ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    A New Perspective on Consumer Decision: Double-entry Mental Accounting Theory
    LI Ai-Mei;HAO Mei;LI Li;LING Wen-Quan
    2012, 20 (11):  1709-1717.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01709
    Abstract ( 1757 )  
    Prelec and Loewenstein (1998) introduced a “double-entry” mental accounting theory, in which one set of entries recorded the “net” utility derived from consumption after subtracting the disutility of associated payments, and the other set recorded the "net" disutility of payments after subtracting the utility of associated consumption. The mental coupling of payment and consumption increased the pain of paying and reduced the pleasure of consumption, indicating a big coefficient of pleasure attenuation (a). While the mental decoupling of payment and consumption reduced the perceived cost of the activity and therefore boosted the likelihood of enjoying the consumption, indicating a big coefficient of pain buffering (b). Several findings are summarized: a small coefficient of pleasure attenuation (a) is perceived when consumption is after payment, while a small coefficient of pain buffering (b) is perceived when payment is after consumption. It is also found that luxury has a big coefficient of pleasure attenuation (a), while necessity has a big coefficient of pain buffering (b). The tightwad has a big coefficient of pleasure attenuation (a) and the spendthrift has a big coefficient of pain buffering (b). Additionally, the psychological mechanism of coupling, such as debt aversion and negative time preference, payment depreciation etc., and the advices to behavior decision are discussed. And meanwhile, new perspective and research subject on consumer behavior decision are proposed.
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    Doctor Forum
    Graph-framing Effects in Decision Making
    SUN Yan;HUANG Li;LIU Yang
    2012, 20 (11):  1718-1726.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01718
    Abstract ( 855 )  
    In contrast to the axiom of description invariance, researchers interested in decision framing effects are accumulating evidence that different representations of the same problem do not yield the same preference. Traditional research on framing effects has commonly utilized verbal scenarios. In contrast, the current study manipulated the graphical representation of options by framing the physical characters in figures and found that preferences could be affected even when the words and numbers of the problem were constant. Our evidence showed that such graph framing effects could be detected across different types of graphical displays and different question scenarios. Based on attribute substitution theory and an equate-to-differentiate approach, we proposed a two-process model of graph framing effects: The Graph- edited Equate-to-differentiate Model (GEM).
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    Conceptual Framework
    Syntactic Priming in Chinese Sentence Comprehention: Evidence from Eye Movements and ERP
    CHEN Qing-Rong;TAN Ding-Liang;CAI Hou-De
    2012, 20 (11):  1727-1734.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01727
    Abstract ( 774 )  
    The syntactic priming effect in language production has been profoundly investigated during the last 20 years. The question remains, however, as to whether the effect would trigger the same processing in comprehension and production. Researchers have recently investigated the priming effect in the comprehension of Indo-European languages, leaving many disputes unsolved. Is the priming effect syntactic, strategic, or semantic? Is the effect lexically driven or lexically independent? In addition, is it language specific or language universal in human language comprehension? Given that the employment of a mere behavioral technique, eye tracking or ERP may not provide solid empirical support or the insightful theoretical explanation regarding those disputes, this study intends to explore the syntactic priming effect in Chinese sentence comprehension from an interdisciplinary perspective, embracing psychology, linguistics, and neurocognitive science, using both eye tracking and ERP. Based on the analysis of the consistent and inconsistent evidences provided by the eye tracking and ERP experiments, the researchers aim at finding out the cognitive characteristics and mechanisms of the syntactic priming effect in Chinese sentence comprehension as well as examining the adaption of the theories of implicit learning and argument structure in accounting for the syntactic priming effects.
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    A Theory on the National Characteristics of Entrepreneur Behavior
    YONG Shao-Hong;WANG Juan
    2012, 20 (11):  1735-1748.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01735
    Abstract ( 491 )  
    The article have put forward entrepreneur national characteristics theory and entrepreneur behavior social mental theory into empirical research. The article broke through the traditional theories of entrepreneurial action, which have the occupation characteristic research paradigm of the entrepreneur and entrepreneur behavior characteristics with the single dimension structure of the market competition spirit. From the study of the commercial cultural characteristics, it has constructed entrepreneur behavior characteristics of two dimensional model of structure, developed the comparative study in Han people and Hui people of the entrepreneurs behavior traits and the research on the performance evaluation of entrepreneur in the Hui’s nationality act. The project can be extended entrepreneur behavior theory research, promoted the academic circle of our country minority business culture, pay attention to entrepreneur behavior research, and amplify the theory of organizational behavior and ethical theory, etc. At the same time, the research has a high application potential in which has reconstructed Chinese ethnic commercial civilization to our country in the transition period from the business culture of minority ethnic groups, promoted the entrepreneur specially minority entrepreneurs growing up, developed the role of entrepreneurs in the economic construction and social progress fully, promoted economic prosperity and enhanced the industrial enterprise performance in minority ethnic characteristics and so on.
