes of people's decision effect, basic psychological characteristics (such as decision motivation factors) may be extracted to explain the decision effect in multi-dated intertemporal choice. In addition, in order to more accurately describe and explain the decision effect and the psychological mechanism of multi-dated intertemporal choice, subsequent research should strengthen the discussion on the process mechanisms. In particular, new process tracing methods, such as mouse-tracing, can provide a data-rich real-time window, which would be helpful for exploring the dynamic decision-making process mechanism of decision effect in multi-dated intertemporal choice.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Are there sex differences in trust levels?
    QU Jiachen, GONG Zhe
    2021, 29 (12):  2236-2245.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02236
    Abstract ( 53 )  
    Academics have different opinions regarding the sex difference in trust level. One group of researchers holds the view of sex differences in trust levels, where risk preference theory supports the view that men have a higher level of trust, and the advantages over the women in the prosocial field provide support for women to have a higher level of trust. However, another group of scholars believe that there is no sex difference in trust level, which is based on the gender similarities hypothesis. Although the views of the two groups and their theoretical foundations have been supported to a certain extent; however, they need to be comprehensively analyzed and clarified about their rationality. After summarizing, in terms of theoretical assumptions, the theoretical basis that men show high trust tendencies based on high-risk preferences has received relatively sufficient support. In contrast, both the prosocial view that women have higher trust level and the gender similarity hypothesis that there is no sex difference in trust level have been questioned by some research results and need to be further verified. In the research paradigm, the evidence shows that the superiority effect of the male trust level may depend on the paradigm characteristics of the trust game. The close relationship between the trust game paradigm itself and risk preference may promote the expression of male trust. Moreover, the superiority effect of the female trust level is related to the trust interaction process and plays a role in a specific trust dimension. However, the evidence that supports both sexes' trust level is similar requires an in-depth investigation of the reasons behind the results, which may be due to problems such as measurement methods, statistical analysis, and sample limitations that have not fully revealed sex differences. In terms of cultural comparison, the cultural background of differences between the East and the West may also interact with sex. The results of the current mainstream research on sex differences in trust in the West may not be suitable for explaining the characteristics of sex trust in China. Future research can deepen the research on sex differences in trust levels from the following perspectives. First, using trust measurement methods needs to be more rationally. While stripping away the interference of trust game paradigm investment scenarios, use various measurement methods to characterize multi-dimensional trust. Second, avoid only static and one-sided perspectives to understand and operate on trust variables. The future research should further integrate the mechanism of trust generation (establishment and development, betrayal and maintenance), individualized development process and cross-cultural research on sex differences in trust, and clarify the sex characteristics of trust in the dynamic process of change. Third, deepen the research on the neurophysiological mechanism of the trust difference between the sexes. On the one hand, it explores whether there are specific trust neural pathways between the sexes in various trust situations; on the other hand, it investigates the non-general effects of physiological hormones on the trust of the sexes systematically, thus fundamentally better reveal the issue of sex differences in trust levels.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Cultural and psychological changes during the social transformation in China: Sociological research and its enlightenments to psychologists
    HUANG Zi-Hang, WANG Jun-Xiu, SU Zhan, JING Yi-Ming, CAI Hua-Jian
    2021, 29 (12):  2246-2259.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02246
    Abstract ( 52 )  
    Social psychology has two main streams: Sociological social psychology and psychological social psychology. Although being independent from each other most of the time, both have concerned a common issue: the social transformation (change) of Chinese society as well as its psychological impacts. From the perspective of sociological social psychology, research has mainly focused on two issues: the change of society or social structure, and the change of Chinese people during the process of modernization. The former mainly involves urbanization, changes in social class, social mobility, and family structure, whereas the latter mainly involves the “Chinese feeling”, social mentality, group psychology, and organizational psychology.
