心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 880-891 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00880

研究报告

基于定量脑电图的音乐和灯光颜色对情绪的影响 *

卢伟,1, 黄尔齐1, 原晋霞2

1 南京农业大学工学院, 南京 210031

2 南京师范大学教育科学学院, 南京 210097

The effects of music mode and lamplight color on human emotion based on quantitative EEG

LU Wei,1, HUANG Erqi1, YUAN Jinxia2

1 Nanjing Agricultural University, College of Engineering, Nanjing 210031, China

2 Nanjing Normal University, School of Education Science, Nanjing 210097, China

通讯作者: 卢伟, E-mail:njaurobot@njau.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-03-7   网络出版日期: 2018-08-07

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  51405239
江苏省农机三新工程项目.  SZ120170036
Asia hub on WEF and Agriculture, NAU-MSU联合研究项目.  2017-H-11

Received: 2017-03-7   Online: 2018-08-07

摘要

研究利用定量脑电图(quatitative electroencephalograhy, qEEG)技术和自我报告法分析音乐和灯光颜色对情绪的影响。实验基于效价-唤醒度框架评价情绪。实验1考察3种灯光颜色和4种音乐调式作为单环境因素刺激的主观结果和EEG信号, 实验2考察3种灯光颜色与4种音乐调式作为双环境因素刺激的主观结果和EEG信号。研究发现:(1)通过qEEG技术研究不同类型的音乐调式和灯光颜色对人情绪的影响是可行的。(2)大调、宫调音乐和绿色灯光对情绪产生积极影响, 小调、羽调音乐和红色灯光对情绪产生消极影响。(3)音乐和灯光双环境因素对情绪同时刺激时, 具有交互作用, 情绪正相关影响双环境因素对情绪影响有加强, 负相关影响双环境因素对情绪影响有削弱。(4)在灯光颜色与音乐作为双环境因素刺激被试时, 主要由音乐调式影响情绪变化, 但是灯光颜色与音乐调式组合时, 对情绪影响程度依然有显著差异。(5)音乐刺激本身具有的情绪信息与被试被诱发的情绪相一致, 灯光颜色的情绪标签与被试被影响的情绪基本一致。

关键词: qEEG ; 音乐 ; 情绪 ; 灯光颜色

Abstract

Numerous studies showed that music mode and lamplight color impact audiences’ emotions. It’s generally accepted that major-mode, Chinese ancient Gong-mode and red light are associated with excited and vigorous emotions. Minor-mode, Chinese ancient Yu-mode, and blue and green light have characteristics of calm and contented emotion. Furthermore, recent studies indicated that both music modes and lamplight colors induce emotional changes. Beyond exploring the effects of two emotional stimuli on emotional induction, this study validated the consistency of emotional information of the stimuli with the two emotional stimulations.

Participants (total 41) were divided into two groups randomly to take part in different experiments. In the first experiment, three lamplight colors and four music modes were stimulated on 21 participants to study their subjective perception. Simultaneously, the EEG data of participants were collected. In the second experiment, dual-factor stimulations with three lamplight colors and four music modes were applied on 20 participants to evaluate their subjective perception, with the EEG data collected. Before each experiment, every participant was asked to execute two moderately difficult calculations to clear their minds. The average frequency band power of EEG was calculated and the subjective emotional evaluation was done at the end of each experiment.

The first experiment showed that major-mode and Chinese ancient Gong-mode tunes were positive emotional stimuli; on the contrary, minor-mode and Chinese ancient Yu-mode tunes were negative. The arousal degree of tri-color light (red, blue, and green) is greater than the minor-mode tune. The second experiment revealed that red lamplight color inhibited the effect of tune mode on emotional potency. Despite the fact that blue and green lamplight colors promoted the effect of Western tune mode, they inhibited that of Oriental tune mode. The study concluded as below. (1) It is feasible to study the effects of different tuned modes and lamplight colors on human emotion using qEEG technology. (2) Western major mode tunes, Chinese ancient Gong-mode tunes and green lamplight color have positive effects on the human mood emotion. However, Western minor mode tunes, Chinese ancient Yu-mode tunes and red light color have negative effects on the human emotion. (3) Tune mode and lamplight color have interactive effects on human emotion, which can strengthen emotion under the condition of positive correlation and vice versa. (4) Tune mode is the main factor for affecting human emotion when the two factors of tune mode and lamplight color act as stimuli simultaneously. However, lamplight color also has significant contributions and differences for emotional effect when the two factors are combined. (5) The emotional information of the stimulating tune is consistent with the induced emotions. The mood labels of the lamplight colors are generally related to the responded emotions.