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    Research Reports
    The Cross Modality Asymmetrical Effect of Stimulus-driven Capture in Audiovisual Additional Singleton Search Task
    LI Bi-Qin;ZHANG Ming
    2012, 20 (11):  1749-1754.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01749
    Abstract ( 545 )  
    Two experiments were designed in present study to examine the asymmetrical effect in audiovisual additional singleton search task. Experiment 1 wais a location orientation task, we found that the auditory singleton can capture visual attention when it was in the same spatiality with the target, but visual cues cannot capture auditory attention no matter which spatial side it was. The results suggested that there was a cross-modality effect in stimulus-driven capture; the asymmetrical effect was also existed. In experiment 2, we found that every auditory cue can capture visual attention, but neither of visual cues can capture auditory attention. The present study demonstrated the cross modality asymmetrical effect in audiovisual additional singleton search task. In the same time, the research confirmed that there is a supramodal attention control audiovisual stimulus-driven capture task.
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    Regular Articles
    Attention Allocation During Reading: Sequential or Parallel
    MA Guo-Jie;LI Xing-Shan
    2012, 20 (11):  1755-1767.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01755
    Abstract ( 646 )  
    Attention allocation in reading is an essential factor discriminating two major kinds of eye movement control models in reading. These two kinds of models had different assumptions on whether more than one word can be processed simultaneously. One kind of the models assumes that attention is sequentially allocated, thus only completion of previous word can initiate process of the next word. The other, however, assumes parallel processing where multiple words can be processed simultaneously. This article mainly discusses the differences regarding attention deployment between these two kinds of models and reviews corresponding evidences supporting them. It also reviews attention allocation theories and findings from related fields, hoping to introduce different perspectives to the attention allocation studies in reading.
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    Inhibitory Control and Higher Cognitive Functions
    WANG Jun;CHEN Tian-Yong
    2012, 20 (11):  1768-1778.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01768
    Abstract ( 939 )  
    In recent years, associations between inhibitory control and higher cognitive functions were emphasized. Cumulative empirical evidence indicated that inhibitory control was an essential mechanism under working memory, reading comprehension, fluid intelligence as well as other higher cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies also suggested that some common brain areas (e.g. prefrontal lobe and parietal lobe) were involved in inhibitory control and those three higher cognitive functions. Meanwhile, evidence from cognitive development, cognitive aging and cognitive intervention domains consistently showed that inhibitory control was close related with higher cognitive functions. More attention should be paid to the definition and measurement, as well as brain mechanism and training of inhibitory control in the future.
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    The Role of Contingency Awareness in Evaluative Conditioning
    LIU Ai-Ping;LI Qi;LUO Jing
    2012, 20 (11):  1779-1786.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01779
    Abstract ( 563 )  
    Evaluative Conditioning (EC) refers to the transformation of affect from a positive or negative stimulus (US) to a neutral stimulus (CS) as the result of paring US with CS repeatedly. Contingency awareness refers to the knowledge of the paring rules between US and CS, and its effect on EC are still controversial. Some findings claim that contingency awareness is independent of EC, and even impede EC. However, some studies show that contingency awareness facilitates the occurrence of EC; at the same time, some findings find that the function of contingency awareness acting on EC is mediated by other variables. On the basis of all the evidences, we propose some new directions of the future research in this field including developing more accurate measurement of contingency awareness, verifying the accommodation of other variables, strengthening multi-modal studies, and exploring the processing mechanism.
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    Social Defeat Paradigm in Tree Shrews as a Depression Model
    QI Ke-Ke;FENG Min;MENG Xiao-Lu;LI Yong-Hui;ZHU Ning;SUI Nan
    2012, 20 (11):  1787-1793.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01787
    Abstract ( 600 )  
    Appropriate animal models are essential for elucidating the etiology and pathophysiology of depression. While rodent models are commonly used, the tree shrew shows promise for modeling depression. Studies of tree shrews demonstrate an evolutionary relationship to primates, a highly developed nervous system and a more similar stress system to human. Well-accepted etiological stimuli of human depression, for example, social defeat, induce depression-like behaviors in tree shrews; such behaviors can be partially improved by classic antidepressants. This article reviews the social defeat paradigm in the tree threw as a model of depression from perspectives of face, predictive, and construct validities. Underscored by a phylogenetic relationship to humans, tree shrew models of depression may provide a more clinically-relevant approach for studying the neuro-mechanisms of depression and screening antidepressants. Nonetheless, the current tree shrew depression model requires further exploration and improvement.