    The main findings on changes in society or social structure include: 1) urbanization in China has accelerated, along with many ensuing social problems; 2) social stratification has increased, showing a diversified and complicated picture; 3) mobility between social classes increased first and then decreased, with an increasing trend of consolidation; 4) family size has been becoming smaller; 5) increasing equality among different generations has been witnessed; 5) the willingness to bear children has declined; 6) more single-parent families are emerging due to increasing divorce rate.
    Research on Chinese people found substantial changes in “Chinese feeling”, social mentality, group psychology, and organizational psychology. In particular, 1) a declining prevalence of traditional values but a rising prevalence of modern values have been evident; 2) materialism has become more and more prevalent; 3) the happiness of Chinese people has become increasingly material-dependent; 4) interpersonal trust has shifted from relationship-oriented to interest-oriented; 5) interpersonal communication is increasingly relying on the internet; 6) the autonomy in close relationships has increased; 7) the difference in social mentality across social groups has increased, which are partly responsible for the increasing feeling of relative deprivation among disadvantaged groups; 8) the leadership and management of organizations have undergone a transition from "paternalism" to “fraternalism”; 9) the importance of guanxi as a kind of social capital has increased.
    The revealed huge number of changes could be positive or negative, short-term or long-term, linear or non-linear. Overall, China is transforming from a traditional society to a modern society. The coexistence of traditionality and modernity, and the constant collision and integration of the East and the West will remain as the basic characteristics of Chinese society.
    Compared with research from the perspective of psychological social psychology, research from the perspective of sociological social psychology is characterized by many special emphases: 1) emic rather than etic analysis; 2) qualitative rather than quantitative methodology; 3) changes at the meso level; 4) the role of history, politics, and policy in shaping the changes. These are what psychologists need to learn in the future in studying social changes of China. We encourage more collaborations between social psychologists of the two streams so that we could achieve a better understanding of China and Chinese during the process of modernization.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The effect of organizational (in)justice on organizational retaliation behavior and the underlying mechanisms
    LIU Depeng, GAO Xiangyu
    2021, 29 (12):  2260-2271.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02260
    Abstract ( 96 )  
    Organizational retaliatory behaviors, defined as employees’ retaliatory behaviors towards the organization and its agents due to unjust treatment toward employees, are a prevalent phenomenon in workplaces. Important progress have been achieved in the existing literature. First, researchers have established the concept and distinguish it from similar concepts. Furthermore, the scales that are respectively suitable for western and Chinese contexts are developed. Second, perception of injustice is identified as the most important antecedent of organizational retaliatory behaviors. Scholars have explored the main and interaction effects of different justice dimensions on organizational retaliatory behaviors from various theoretical perspectives. What is more, several studies have begun to explore the potential negative consequences of organizational retaliatory behaviors. Third, scholars in China have paid attention to this topic and reviewed some literature in this area.
    Although fruitful progress has been achieved in the past years, there are still some research gaps in the existing literature. First of all, few studies have reviewed existing 20-year literature on organizational retaliatory behaviors systematically. It not only hinders the discourse among existing literature but also prevents the development of future research. Second, current literature mainly focuses on the concepts and the antecedents of organizational retaliatory behaviors. However, the mechanisms that explain the effect of perception of injustice and organizational retaliatory behavior are relatively ignored. It is timely to review the existing literature and propose a new framework to integrate various perspectives given the salience of this topic and the above gaps.
    We categorize existing research on organizational retaliatory behaviors into four quadrants according to two dimensions. One of the dimensions is the complexity of justice types (one type or interaction of different types), and the other is the subject of injustice perception (receiver and observer). We fill the gaps mentioned above by categorizing, comparing, and integrating the underlying theories and mechanisms in each quadrant. Specifically, we summarize self-control theory, emotion-related theory, social exchange theory, and recent resource theory from the receiver’s perspective. On the other hand, we integrate cognitive and emotional mechanisms from the observer’s perspective. We also compare research from these two perspectives. The authors also propose future research directions by integrating various theories and mechanisms and calling for research from an observer perspective.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Method
    Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods for cognitive diagnosis
    LI Jia, MAO Xiuzhen, ZHANG Xueqin
    2021, 29 (12):  2272-2280.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02272
    Abstract ( 69 )  
    The Q-matrix plays the role of bridging between the observable responses, the unobservable item characteristics and the knowledge state of participants. It is of vital importance to obtain accurate Q-matrix. In the past decade, researchers have conducted extensive studies and proposed a number of methods for the estimation (validation) of Q-matrix. In general, the existing methods of Q-matrix estimation and validation are classified into: 1) parameterized methods in the CDM perspective, including item differentiation, model-data fit index and parameter estimation; 2) non-parametric methods in the statistical perspective, including the distance between observed and expected response vector, abnormal responses index and factor analysis.