Keywords: qEEG ; tune ; emotion ; lamplight color

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本文引用格式

卢伟, 黄尔齐, 原晋霞. 基于定量脑电图的音乐和灯光颜色对情绪的影响 * [J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 880-891 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00880

LU Wei, HUANG Erqi, YUAN Jinxia. The effects of music mode and lamplight color on human emotion based on quantitative EEG[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 880-891 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00880

1 引言

当人类的视觉和听觉受到情绪刺激时, 大脑会对此进行信息处理并调节情绪。视觉刺激包括明度、色调和饱和度; 听觉刺激包括音调、音强和音色(Bakker & Martin, 2015; Figueiro, Bierman, Plitnick, & Rea, 2009; Naranjo et al., 2011)。医学研究证明, 情绪刺激的信息处理由大脑多个部分共同完成。比如, 情绪信息处理由额叶负责, 视觉信息处理由枕叶负责, 听觉信息处理由颞叶负责。同时, 脑电图研究发现, 大脑在积极情绪效价状态, 左脑半球皮层的脑电活动高于右脑半球皮层, 而在消极情绪效价状态, 右脑半球皮层的脑电活动高于左脑半球皮层(Nidal & Malik, 2014)。例如, 右侧大脑受损时, 其脑电活动异常小于左侧大脑, 会引起病理性笑症状。当左侧大脑受损时, 其脑电活动异常小于右侧大脑, 会引起病理性哭症状(Sackeim et al., 1982)。这些研究都证明情绪刺激可以诱发情绪的改变, 同时改变大脑皮层对应位置的电位信号(Pham, Tran, Ma, & Tran, 2015)。

研究听觉与情绪的关系时, 通常把音乐作为诱发情绪改变的因素, 分析音乐自身的情感内容、标签音乐的情绪以及分析音乐对大脑的影响。例如, 国际情感数字化声音(The International Affective Digital Sounds system, IADS)是一套规范化的情绪素材, 可用于研究音乐的情感内容实验(Bradley & Lang, 1994, 2007)。额脑不对称理论和EEG实验表明可以使用两个通用模型ANN1(EEG记录与情绪)和ANN2(音乐内容与情绪)对音乐进行情绪标签化(Hsu, Zhen, Lin, & Chiu, 2018)。功能磁共振成像(functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI)研究表明, 当播放悲伤音乐时, 杏仁体、海马体、海马旁回、颞极活动增强, 播放愉快音乐时, 腹侧纹状体、前上岛、罗兰迪克岛盖呈兴奋状态, 并且形成音乐处理的相关运动回路, 表明情绪标签音乐会影响大脑不同部位的活动(Koelsch, Fritz, V Cramon, Müller, & Friederici, 2006)。但是, 情绪标签音乐对人情绪的影响还需进一步验证和实验探究。

研究视觉与情绪之间关系的过程中, 通常把灯光作为诱发情绪改变的因素。影响视觉的灯光因素包括照明、色温、颜色和布置等(Gilbert, Fridlund, & Lucchina, 2016; Koelsch et al., 2006; Knez, 1995; Maher et al., 2001; Park, Ha, Ryu, Kim, & Jung, 2013)。在现代工作生活中, 不同的环境和时间对照明条件的需求不同, 并且灯光的明度、色调、饱和度都会影响人的生理和心理。已有研究表明, 当办公环境处于在富含蓝光和白光的条件下, 员工的工作效率比只有白光时高(Bakker & Martin, 2015; Iskra-Golec, Wazna, & Smith, 2012; Park et al., 2013)。工作环境颜色对人的工作效率和情绪的影响明显, Kwallek和Lewis (1990)的研究发现, 红色办公室与白色办公室相比, 红色办公室中员工注意力更集中、工作效率更高、工作错误率更低; 红色办公室与绿色办公室相比, 红色办公室中员工困惑程度更低、紧张度平缓(Kwallek & Lweis, 1990)。情绪与认知能力研究发现, 亮度为300lx、色温为3000K的暖白光或者亮度为1500 lx、色温为4000K的冷白光可产生积极的情绪。昼夜节律系统研究表明, 人在晚上对短波长(蓝)的光最敏感且有警觉性, 对长波长(红)的光最不敏感且无警觉性(Figueiro et al., 2009)。Phipps等人通过记录反应时间和EEG数据分析指出即使蓝光强度非常低, 夜间长时间照射蓝光也可增强人的警觉性(Phipps-Nelson, Redman, Schlangen, & Rajaratnam, 2009)。

