ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conditioned Place Paradigm in Pain Research
    LUO Fei;JIANG Zhaocai;WANG Jinyan
    2013, 21 (2):  191-198.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00191
    Abstract ( 486 )  
    In the field of pain, basic research has traditionally focused on the somatosensory dimension of pain and on the mechanisms of acute stimulus-evoked pain. However, less has been done on the affective dimension of pain and on the ongoing spontaneous pain which is more common in clinical settings. This results in the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Conditioned place paradigm, or place conditioning, has been born to a certain extent to solve the problem. It is a classic paradigm to assess the rewarding and addictive properties of drugs. Over the last decade, it begins to be applied in the pain research. This article summarizes the progress of place conditioning in the pain research field, including the employment of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to the emotional dimension of pain, as well as the application of conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to the persistent pain study and analgesic drug screening. Finally, on the basis of existing research, we point out the future direction of the conditioned place paradigm in the field of pain.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Dynamic Neural Network and Its Development of Visual Word Processing
    WANG Xiaojuan;YANG Jianfeng
    2013, 21 (2):  199-204.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00199
    Abstract ( 571 )  
    Investigating the dynamic neural network of cognitive processing is the new approach of cognitive neuroscience. This project proposes a series of fMRI experiments to investigate the function role of visual word form area (VWFA) at left middle part of fusiform gyrus, and further investigates the neural network of visual word processing and its development. Taking advantage of the specific properties of Chinese writing system, the first study will examine the activations of VWFA both under the task demands and the stimuli-driven. The interaction among VWFA, phonological and semantic areas will be tested to show the dynamic activation of brain regions involved in visual words processing. The second study investigates how the language experience shapes the development of brain network of visual words processing, by combining the experiments on English-speaker and Chinese Children. The third study conducts multivariate analysis on data from functional imaging, resting state and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The function and effective connectivity among visual, phonological and semantic processing areas will be used to construct the neurobiological model of visual words processing, and further to show the impact of language experience on its development.
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    Research Reports
    The Moderation Role of the Number of Missed Option in Producing Inaction Inertia
    LI Xiaoming;ZHOU Qiao
    2013, 21 (2):  205-210.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00205
    Abstract ( 486 )  
    Until now, most inaction inertia studies investigated the effect of missing a single prior opportunity on the likelihood to act on the current opportunity. The present experiment aimed at exploring whether the inaction inertia would still appear when individuals had bypassed more than one attractive option and further investigating the role of regret and valuation in producing inaction inertia. The results showed that the number of missed option had moderation effect on inaction inertia: When individuals missed only one option, a relatively large discrepancy in attractiveness between the missed and the current opportunity led to a lower likelihood of taking the second action than a small-discrepancy condition, which demonstrated inaction inertia; when two earlier options were missed, the difference between the missed and the current opportunity had no significant effect on the likelihood of taking the second action, which indicated that inaction inertia disappeared. The mediation analyses showed that the moderation effect was mediated by anticipated regret. The results suggested that anticipated regret could account for the disappearance of inaction inertia when individuals bypassed multiple options.
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    Regular Articles
    The Role of Head Orientation in Social Attention Shift
    LU Shang;LIU Ye;FU Xiaolan
    2013, 21 (2):  211-219.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00211
    Abstract ( 652 )  
    Eye gaze is a very important social attention cue. However, in everyday life, eye gaze is accompanied by head orientation, which contains spatial orientation information, too. Previous studies found that head orientation affects the speed and accuracy of perception of gaze direction. Head orientation affords a frame of reference to eye gaze direction, and affects social attention triggered by eye gaze direction. The neural systems related to head orientation and eye gaze direction are broadly overlapped. As a result, head orientation might be an important factor to construct and develop the social attention system based on Theory of Mind, besides eye gaze. Future research should focus on the mechanisms of the interaction between head orientation and eye gaze direction on social attention shift, and should explore the neural mechanisms of social attention shift from functional integration approach.
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    Conceptual Metaphor Theory: Basing on Theories of Embodied Cognition
    YIN Rong;SU Dequan;YE Haosheng
    2013, 21 (2):  220-234.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00220
    Abstract ( 1353 )  
    Metaphor is a common linguistic phenomenon. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) assumes that metaphor is not only just the language we use to communicate: it reflects a cognitive character that sensorimotor experiences and concrete concepts serve as the foundation for the development of more abstract concepts. According to CMT, the sensorimotor information should be an integral part for representing abstract concepts and the sensorimotor experiences also can be activated as the way of abstract conceptual processing. A growing body of work has found that the processes of abstract concepts are linked to the physical experiences that describe them metaphorically. These studies involve spatial metaphor, thermal metaphor, clean metaphor, haptic metaphor and so on. Future researches should focus on the effect of multiple metaphors on conceptual processing, determine how the unidirectional relationship and bidirectional relationship are shaped and develop the application of CMT.