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    The Role of Cortical and Subcortical Motor Areas in the Cognitive Control of Movement
    LU Qin-Qin;DAI Shu-Fen;GU Kai;ZUO Yang-Fan;YU Ping
    2012, 20 (11):  1794-1802.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01794
    Abstract ( 717 )  
    The cognitive control is critical when individuals select the movement appropriate to the current situation. Each area of cortical and subcortical motor areas is involved in different aspacts of the cognitive control of movement. Meanwhile, different areas which have close contact can be in charge of the same movement. In these areas, premotor cortex (PMC) and primary motor area (M1) is key to the transition of sensation and motion. Supplementary motor complex (SMC) and M1 guide the organization in sequence movement, while basal ganglia and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) dominate the inhibition of movement.
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    The Distinction Between Approach and Avoidance Motivation and Its Implication on Psychopathology
    LIU Hui-Jun;GAO Lei
    2012, 20 (11):  1803-1811.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01803
    Abstract ( 760 )  
    The most fundamental systems of motivation are approach and avoidance, which reflect how individuals interact with the environment and represent the core functions of individuals’ adaption to the environment. Avoidance motivation facilitates thriving of an individual, whereas approach motivation facilitates surviving. The two motivation systems are asymmetrically locate in the prefrontal cortex. Approach Motivation is linked to the left PFC activation, whereas avoidance motivation corresponds to the right PFC activation. Youngstorm and Izard etc. suggested that dysregulation of the approach and avoidance systems might result in some emotional and behavioral disorders, including mania, depression, anxiety, and ADHD. This association has been confirmed by some epidemiological and clinical studies. Future research should focus on the role of approach and avoidance motivation on emotion and cognitive function. More evidence should be provided to verify the dysregulation model and the plasticity of the two systems.
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    Western Studies of Family Influences on Eating Disorders
    CAO Si-Cong;MIAO Shao-Jiang;TONG Jun
    2012, 20 (11):  1812-1821.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01812
    Abstract ( 676 )  
    Family is one of essential factors in the etiology of eating disorders. Many western scholars have used various methods to investigate the relationships between eating disorders and family environment. According to chronological order, Minuchin and other scholars had conducted classic clinical researches; and numerous quantitative treatises emerged subsequently, which could be sorted out from different assessment levels, research variables and subject perspectives; recently some researchers employed qualitative research methods to explore this topic. The development trends of family researches on eating disorders include: highlighting indigenous studies, exploring family system with multilevel approach and taking into account family structures and family change processes simultaneously.
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    The Relationship Between ADHD and Crime and Its Judicial Enlightenments
    SONG Ping;YANG Bo
    2012, 20 (11):  1822-1833.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01822
    Abstract ( 755 )  
    ADHD is a common mental disorder with obvious symptoms of inattention, difficulty in controlling their behavior and hyperactivity et al. in childhood and may persist into adolescent and adult, and these defects may increase the possibility of crime. Minimal brain dysfunction theory, self-regulation theory, reinforcement sensitivity theory, and the related personality theory et al. can, to some extent, explain the relationship between ADHD and crime. There exist three different way of ADHD’s influencing on crime-independent effect, indirect effect and no effect. This paper specially states the performance characteristics of ADHD patients during the criminal justice process and the related judicial enlightenment. Future studies should explore the affection of ADHD on crime in the genic, neurophysiological mechanism and their interactions with environment. Moreover, the possible effect of ADHD should be considered in the process of crime prevention, trial, court and the treatment of offenders.
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    The Concept, Construct and Functions of Inspiration
    LIU Ya;ZHOU Chang-Jiang;YANG Ha-Tao
    2012, 20 (11):  1834-1842.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01834
    Abstract ( 773 )  
    Inspiration can be defined as a psychological trait and also a temporary state. As both a psychological construct and an appetitive motivational state, inspiration is conceptualized as having three core characteristics: motivation, evocation and transcendence. State inspiration is evoked by some trigger stimuli and motivates individuals to approach targets. “By” and “to” components are two separate processes of state inspiration. Relative to positive affect, inspiration involves comparable motivation, greater transcendence, and lesser responsibility. Inspiration can energize the creativity, promote mental health and enhance well-being. Future research should focus on the domain-specific inspiration, the generalizability of inspiration as a psychological construct, the methods of induction of inspiration, and the mechanisms underlying the influence of inspiration on mental health and well-being.