已有的环境心理学分析环境因素对情绪的影响, 都只从单种环境因素分析两者的关系。如琴弦音乐大调、小调对情绪的诱发机制(Bakker & Martin, 2015), 住宅环境中直接或间接的照明对情绪和大脑活动的影响(Shin et al., 2015)。一些研究尝试分析颜色与情绪的对应关系(Buechner, Maier, Lichtenfeld, & Elliot, 2015; Kaya & Epps, 2004), Sutton和Altarriba (2016)研究发现愤怒和失败等消极情绪词汇与红色关联性最高, 开心和满足等积极情绪词汇与黄色和白色关联性最高。Meier, Robinson和Clore (2004)研究指出光亮色通常与积极情绪词汇相对应, 而暗沉色与消极情绪词汇相对应。Lee, Latchoumane和Jeong (2017)尝试使用情感计算预测情绪对应的颜色, 他们利用Thayer (1990)的情绪模型和模糊认知图(Fuzzy Cognitive Map, FCM)建立一个输入层为红绿蓝三色, 输出层为情绪效价和唤醒度的神经网络预测模型, 其中模拟最佳验证均方误差为8.90%。还有一些研究尝试分析音乐与颜色的情绪对应关系。如Barbiere等(2007)采用自我报告法, 在被试接受情绪音乐刺激后, 在同一情绪背景下, 主观选择同样情绪刺激最多的颜色作为代表色。结果发现, 快乐的歌曲通常匹配的是黄色、红色、绿色和蓝色, 悲伤的音乐通常对应的是灰色。还有研究单独分析音乐的大调、小调和灯光的色温、亮度对脑电图平均频带功率的影响。比如, 脑电图(EEG)的平均频带功率携带着关于音乐调式的信息; 暖色低光或者冷色高光对α的平均频带功率有提高作用, 而且EEG信息的有效性和敏感性随着实验深入而增强。众多研究都表明EEG可以作为生物标记分析多色光对认知能力的影响(Jenni, Oechslin, & James, 2017; Min, Jung, Kim, & Park, 2013; Shin et al., 2015)。

综上所述, 音乐和灯光颜色作为刺激, 被主观赋予情绪的含义, 并且都能影响情绪(Konečni, 2008; Moharreri, Rezaei, Dabanloo, & Parvaneh, 2014)。音乐、灯光颜色之间也具有内在联系。为探究音乐和灯光颜色叠加对情绪的影响, 本文采用定量的情绪效价-唤醒度框架(valence-arousal framework)和脑电图技术(EEG)组成定量脑电图(qEEG)来研究音乐和灯光颜色对情绪的影响。情绪效价是测量情绪积极和消极状态的通用指标(Lang, 1995), 情绪效价-唤醒度框架通过使用维度测量的方式计算情绪活动状态。已有的影响情绪效价的EEG实验研究根据左右大脑不对称活动(asymmetric activation)理论, 通过分析大脑皮层(cerebral cortex)不同位置电极的α波(8~15 Hz)和β波(15~30 Hz)的平均频带功率在不同刺激下的数值得出结论(Cook, O’Hara, Uijtdehaage, Mandelkern, & Leuchter, 1998)。测量唤醒度的传统实验方法为检测心率图(heart rate)、皮肤温度(skin temperature)或者皮肤电反应(galvanic skin response)。一些研究表明, 脑部活动已经用于检测唤醒度(Aftanas, Varlamov, Pavlov, Makhnev, & Reva, 2002)。比如, 高压力工作状态对应高唤醒度(Brookhuis & de Waard, 2001), 低精神状态对应低唤醒度(Kroemer, Kroemer, & Kroemer-Elbert, 1994)。