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    The Mechanism of Why Self-control Resources and Cognitive Resources Influence Each Other: An Integrated Model
    LI Jianbin
    2013, 21 (2):  235-242.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00235
    Abstract ( 1070 )  
    Although self-control resources and cognitive resources are considered as independent, recent research has documented that these two types of resources are mutually influencing each other. Previous study explains this phenomenon in the framework of executive control, but it fails to provide how these resources affect executive control, and leads to some neglect of the neural mechanism and the moderating variables of self-control resources depletion. To have a more systematic understanding why self-control resources and cognitive resources influence each other, the author put forward an integrated model which addresses that: (1) the major reason of why these two resources mutually influence is because they are both coordinated by a same higher psychological function (i.e. executive control) and by a same neural structure (i.e. the prefrontal cortex); (2) decreased blood glucose level, mental fatigue and declined motivation reduce the activation of prefrontal cortex; (3) lower activation of prefrontal cortex undermines the functions of executive control on subsequent self-control and cognitive tasks; (4) by increasing the endurance towards fatigue, supplementing blood glucose and triggering motive can help prefrontal cortex maintain its activation level, facilitating executive control on subsequent tasks, which finally retains subsequent self-control and high-level cognitive performances. Future study should focus on the relations of self-control resources and other information processing, verify a possible mediating model of prefrontal cortex playing between the two sequential tasks with dynamic cognitive neuroscience approaches, and investigate the neural mechanism of the moderating variables of self-control resources.
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    Brain Mechanisms of Threatening Information Detection
    DU Lei
    2013, 21 (2):  243-251.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00243
    Abstract ( 493 )  
    Detecting threatening information rapidly and accurately is a kind of ability endowed by evolution. This ability, as the prerequisite of effectively coping with danger, is of vital importance to the survival of organisms. Precious studies have demonstrated the cooperation of multiple sensory modalities in threat detection. Specifically, the amygdala served as a hub connecting top-down and bottom-up processes, because of dense reciprocal connections between the amygdala and widespread regions, including perceptual pathways as well as prefrontal regions. Considerable studies confirmed its role in integrating information from cortical and subcortical visual pathways. The functions of the amygdala and various neural networks and their cooperation in threat detection still need further investigation.
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    Controversies Among The Theories of Children’s Spatial Reorientation
    FEI Guanghong;PAN Xiaomin
    2013, 21 (2):  252-262.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00252
    Abstract ( 444 )  
    Children’s spatial reorientation is the ability that the disorientated individuals reorient themselves and are able to find the hidden object after disorientation. Although the modular theory, the adaptive combination theory and the image-matching theory have made some explanations on children’s spatial reorientation behaviors, these three theories are incompatible with each other. Besides, all of their explanations are limited to some extent since none of them can explain the effects of language on the integration of geometric and non-geometric information, the effects of reference frame and enclosure size on children’s spatial reorientation behaviors as well as early sex differences in spatial reorientation. Future researches should take into consideration of the ecological validity of experiment condition, the regularity of the environment, the directness and indirectness of geometric information and study how to integrate these three theories.
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    Present Situation of the Empty Nest Elderly’s Mental Health and Research Commentary
    LU Muxue;GUO Cheng
    2013, 21 (2):  263-271.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00263
    Abstract ( 1288 )  
    As a special group of elder people, the empty nest elderly’s mental health has attracted great attention from the domestic and foreign researchers, and has gradually become a hot issue. It is found that in mental health research literature on empty nest elderly that the academic definition of empty nest elderly is not unified. Viewed from the present situation of empty nest elderly's mental health status point of view, the empty nest syndrome is the main embodiment of physical and mental symptoms, influenced by social support, gender, marital status, income and other socio-demographic factors. Although there are some achievements in the field of the research on empty nest elderly’s mental health research, some problems still remain to be solved. Future researches should focus on giving a unified definition of the empty nest elderly, improving research methods, exploring internal factors, and strengthening cross-cultural comparison and using for reference.
