ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Engineering psychology in the era of artificial intelligence
    XU Wei, GE Liezhong
    2020, 28 (9):  1409-1425.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01409
    Abstract ( 1198 )  

    Intelligent technology provides new opportunities for the research and applications of engineering psychology. To this end, a work framework of engineering psychology in the intelligent era is proposed. The framework includes the objectives of engineering psychology research and applications, core problem space, disciplinary philosophy, focus of research and applications, methods and so on. The human-machine relationship in the intelligent era has presented a new form: the human-machine cooperation in the form of human-machine teaming. “Human-centered artificial intelligence” should be the discipline philosophy of engineering psychology in the intelligent era. Aiming at intelligent technology, engineering psychology researchers have recently begun to carry out research work on the theoretical framework and basic issues surrounding the new human-machine relationship, mental construct, shared decision-making between human and machine, and the interaction design for intelligent systems. In order to effectively support the research and development of intelligent systems, new and enhanced methods of engineering psychology are summarized. Finally, specific suggestions are given for addressing the challenges faced by engineering psychology.

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    Conceptual Framework
    Concealed emotion analysis and recognition method
    WANG Su-Jing, ZOU Bochao, LIU Rui, LI Zhen, ZHAO Guozhen, LIU Ye, FU Xiaolan
    2020, 28 (9):  1426-1436.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01426
    Abstract ( 815 )  

    It is of great value to recognize concealed emotions for early warning of public security issues. Micro-expression is a vital channel to reveal concealed emotions. However, there are relatively few studies on concealed emotions, and micro-expressions are challenging to recognize because of their subtle magnitude and short duration. Existing Laboratory studies of micro-expression have few practical applications. Therefore, the perception and expression of concealed emotion should be systematically investigated by collecting micro-expression samples in an ecological situation, while synchronically collecting EEG signals for better labeling of micro-expressions. We spot and recognize concealed emotions mainly through micro-expressions, accompanied by face color analysis, gaze estimation, and contactless physiological signals measurement. Then, we verify and modify our system and method in two realistic public security related application scenarios: a Recognition Assistant System for the aggressive and suicidal behaviors of psychiatric patients and a Concealed Emotion Detection System for prisoners interview.

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    The influence mechanism of narcissistic leadership on the formation process of team creativity: A multi-perspective study
    LI Mingze, YE Huili, ZHANG Guanglei
    2020, 28 (9):  1437-1453.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01437
    Abstract ( 512 )  

    Narcissism leadership is a common phenomenon in organizations. It is important to study whether narcissistic leaders can effectively integrate knowledge in their teams to foster creativity. Draw on the review of the existing research, we adopted the aggregation, process, and social network perspectives to comprehensively clarify the influence of narcissism leadership on team creativity. Specifically, the perspective of aggregation emphasizes the important role of individual creativity in the development of team creativity, the perspective of process emphasizes that the interaction among team members is critical in enhancing team creativity, and the perspective of social network focuses on the team members’ relative positions as well as their internal and external relations. These three perspectives complemented each other to clarify the mechanisms and boundary conditions of the relationship between narcissism leadership and team creativity. This study provides implications regarding the intervention strategies for work teams that are managed by narcissistic leaders.

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    Research Method
    Scanmatch: A new method for studying decision-making process
    HUANG Long, XU Fu-ming, HU Xiao-yu
    2020, 28 (9):  1454-1461.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01454
    Abstract ( 358 )  

    Scanmatch is an emerging method of eye movement data analysis in recent years. The method includes four steps: preprocessing of gaze data, division and encoding of interest regions, formation of eye track strings, and calculation of similarity scores. Researchers have used scanmatch to study the decision process theory and related influencing factors, and verified the feasibility and accuracy of scanmatch in the decision research field. Future research should use scanmatch to conduct in-depth research on various decision-making theories and influencing factors to reveal the essence of decision-making process and construct a more complete decision theory model.

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    Change point analysis: A new method to detect aberrant responses in psychological and educational testing
    ZHANG Longfei, WANG Xiaowen, CAI Yan, TU Dongbo
    2020, 28 (9):  1462-1477.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01462
    Abstract ( 322 )  

    The change point analysis (CPA), as one of the most widely used methods for statistical process control, is introduced to psychological and educational measurement for detection of aberrant response patterns in recent years. CPA outperforms the traditional method as follows: In addition to detecting aberrant response patterns, it can also pinpoint the locations of change points, contributing to efficient cleansing of response data. The method is employed to determine whether there is a point so that the complete sequence can be divided into two parts with different statistical properties, where person-fit statistics (PFS) is needed for quantifying the difference between two sub-sequences. Future researchers should pay more attention to multiple change points detection, making full use of other effective information like response time data, developing non-parametric indices as well as reforming the exiting person-fit statistics for polytomous and multidimensional tests, so as to enhance its applicability and power.