α波频率范围是8~15 Hz。研究发现α波频率值与觉醒度、闭眼状态、警觉度和创造力有关。通过检测大脑区域的活动, 发现α波在头的后半部和枕骨(occipital bone)区域的振幅较高, 脑部不对称活动在额叶皮层(frontal cortex)表现特别强烈与明显(Schutter, van d’Alfonso, Postma, & de Haan, 2001)。一些研究表明, α频带功率在脑电活动中不会一直处于主导地位, 而是呈现一种负相关的关系。这表明, 在脑部活动较弱时, α频带功率高于其他频带功率。在脑部活动较强时, α频带功率会低于其他频带功率(Cook et al., 1998)。根据事件相关电位(event- related potentials, ERP)研究, 基于频谱图像分析颜色对大脑活动的影响, α频带功率在绿色刺激下高于蓝色和红色(Nidal & Malik, 2014)。以上研究仅证明环境刺激对α频带功率影响, 尚未定量研究脑电图(qEEG)与情绪的关系。

β波频率范围是15~30 Hz, 仅在正常成年人身上发现。研究发现β波与注意力活跃度、思考活跃度、解决关键问题能力和对外界世界的集中力有关(Patel, 2011), 被称为感觉运动节律。实验证明, β波主要集中在脑部前方和中央区域, 振幅在正常情况下低于30 μV。根据ERP研究发现, 红色对大脑β波频率有促进作用, 并且大于其他颜色对脑部的影响, 这种影响取决于最高频率的改变, 此结论也适用于β波平均频带功率 (Zhang & Tang, 2011)。

本研究利用情绪效价-唤醒度框架, 通过控制环境因素(音乐、灯光颜色)的组合, 分析环境因素对被试情绪的影响。为避免灯光的波长与颜色交互影响, 本研究使用可控变色灯进行灯光颜色实验。利用定量脑电图独立频段数据采集的技术, 单独考察环境因素对α波、β波频率和频带功率的影响以及各个频段与情绪的关系。情绪效价根据大脑左右半球不对称理论将左脑半球α频谱功率减去右脑半球α频谱功率, 正值表示左脑半球比右脑半球有更高的活动反应, 表示积极情绪效价状态; 同理, 负值表示消极情绪效价。唤醒度是基于精神压力, 利用β频带在压力上的数值特点, 计算β频带功率与α频带功率的比值, 以此显示活跃度与非活跃度的状态(Brookhuis & de Waard, 2001)。

实验假设, 在情绪效价-唤醒度框架上, 两种正相关情绪的环境因素叠加后可能对情绪影响作用加强, 被试情绪效价和唤醒度变化程度在双因素刺激时可能大于单因素刺激, 即被试情绪变化程度更大。两种负相关情绪的环境因素叠加后可能对情绪影响作用减弱, 被试情绪效价和唤醒度可能主要受影响情绪更强的因素影响, 即被试情绪变化程度小于任意一种环境因素单独刺激的情绪变化程度(Bylsma, Morris, & Rottenberg, 2008)。在EEG生理指标上, 双环境因素比单环境因素可能更容易诱发α波和β波频带功率出现更大波幅。被试初始状态不同, 环境因素影响效果可能也不同。当被试初始状态为积极时, 环境因素对α波频谱功率振幅影响较小, β波频谱功率振幅影响可能较大; 当被试初始状态为消极时, α波振幅较大, β波振幅较小。根据已有EEG实验和10/20电极设置(International 10/20 system)通过左脑半球(AF3、F7、F3、FC5、T7、P7、O1)和右脑半球(AF4、F8、F4、FC6、T8、P8、02)采集到的EEG数据与情绪的相关性高。以往的研究更多分析环境因素与情绪词汇的联系, 较少分析单双环境因素对EEG数据的影响。在单环境因素刺激下, 情绪词汇可能更容易给予被试心理暗示使EEG信号振幅较小, 大脑皮层的频谱图可能比较平滑, 噪声较少; 在双环境情绪因素刺激下, 环境因素强于情绪词汇对大脑的影响使EEG信号振幅较大, 大脑皮层的频谱图可能噪声和毛刺较大。

