ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (11): 1091-1101.

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Long-term Stability and Variability in Memory Compensation among Older Adults: Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

Roger A. Dixon, Cindy M. de Frias   

  1. (Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Canada) (Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden)
  • Received:2009-04-23 Revised:1900-01-01 Published:2009-11-30 Online:2009-11-30
  • Contact: Roger A. Dixon

Abstract: Two memory status groups were derived from a parent sample of older adults participating in the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) in Canada. A not impaired control (NIC) group and a mild memory deficit (MMD) group were compared at baseline and longitudinally (over five waves or 12 years) regarding their use of memory compensation techniques in everyday life. We used multi-level modeling (covarying age and education) to examine baseline level differences and long-term change patterns. Baseline results showed that the MMD participants reported greater recent increases in memory compensation strategy use in everyday life. Longitudinal results showed notable 12-year stability in memory compensation use, but group-related differences in the compensatory mechanism of effort. The covariate of education (potentially a marker of cognitive reserve) was associated with differential change in three memory compensation strategies over time.

Key words: memory compensation, mild memory deficit, multi-level modeling, Victoria Longitudinal Study