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    Regular Articles
    Animal research paradigm and related neural mechanism of interval timing
    WENG Chunchun, WANG Ning
    2020, 28 (9):  1478-1492.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01478
    Abstract ( 243 )  

    In exploring the brain mechanism of interval timing, animal research, compared with human subjects, can provide more evidence in pharmacology, molecular biology, single neuron electrophysiology and optogenetics. At present, the commonly used animal research paradigms of interval timing include temporal bisection task, peak-interval procedure and differential reinforcement of low rates. To be well fit for different research need, animal research paradigms are often adjusted. Animal research of interval timing were discussed from two aspects: (1) the introduction and comparison of the commonly used animal research paradigms of interval timing; (2) the research progress of neural mechanism of interval timing based on these paradigms, to provide a reference for further psychological research on time perception.

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    Effect of sleep restriction on cognitive function and its underlying mechanism
    QIAN Liu, Ru Taotao, LUO Xue, Ma Yongjun, ZHOU Guofu,
    2020, 28 (9):  1493-1507.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01493
    Abstract ( 458 )  

    Effects of sleep restriction on cognitive functions have been of considerable concern. Studies showed that effects of sleep restriction on cognitive performance were inconsistent and suggested that effects of sleep restriction on cognition would depend on cognitive domains (e.g. attention, executive function and long-term memory), the severity of sleep restriction, as well as demographic characteristics (e.g. age and gender). Four main possible hypotheses including the arousal hypothesis, the vigilance hypothesis, the controlled attention hypothesis and the prefrontal cortex vulnerability hypothesis have been put forward to explain the underlying mechanism. Further understanding of such mechanism could be facilitated by focusing on individual differences, effects of mild sleep restriction and employing the ASL Perfusion MRI technology.

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    The influence of acute stress on working memory: Physiological and psychological mechanisms
    LI Wanru, KU Yixuan
    2020, 28 (9):  1508-1524.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01508
    Abstract ( 397 )  

    Acute stress is a series of physiological and psychological reaction that could help people adjust homeostasis, when their body facing changes and challenges in the external environment. Acute stress has a profound impact on cognitive processing, especially the core function working memory. However, inconsistent behavioral influence by acute stress exists in a plethora of previous studies. We therefore review the empirical results, and systematically summarize the findings. From three perspectives, methods to induce stress, working memory tasks/sub-components, and subjects’ individual differences, we can better explain the physiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the influence of acute stress on working memory. We proposed that the influence could be better understood from views of cognitive neural mechanisms. Future studies should jointly consider these extensive factors of stress and translate findings from basic research into intervention and regulation of negative effects of acute stress.

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    The cognitive and neural mechanisms of statistical learning and its relationship with language
    XU Guiping, FAN Ruolin, JIN Hua
    2020, 28 (9):  1525-1538.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01525
    Abstract ( 372 )  

    Statistical learning (SL), which was first addressed in the seminal study on speech segmentation of infants by Saffran et al. (1996), is a process of detecting the statistical regularities such as transitional probability in continuous flow of stimuli. Previous studies have proven the general existence of SL, and in recent years close attention has been placed on its specificity and its impact on other cognitive activities, especially revealing the cognitive neural mechanisms of SL and its interaction with language by exploring the process and the specificity of SL. According to the multimodal data from brain and behavior measures, future studies should seek more behavioral and neural indexes to evaluate the performance of SL, to explore the dynamic changes in neural activities of different types of SL and to construct the connection between neural correlates and behavioral performance, which will help to have an in-depth understanding of SL. Based on previous discoveries on the interaction between SL and language, future studies could determine whether SL is an effective intervention to improve language acquisition and how it works in the improvement, through exploring the effect of music SL training on second language learning of adult learners.

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    The effects and mechanism of attachment priming
    JIA Chenglong, SUN Li, FENG Bole, QIN Jinliang
    2020, 28 (9):  1539-1550.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01539
    Abstract ( 447 )  

    In the context of cognitive science, attachment research has revealed a social cognition shift. Researchers’ interest is shifting from focusing on individual differences in attachment to the attachment schemas behind the differences. The research paradigm has also shifted from observational measure to the fine cognitive experimental paradigm represented by priming. The attachment priming paradigm is divided into secure priming and unsecure priming. Priming materials will activate different attachment schemas, prompting individuals to adopt secure attachment strategy, hyperactivating strategy or deactivating strategy, respectively, and thus show different mental and behavioral patterns. Meanwhile, these patterns can moderate the priming effects. And all these processes form a dynamic priming feedback loop. Future research should refine the components and structure of attachment schemas, focus on the relationship between attachment anxiety and attachment priming, and explore the impact of attachment priming on subsequent cognitive processing from the perspective of processing time.