2 实验1:音乐和灯光因素单独作用对情绪的影响

2.1 实验目的

探讨4种音乐调式(西方大调和小调, 东方宫调和羽调)和3种原色灯光(红色、蓝色、绿色)对中国被试的单因素情绪诱发效应, 考察被试在聆听音乐和感受灯光过程中单环境因素的情绪体验和脑电特征。

2.2 方法

2.2.1 被试

21名自愿实验的本科生和研究生被试(男生11人, 女生10人, 年龄在20~25岁之间)。全部被试都是第一次参与本次实验, 并且没有参与过相似的实验, 也未填写过相似的实验材料, 同时医疗档案中没有关于脑部疾病、色盲、听力问题的记录。在实验之前, 被试被告知这次实验的流程。

2.2.2 实验材料和器材

实验中的音乐材料, 参照Bakker和Martin (2015)和白学军、马谐和陶云(2016)的实验流程, 并请音乐学院的学生从《贝多芬钢琴奏鸣曲集》、《钢琴基础教程》和古筝教学教材中选取4种音乐调式(大调和小调、宫调和羽调), 每一种调式截取3个选段作为刺激(Bakker & Martin, 2015; 白学军等, 2016), 且采用中-西音乐相结合来避免实验局限于一种音乐调式。为提高音乐调式在实验中对情绪效价和唤醒度的准确性, 我们选取的西方音乐大、小调统一为C调, 东方音乐宫调、羽调统一为C和D调(材料节选如图1所示)。实验灯光材料参考已有研究Park等(2013), 选用可控变色灯进行实验, 灯泡光源发出三原色(红、蓝、绿)作为灯光颜色刺激。此外, 对招募的20个人进行音乐和灯光颜色的情绪效价和唤醒度评定。结果显示, 音乐调式和灯光颜色在情绪效价(p < 0.001)和唤醒度(p< 0.001)上均有显著差异。以5作为情绪效价和唤醒度的基准线, t检验结果显示, 大调音乐(p < 0.001)、宫调音乐(p < 0.005)、红色灯光(p = 0.02)及绿色灯光(p = 0.02)属于积极情绪刺激, 小调音乐(p = 0.005)和羽调音乐(p = 0.004)属于消极情绪刺激。

图1

图1   实验1材料节选


实验中脑电信号的采集, 选用Emotiv公司的EPOC+脑电波检测仪记录被试的α波、β波频带功率值, 采样频率为500 Hz。实验中灯光颜色刺激通过LED变色控制系统呈现, 波长可控范围为(480~630 nm), 实验中音乐刺激通过笔记本电脑和线控式耳机播放。

2.2.3 实验设计

实验控制4种音乐调式(大调和小调、宫调和羽调)和3种灯光颜色(红、蓝、绿), 一共组成7组单因素实验条件:大调音乐、小调音乐、宫调音乐、羽调音乐、红色灯光、蓝色灯光、绿色灯光。被试进入一个隔音良好的实验室中, 主试介绍实验任务并进行示范, 工作人员帮助受试者佩戴脑电波测试仪、线控式耳机, 调整被试与LED灯源的距离。随机挑选白炽灯条件和两首音乐对被试进行3次练习, 接着在白炽灯、无噪声环境下完成3道20以内加减混合运算数学题以调整被试的情绪。

正式实验前, LED灯呈关闭状态, 被试佩戴耳机且无播放音乐。实验条件顺序如图2所示。前4组音乐刺激实验流程为:填写SAM以完成情绪刺激前的情绪评定, 播放实验音乐材料。被试注意力在音乐刺激上, 避免其他刺激的干扰, 记录音乐刺激时被试的EEG数据, 刺激时间为20s。刺激结束后, 音乐停止。后3组灯光颜色刺激实验流程为:填写SAM以完成情绪刺激前的情绪评定, 进行灯光颜色刺激。被试注意力在灯光颜色刺激上, 避免其他刺激的干扰, 记录灯光颜色刺激时被试的EEG数据, 刺激时间为20 s。刺激结束后, 灯光关闭。每一个试次结束后, 被试需要填写音乐或者灯光颜色的SAM, 以评价接受刺激后的情绪。接着完成3道20以内混合运算的计算题, 使被试达到心情的平复, 如果计算错误, 增加1 min休息时间。休息结束后, 进入下一个实验试次, 重复进行实验, 直至7组实验条件都完成一遍。共记录14条被试主观情绪数据, 及7组单环境因素影响的EEG数据。