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    The Type, Function and Influencing Factors of Online Self-disclosure
    XIE Xiaochun;SUN Xiaojun;ZHOU Zongkui
    2013, 21 (2):  272-281.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00272
    Abstract ( 840 )  
    Online self-disclosure is the extension of self-disclosure offline in the cyber space. This study put forward integrated definition of online self-disclosure, and classified it with three perspectives: form, degree and expression. Online self-disclosure has both positive and negative influences. The appearing and the development of online self-disclosure are affected by various factors such as social culture, cyber condition, gender, age and individual psychology. Cognitive experiments, deep discussion on the influencing factors, the self-disclosure on new media of Internet, cross-culture study and Special groups’ online self-disclosure may be the orientations for future researches.
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    The Promotion Role of Implementation Intentions on Goal Achievement and Their Psychological Processes
    HU Xiaoyong;GUO Yongyu
    2013, 21 (2):  282-289.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00282
    Abstract ( 647 )  
    Implementation intentions are the if–then plans that specify when, where, and how one will strive towards particular goals. During the past two decades, numerous laboratory and field experiments which conducted in this domain have found that the implementation intentions — a kind of prospective self-regulation strategy — were effective in promoting a wide variety of desired outcomes including laboratory cognitive task goal, health goals, and academic goals. The “if” component makes the cue accessibility highly active and the “then” component makes the response automatically implemented. The accessibility of both plan components (cue accessibility and cue–response linkage) mediates the impact of the if–then planning on goal attainment. Future research should be more conducted on the psychological mechanism. What’s more, more studies based on the Chinese culture are needed as they have important practical meaning in China.
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    Increasing Intergroup Trust: The Approaches of Social Identity and Intergroup Contact
    XIN Sufei;MING Lang;XIN Ziqiang
    2013, 21 (2):  290-299.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00290
    Abstract ( 947 )  
    Intergroup trust is a critical dimension of intergroup relations. Intergroup trust means that during intergroup interaction, people hold a positive anticipation of outgroup member’s behavior and intention, and would like to take corresponding risk. It is mainly determined by social group memberships of two parties. The trust of ingroup members in outgroup members is the major form of intergroup trust. The antecedents of intergroup trust include social group identity, representation of the identity and intergroup contact experience. The approaches of social identity and intergroup contact can increase intergroup trust by changing identity cognition and improving intergroup interaction. In further research, it is necessary to verify the effects of these approaches in solving Chinese realistic intergroup trust problems.
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    The Fairness Norm in Social Decision-making: Behavioral and Neuroscience Studies
    LUO Yi;FENG Chunliang;GU Ruolei;WU Tingting;LUO Yuejia
    2013, 21 (2):  300-308.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00300
    Abstract ( 646 )  
    Widely regarded as a crucial topic in human society, fairness plays an important role in social decision-making. Economists and psychologists focus on discovering the motivational and cognitive mechanism underlying the fairness norm. Based on recent researches on fairness norm, three core models related to the fairness norms, namely inequity aversion, reciprocity, and emotion models, were summarized. Behavioral and neuroscience studies that are for or against these models were reviewed and compared. Specifically, the functions of those brain regions (the insula and the DLPFC) that are closely linked to social decision-making were discussed. Finally, the authors provided their opinions about future research.
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    Which One Is Better, Maximizing or Satisficing?
    ZHU Dongqing;XIE Xiaofei
    2013, 21 (2):  309-316.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00309
    Abstract ( 720 )  
    The maximizers are more likely to pursue optimal solutions, while the satisficers prefer to seek satisfied ones. Based on Rational Choice Theory and The Bounded Rationality Model, the previous studies proposed the maximizing and satisficing styles and thus compared the two groups of decision-makers on their decision-making features and psychological indexes. With regards to pure economic effectiveness, subjective psychological meanings and practical decision-making choices, the question of ‘which one is better between these two decision-making styles’ differs on individuals and decision-making targets. The future studies could focus on improving measuring tools basing on a clear distinction of those two decision-making styles. And then the domain specificity, the relationship between the two styles and the positive emotions and the origin of psychological paradox could be further explored.
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    Reference Dependence Based on Prospect Theory
    LI Haijun;XU Fuming;XIANG Peng;KONG Shixiao;MENG Zhenzhen
    2013, 21 (2):  317-325.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00317
    Abstract ( 803 )  
    Reference dependency refers to that decision makers evaluations for the value of outcome are based upon certain reference point. That is, if the decision maker perceives his current wealth to be higher than the reference point, he feels a gain; conversely, if his current wealth falls short of his reference point, he suffers a loss. Reference dependency exists in almost all fields of everyday life. This paper introduces three psychological mechanisms of reference dependency, namely, prospect theory, regret theory and tri-reference-point theory. Then, we introduce influential factors of the reference dependency in terms of experience, emotional state, culture, goal and cognitive object characteristic. Future researches of reference dependency are expected to concern its origin and neural mechanism, and explore deeply dynamic reference point, multiple reference point and reference dependency in group.
