ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

Acta Psychologica Sinica ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (8): 921-934.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00921

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Applying IRT_ΔB Procedure and Adapted LR Procedure to Detect DIF in Tests with Matrix Sampling

ZHANG Xun;LI Lingyan;LIU Hongyun;SUN Yan   

  1. (1 National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
  • Received:2011-08-02 Published:2013-08-25 Online:2013-08-25
  • Contact: LI Lingyan

Abstract: Matrix sampling is a useful technique widely used in large-scale educational assessments. In an assessment with matrix sampling design, each examinee takes one of the multiple booklets with partial items. A critical problem of detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in such scenario has gained a lot of attention in recent years, which is, it is not appropriate to take the observed total score obtained from individual booklet as the matching variable in detecting the DIF. Therefore, the traditional detecting methods, such as Mantel-Haenszel (MH), SIBTEST, as well as Logistic Regression (LR) are not suitable. IRT_Δb might be an alternative due to its abilities to provide valid matching variable. However, the DIF classification criterion of IRT_Δb was not well established yet. Thus, the purpose of this study were: 1) to investigate the efficiency and robustness of using ability parameters obtained from Item Response Theory (IRT) model as the matching variable, comparing with the way using traditional observed raw total scores ; 2) to further identify what factors will influence the abilities in detecting DIF of two methods; 3) to propose a DIF classification criteria for IRT_Δb. Simulated and empirical data were both employed in this study to explore the robustness and the efficiency of the two prevailing DIF detecting methods, which were the IRT_Δb method and the adapted LR method with the estimation of group-level ability based on IRT model as the matching variable. In the Monte Carlo study, a matrix sampling test was generated, and various experimental conditions were simulated as follows: 1) different proportions of DIF items; 2) different actual examinee ability distributions; 3) different sample sizes; 4) different size of DIF. Two DIF detection methods were then applied and results were compared. In addition, power functions were established in order to derive DIF classification rule for IRT_Δb based on current rules for LR. In the empirical study, through conducting a DIF analysis for American and Korean mathematics tests from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003, the consistency of the classification rules between IRT_Δb and LR were further examined. The results indicated that in the matrix sampling design, both IRT_Δb method and adjusted LR method were sensitive to the diverse DIF magnitude. It was also found that the power, type I error, and the final classification of both methods were also influenced by the sample size, percentage of items with DIF, and ability differences between the focused group and the reference group. In conclusion, it was found that both the IRT_Δb method and adjusted LR method can be used to detect DIF in matrix sampling tests. A classification rule for IRT_Δb was proposed, which are: 0.85 between negligible DIF(A) and intermediate DIF(B), 1.23 between intermediate DIF(B) and large DIF(C). Meanwhile, it was suggested that researchers would take this rule as a tentative principle since the ΔR2 was limited between a narrow interval and the classification rule of LR was very flexible compared to classification rule of MH. Further studies could be conducted to take MH, IRT_Δb as well as LR into consideration simultaneously to give more comparable and consistent classification rules for different methods.

Key words: Differential Item Functioning, Matrix Sampling, Rasch model, Logistic regression