图2

图2   实验顺序


2.3 数据结果和分析

实验基于EMOTIV公司的EPOC+脑电波检测仪(图3a)及EEG软件编程接口(application programming interface, API)建立实时情绪测量系统, 通过情绪效价-唤醒度框架对情绪进行定量脑电波(qEEG)分析。首先, 使用EPOC+脑电波检测仪记录相对应电极的EEG, 电极位置参照已有研究按照国际10-20系统设置(图3b)。研究表明当时域信号采用REST时, 可有效减小电极之间的相关性, 提高实验数据的准确性(Qin, Xu, & Yao, 2010)。本研究所用电信号为仪器经过CMS/DRL降噪配置处理后的频域信号, 设置P3、P4电极作为参照电极, 数据采集电极在左脑半球(AF3、F7、F3、FC5、T7、P7、O1)和右脑半球(AF4、F8、F4、FC6、T8、P8、02)。每次佩戴仪器时使用EmotivXavierControlPanel软件检测电极与大脑连接程度, 所有电极连接良好后再进行实验。电极采样频率为500Hz, 在EEG连续时域数据通过汉明窗转换成频域后, 在频域中直接读取α波(8~15 Hz)和β波(15~30 Hz)的平均频带功率, 每一个电极的频带功率在正则化后输入情绪效价-唤醒度模型。在包含二维坐标的可视化情绪板上, 纵坐标表示情绪效价, 横坐标表示唤醒度(Russel, 1980)。每个试次显示单环境因素刺激下被试情绪变化在二维坐标移动趋势, 可用于分析刺激的情绪标签与对被试情绪影响是否一致。

图3

图3   脑电检测仪及电极设置


分别对每个实验条件下的情绪效价, 唤醒度进行叠加和取平均, 最终得到由音乐调式(大调和小调、宫调和羽调)和灯光颜色(红色、蓝色、绿色)组成的7组qEEG实验数据(大调音乐、小调音乐、宫调音乐、羽调音乐、红色灯光、蓝色灯光、绿色灯光)。由于本实验研究单环境因素对被试情绪的影响, 为防止光照强度在第四试次以后作为第三环境因素影响实验结果, 被试距离灯光位置保持不变, 且被试不能直接注视光源, 防止残影效应导致下一次试次灯光波长的叠加。每位被试共进行7个试次, 每个试次的情绪变化通过情绪效价-唤醒度图可视化。对于测出的平均频谱功率进行单环境因素测量方差分析。

2.3.1 主观结果

按照音乐4(大调、小调、宫调、羽调)加上灯光3(红色、蓝色、绿色)的实验设计, 记录每个被试的情绪效价和唤醒度(表1)。对音乐和灯光颜色进行重复测量方差分析, 结果表明, 情绪效价主效应显著, F(6, 120) = 2.26, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.10, 情绪效价的多重比较显示:大调音乐显著高于小调音乐(p = 0.015)和羽调音乐(p = 0.05); 小调音乐显著低于宫调音乐(p = 0.038); 宫调音乐显著高于小调音乐(p = 0.038)和羽调音乐(p = 0.04); 其他两个因素之间无显著差异。唤醒度主效应显著, F(6, 120) = 4.66, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.19, 唤醒度的多重比较显示:大调音乐显著高于小调音乐(p = 0.006)和羽调音乐(p = 0.004); 小调音乐显著低于宫调音乐(p = 0.002)、红色灯光(p = 0.05)、蓝色灯光(p = 0.044)、绿色灯光(p = 0.005); 宫调音乐显著高于羽调音乐(p = 0.002); 羽调音乐显著低于绿色灯光(p = 0.007); 其他两个因素之间无显著性差异。