    The core thought of the optimal item discrimination methods is to select the attribute pattern with the optimal item discrimination from all possible attribute patterns as the q-vector of item. Among them, theδ (de la Torre, 2008) and ς 2 (de la Torre & Chiu, 2016) methods determine the q -vector based on the absolute optimal item discrimination index; the γ (Tu et al., 2012) method adopt the effect size test based on attribute discrimination; the stepwise (Ma & de la Torre, 2020) method and the likelihood ratio test (Wang et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2020) focus on the performance of search algorithm and significant difference test in Q-matrix estimation (validation). Secondly, the key to the methods of absolute fit index based on model-data is to construct the difference or consistency index that reflects the probability distribution of observed response and expected response. For instance, S statistic (Liu et al., 2012) judges the difference between the observed and the expected distribution of all participants from all the items; Likelihood ratio D2 statistics (Yu et al., 2015), RMSEA(Kang et al., 2019) and R(Yu & Cheng, 2020) are used to judge the difference between the observed and expected distributions of the item j from all the participants; the residual method (Chen, 2017) is based on the absolute error of the correlation or logarithmic ratio of the item pairs. It is still an effective way to estimate (validate) Q-matrix by taking the elements of Q-matrix as parameters to be estimated. In this line of research, MLE and MMLE methods (Wang et al., 2018) are common parameter estimation methods, which are simple and easy to understand, but iterative EM algorithm is often time-consuming. Bayesian parameter estimation methods (Chung, 2019; Chen et al., 2018; DeCarlo, 2012; Templin & Henson, 2006) obtain the posterior distribution of the parameters to be estimated based on the prior distribution, and then use the mean value of the posterior distribution or the sample mean value as the estimated value.
    The non-parametric methods based on statistical analysis express the degree of fit between the observed reaction and the ideal reaction by calculating the distance between the discrete observed response vector and the ideal response vector or the abnormal response index. For example, the Euclidean distance $\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{N}{{{({{Y}_{ij}}-{{\eta }_{ijc}})}^{2}}}$(Barnes, 2010; Chiu, 2013; Hang , 2020), the Hamming distance$\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{N}{\text{I(}{{Y}_{ij}}\ne {{\eta }_{ijc}}\text{)}}$ (Wang et al., 2018) or the Manhattan distance$\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^{N}{\left| {{Y}_{ij}}-{{\eta }_{ijc}} \right|}$ (Liu , 2020). In addition, based on a large amount of reaction data, the non-parametric methods also regard the elements of the Q-matrix as the factor structure between item and potential attributes for factor analysis, which are essentially the estimation of the factor structure (e.g., Close, 2012; Wang et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2020).
    Finally, several directions for future research are proposed. 1) The influence of item quality, characteristics of participants and test conditions on all methods should be investigated comprehensively. 2) The characteristics of existing methods should be explored based on complex models such as more general cognitive diagnostic models, response time models or higher-order cognitive diagnostic models. 3) The estimation (validation) methods of Q-matrix should be concerned when items or attributes are polytomous or the number of attributes is unknown. 4) It is possible to introduce the estimation errors of item parameters and knowledge states to improve the estimation accuracy of Q-matrix. 5) The Q-matrix estimation (validation) methods can be applied to the on-line calibration and the joint calibration of Q-matrix and item parameters.
    Related Articles | Metrics