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    Cultural Products: A Special Perspective for Cultural Psychology
    FENG Yi;CAI Huajian;SHI Yuanyuan
    2013, 21 (2):  326-335.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00326
    Abstract ( 593 )  
    As a complementary method of behavior research, cultural products research has played an important role in cultural psychology. In this article, we reviewed accumulating cultural products research in cultural psychology and illustrated the special utility of cultural products in revealing characteristics of culture and human psychology from both between and within-culture perspectives. Finally, the implications of cultural products research to current Chinese psychology research were discussed.
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    Consumer Aesthetic Experience in Product Design
    LI Dongjin;LI Yan;WU Ruijuan
    2013, 21 (2):  336-346.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00336
    Abstract ( 900 )  
    Consumer aesthetic experience in product design can influence his/her product perception and purchasing behavior. The mechanism of aesthetic experience involves three parts, research on neuroscience, information processing model and process of emotional responses. Specific figures and structures, generalized design elements and individual factors may influence consumers’ aesthetic experiences in product design. Furthermore, consumers’ aesthetic experiences may influence perceived product performance, product evaluation and purchase intention through spillover effect, contagion effect and contrast effect. Future research should solve the contradictions among existing literatures, and continue to explore the theoretical and managerial implications of aesthetic research in the field of consumer behavior.
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    Regulatory Focus in Consumer Behavior Research
    YIN Feifan;WANG Yong
    2013, 21 (2):  347-357.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00347
    Abstract ( 978 )  
    Beyond the hedonic principle, Regulatory Focus Theory (Higgins, 1997) distinguished two kinds of motivational systems: promotion focus and prevention focus, which became one of the hottest topics in consumer behavior research. Through direct effect, regulatory relevance and regulatory fit effect, regulatory focus (RF) influences the whole progress of consumer decision-making and the effectiveness of persuasion. RF is determined by subject factor (cultural background, self-construal), stimulus factor (message framing, construal level, nonverbal cues, product type) and context factor, and the effectiveness of regulatory fit is moderated by elaboration likelihood. Practitioners should pay special attention to RF in marketing activities and make good use of regulatory fit effect to improve persuasion effectiveness. Future research should keep up with the advances of regulatory engagement theory, keep exploring the antecedents of RF, combine RF to online shopping context, and investigate how to attenuate the impairing effect of prevention focus.
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    Research Methods
    The Construct Validity Puzzle of Assessment Centers: Are We Measuring Dimensions or Exercises?
    BIAN Ran;GAO Qin;CHE Hongsheng
    2013, 21 (2):  358-371.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00358
    Abstract ( 529 )  
    As high-fidelity simulations, assessment centers (ACs) are designed to measure a number of dimensions in various job-related exercises. Over the past 30 years, a great deal of research has indicated that ACs exhibit high content and criterion-related validity, but low construct-related validity. AC ratings substantially reflect the effects of the exercises and not the dimensions they were designed to reflect. This so-called AC “construct validity puzzle” drew a lot of attention from researchers. Three main research perspectives have gradually emerged: dimension-based approach, exercise-based approach, and interactionist approach, which focus on controlling factors causing measurement errors to improve the quality of dimension measurement, removing the dimensions from AC framework and focusing solely on the exercises or tasks, and taking the interaction between dimensions and exercises into account, respectively. Future research should pay more attentions to the exercise-based approach beyond the traditional dimension-based approach, and place great emphasis on the interactionist approach.
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    Implications and Measurements of Faking in Personnel Selection
    LIU Qian;XU Jianping;XU Nuo
    2013, 21 (2):  372-380.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00372
    Abstract ( 531 )  
    Faking is universal among all stages of personnel selection and will finally lead to unreliable selection. The implication of faking varies from researchers to researchers due to their different understanding of faking structure, source of variation and level of faking. Many faking measurements derive from these different definitions, among which baseline offsets, cognitive pattern, inserted scales and behavior monitoring are the most commonly used ones. In this paper, the four methods are classified in terms of indicators, frequencies and contents, whose effectiveness and practicability in personnel selection varies. Future studies should focus on improving extant methods, developing new methods to measure faking motivation, enhancing the study on procedural control of faking behavior and delving into individual differences in faking.
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