表1   音乐和灯光颜色作为单环境因素影响被试的主观反应(n = 21)

主观感受 大调 小调 宫调 羽调 红色 蓝色 绿色
M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD
情绪效价 0.43 0.87 -0.62 1.56 0.52 1.33 -0.33 1.28 -0.14 1.20 0.00 1.83 0.29 1.00
唤醒度 0.62 1.07 -0.62 1.12 0.76 0.94 -0.43 0.98 0.05 1.24 0.24 1.38 0.48 0.93

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2.3.2 qEEG结果

按照实验设计, 记录被试的EEG情感计算的情绪效价和唤醒度(表2)。对音乐和灯光颜色进行单因素方差分析, 结果显示, 情绪效价主效应显著, F(6, 120) = 6.25, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.24, 情绪效价的多重比较显示:大调音乐显著高于小调音乐(p = 0.002)和羽调音乐(p = 0.04); 小调音乐显著低于宫调音乐(p = 0.002)、红色灯光(p = 0.009)、蓝色灯光(p = 0.02)和绿色灯光(p < 0.001); 宫调音乐显著高于羽调音乐(p = 0.001)、蓝色灯光(p = 0.005); 羽调音乐显著低于蓝色灯光(p = 0.04); 其他两个因素之间无显著性差异。唤醒度无显著性差异。

3 实验2:音乐和灯光双环境因素作用对情绪的影响

3.1 实验目的

探讨4种音乐调式(西方大调和小调, 东方宫调和羽调)和3种原色灯光(红色、蓝色、绿色)对中国被试的双环境因素情绪诱发效应, 考察被试在聆听音乐和感受灯光过程中双环境因素的情绪体验和脑电特征。

3.2 方法

3.2.1 被试

同实验1。

3.2.2 实验材料和器材

同实验1。

3.2.3 实验设计

将实验灯光颜色(红色、蓝色、绿色)与音乐调式(大调、小调、宫调、羽调)组成12组。实验条件为:3种灯光颜色与4种音乐调式组合成3×4种实验条件。其它同实验1。重复实验, 直至12组实验条件都完成一遍, 共记录24条被试主观情绪数据, 及240 s双环境因素影响的EEG数据。

3.3 数据结果和分析

情绪测量及分析方法同实验1, 分别对每个实验条件下的情绪效价, 唤醒度进行叠加和取平均。此外, 实验中灯光颜色和音乐刺激同时施加, 以避免某刺激单独影响被试。每位被试共进行12试次, 每个试次的情绪变化通过情绪效价-唤醒度图可视化。对于测出的平均频谱功率进行双环境因素测量方差分析。

3.3.1 主观结果

按照音乐(大调、小调、宫调、羽调)和灯光(红、蓝、绿)12种组合的实验设计, 记录每个实验组被试的情绪效价和唤醒度(表3)。以情绪效价为因变量, 双环境因素重复测量方差分析, 结果显示:音乐调式主效应显著, F(6, 120) = 7.79, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.29, 多重比较结果显示:大调音乐显著高于小调音乐(p = 0.003)和羽调音乐(p < 0.001); 小调音乐显著低于宫调音乐(p = 0.018); 宫调音乐显著高于羽调音乐(p = 0.008)。灯光颜色主效应和音乐调式类型与灯光颜色交互作用均无显著差异。以唤醒度为因变量, 双环境因素重复测量方差分析, 结果显示:音乐调式主效应显著, F(6, 120) = 13.03, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.41, 多重比较结果显示:大调音乐显著高于小调音乐(p < 0.001)和羽调音乐(p < 0.001); 小调音乐显著低于宫调音乐(p = 0.001); 宫调音乐显著高于羽调音乐(p = 0.004)。灯光颜色主效应显

著, F(6, 120) = 3.25, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.15, 多重比较结果显示:蓝色灯光显著高于绿色灯光(p = 0.05)。音乐调式类型与灯光颜色交互作用均无显著差异。