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    The Motivational Direction of Anger
    DU Lei
    2012, 20 (11):  1843-1849.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01843
    Abstract ( 808 )  
    Animal behavior is driven by motivation essentially. Anger, as a special negative emotion, was thought to be related to the approach motivational system. Several studies, however, found that anger was associated with the avoidance motivational system. Some scholars explained these conflict findings by suggesting that the nonspecific component of anger was related to avoidance motivation, whereas its specific component had a stronger link to approach motivation. While some others linked approach motivation with anger-out, and avoidance motivation with anger-in. However, considerable data implied the association between anger and approach motivation were preferred and common, and the association between anger and avoidance motivation was conditioned and limited by the situation. More studies are needed to uncover the evolutionary anger-approach motivation link as well as its cognitive and neural mechanism, and to clarify the situational characters of anger-avoidance motivation link.
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    “Loneliness” is the Fate of All Great Souls? Solitude and Relevant Research
    CHEN Xiao;ZHOU Hui
    2012, 20 (11):  1850-1859.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01850
    Abstract ( 2227 )  
    Solitude referred to a state in which a person was alone and separated from others. It provided freedom to select one’s mental or physical activities. Contrast to the negative emotional experience of loneliness, solitude was a constructed state and was open to all emotional experiences. Self-reported scales and Experience Sampling Methods (ESM) were used to measured solitude. Research revealed, as the age increased, individual spent more time on solitude and had more positive attitude toward it. Evidences showed that solitude had positive effects on individuals’ mental health, creativity and enhanced self-integration. In the future, the structure of solitude required more research. Research should also pay attention to the developmental mechanism of solitude and cultural differences. The neural mechanism of solitude would be an important and valuable researching domain in the future.
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    Perceived Control in the Social Context
    GUO Xu-Cheng;GUO Yong-Yu
    2012, 20 (11):  1860-1868.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01860
    Abstract ( 818 )  
    Perceived control has long been concerned as a very important concept in the psychology domain. Recently, some researchers found the traditional theory of perceived control overemphasized the individual ability having effect on the environment, but neglected the objective social context (eg, social political condition, historical and cultural effect and life reality) which may exert impact on the personal perceived control. Primary-Secondary control theory, Negotiable fate, and Compensatory control model have elaborated how perceived control varied in the different social context respectively. Primary-Secondary control theory claimed that the person in the low-control situation should adjust oneself to accept the environment unchangeable and acquire a kind of secondary control. Negotiable fate believed the person in the East-Asia culture context would admit the restrain factors in their life but still persist the personal bounded agency in order to master their life. Compensatory control model held the perspective that when people face the low-personal control circumstances, they would try to gain perceived control through a series of compensatory ways. Some directions proposed based on these theories in order to highlight the ideas of further researches of Chinese perceived control.
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    The Empirical Psychological Perspectives on Free Will
    DONG Rui;PENG Kai-Ping;YU Feng;ZHENG Ruo-Qiao
    2012, 20 (11):  1869-1878.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01869
    Abstract ( 910 )  
    Free will is one of the oldest and most debated topics in the history of philosophy. Both positivist philosophy and humanist philosophy considered the problem of free will to be the most difficult issues to untangle. In recent years, psychologists have begun to apply the methods of empirical science to study the psychological mechanism, impact and expression of free will. The general consensus is that free will is an illusion, but people still believe in its existence. Free will has been found closely related to moral responsibility, moral behavior, creativity, self-esteem and subjective well-being. Future research should define free will in more psychological sense, and to explore the generation mechanism and function of free will in everyday life. Theoretical and methodological advances are need to extend our understanding of free will and its psychological impacts to human being.
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    Motivated Information Processing Model: Theory and Applications
    WU Meng;BAI Xin-Wen
    2012, 20 (11):  1889-1898.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01889
    Abstract ( 1732 )  
    Based on “groups as information processor perspective”, motivated information processing (MIP) model emphasizes that information processing and sharing depends on two types of motivations, epistemic motivation and social motivation, respectively. Epistemic motivation refers to the willingness to expend effort to achieve a thorough, rich, and accurate understanding of the world. It determines the depth of information processing. Social motivation is defined as the individual preference for outcome distributions between oneself and others. It influences which information will be processed. Epistemic motivation and social motivation, alone and in combination, interpret information processing at both individual and team level, and information sharing at team level. MIP model contributes to the industrial/organizational psychology literature by integrating the dual-process theory and groups as information processor perspective, and by providing a new perspective in the fields of negotiation, creativity, and team effectiveness. Limitations and implications for future study of MIP model are discussed.
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