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    The influence of mindfulness on intimate relationships
    CHEN Guodian, YANG Tongping
    2020, 28 (9):  1551-1563.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01551
    Abstract ( 1447 )  

    Mindfulness in an intimate relationship indicates the conscious attention to feelings or thoughts paid by individuals that may affect the relationship. It has gradually attracted academic attention in theory and applications research because of its contributions to improve relationship satisfaction and buffer conflicts. The theoretical framework of interaction patterns between partners helps to understand the process and outcomes of intimate relationships at the level of the dyad. Researchers usually use self-report questionnaires, laboratory-based inductions and mindfulness interventions to explore the effects of mindfulness on intimate relationships. Since mindfulness intervention has a protective and remedial function for intimate relationships, it is applied to different relationship states such as relative happiness, facing challenges, and falling into crisis. Future research consists of four aspects. Firstly, constructing the theory based on the staged characteristics and possible reverse effects; secondly, conceptualizing the theoretical definition from multi-dimensional as well as dynamic perspective by relying on the interaction pattern and staged characteristics of the intimate relationship following by the measurement through the mutual evaluation or observational coding; thirdly, using robust designs to clarify the effects of interventions and finally paying attention to potential adverse effects.

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    The effect of stigmatization on interpersonal interactions of stigmatized individuals
    ZHANG Ming, MU Yan, ZHANG Yuqi, KONG Yazhuo
    2020, 28 (9):  1564-1574.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01564
    Abstract ( 756 )  

    Stigma refers to an individual’s unwelcome characteristics, which always lead people to be devalued and discriminated in some given societies and brings lots of negative consequences on an individual’s daily life. Stigmatization not only will make individuals involved in discrimination, exclusion, or rejection coming from others but also will further negatively affect their performance and behavioral responses in interpersonal interactions. These negative interactions between the stigmatized individuals and the mainstream cultural groups will further aggravate the stigmatization, forming a vicious circle. From the viewpoint of stigmatized individuals, it is helpful to explore the negative effect of stigmatization on their interpersonal interactions and the coping strategies.

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    Can we really empathize? The influence of vicarious ostracism on individuals and its theoretical explanation
    YANG Xiaoli, ZOU Yan
    2020, 28 (9):  1575-1585.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01575
    Abstract ( 809 )  

    Vicarious ostracism refers to a form of ostracism that observes other's experience of ostracism and also feels the experience of ostracism. From the perspective of behavioral study and neuroimaging, it is found that experiencing vicarious ostracism can trigger individual's needs, emotion, behavior and brain network responses, etc. Ostracism detection system theory, multimotive model theory, moral attribution theory, social identity theory and empathy theory provide a theoretical basis for why individuals were experiencing vicarious ostracism make these responses. Future research can also continue to explore the complexity of ostracism situations, individual's empathy and theoretical explanation in order to expand the scope of vicarious ostracism.

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    How does power in organizations promote prosocial behavior? The mediating role of sense of responsibility
    LI Xin, LIU Pei, XIAO Chenjie, WANG Xiaotian, LI Aimei
    2020, 28 (9):  1586-1598.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01586
    Abstract ( 444 )  

    Early research on power has provided considerable evidence for the negative effects of power on prosocial behavior and its internal mechanisms. Although an increasing number of studies have attempted to test the positive effects of power on prosocial behavior, the mechanism of this positive effect is still not clear. By reviewing and integrating the relevant literature, sense of responsibility has been identified as a critical mediator in this positive effect. In addition, individuals with high levels of power may increase their sense of responsibility because of different reasons. Given the individual's own needs, relationships with others as well as organization, we systematically figure out that need for power maintenance, perception of dependency, and organizational identification would lead to high levels of responsibility, which then triggers powerful individuals to conduct more prosocial behaviors. Moreover, we also identified potential moderators at individual level, interpersonal level, and organizational level. Future research could focus on how power results in increased sense of responsibility from various ways including exploring this relationship in Chinese culture, adopting multiple research designs beyond experimental studies, as well as manipulating interventions for helping powerful individuals increase their levels of sense of responsibility.

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