3.3.2 qEEG结果

qEEG数据记录每个实验组下被试的情绪效价和唤醒度(表4)。以情绪效价为因变量, 双环境因素重复测量方差分析显示:音乐调式主效应显著, F(6, 120) = 5.77, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.423。多重比较结果显示:大调音乐边缘显著高于小调音乐(p = 0.05)和羽调音乐(p = 0.006); 小调音乐显著低于宫调音乐(p = 0.025); 宫调音乐显著高于羽调音乐(p = 0.005)。灯光颜色主效应和音乐调式类型与灯光颜色交互作用均无显著差异。以唤醒度为因变量, 结果显示:音乐调式、灯光颜色主效应和音乐调式类型与灯光颜色交互作用均无显著差异。

表3   音乐和灯光颜色作为双环境因素影响被试的主观反应(n = 20)

主观感受 大调 小调 宫调 羽调
M SD M SD M SD M SD
情绪效价
红光 0.20 1.11 -0.40 1.23 0.60 1.05 -0.10 1.02
蓝光 0.95 1.15 -0.50 1.24 0.55 1.10 -0.45 1.28
绿光 0.55 1.15 0.00 1.34 0.30 1.17 -0.20 0.70
唤醒度
红光 0.35 1.23 -0.60 1.05 0.40 1.23 -0.50 1.00
蓝光 0.60 1.00 -0.45 1.61 0.80 1.47 0.20 0.89
绿光 0.75 1.29 -1.15 2.01 0.05 1.05 -0.50 0.69

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表4   音乐和灯光颜色作为双环境因素影响被试的生理反应(n = 20)

生理反应 大调 小调 宫调 羽调
M SD M SD M SD M SD
情绪效价
红光 -0.10 1.52 -0.35 1.20 0.77 1.83 -0.57 0.87
蓝光 0.47 1.14 -0.73 1.65 0.02 1.15 -0.78 1.45
绿光 0.19. 1.49 -0.40 0.98 0.12 1.48 -0.73 1.44
唤醒度
红光 0.13 1.46 0.00 1.28 -0.24 1.71 0.26 1.24
蓝光 0.27 1.05 -0.32 2.03 0.09 1.86 0.03 1.79
绿光 0.03 1.29 0.07 0.74 0.17 1.08 -0.50 2.16

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4 讨论

4.1 音乐和灯光颜色的情绪标签

被试对音乐调式评价分析, 不同音乐调式的情绪标签差异明显。音乐的情绪效价标签显示, 在东方音乐中, 宫调的情绪效价大于羽调的情绪效价; 在西方音乐中, 大调的情绪效价大于小调的情绪效价, 并且宫调音乐和大调音乐是积极情绪影响, 羽调和小调是消极情绪影响。因为东方宫调音乐和西方大调音乐宽广明亮、节奏快速; 东方羽调音乐和西方小调音乐阴暗忧郁, 节奏慢速(Bakker & Martin, 2015; Bresin & Friberg, 2011; 白学军等, 2016)。通过分析得出西方音乐调式差异大于东方音乐调式差异, 由于情绪刺激材料中, 西方音乐的C大调、C小调每一节符合自然大调和自然小调的七声。而东方音乐的宫调、羽调符合东方调式的五声。西方大、小调体系中, 使用大、小三度音程突出大调的明亮特性, 小调的暗淡特性。东方音乐的宫、商调体系中, 使用二度音程使音乐旋律流畅、清晰。使得西方音乐调式区分度大于东方音乐调式, 易于被试对西方音乐调式进行标签(李虻, 2007; Juslin, Liljeström, Västfjäll, Barradas, & Silva, 2008; 施忠, 2010)。音乐评价的唤醒度标签显示, 在东方音乐中, 宫调的唤醒度大于羽调的唤醒度; 在西方音乐中, 大调的唤醒度大于小调的唤醒度, 并且宫调音乐和大调音乐是正性唤醒度, 羽调音乐和小调音乐是负性唤醒度。结果与以往中西方音乐的研究不同(白学军等, 2016), 标签评价分析发现, 西方音乐大调的唤醒度大于东方音乐宫调的唤醒度, 西方音乐小调的唤醒度大于东方音乐羽调唤醒度。正如上文所述, 东方的宫调、羽调音乐是五声调式, 在音乐情绪表达方面弱于西方七声调式, 使被试对东方音乐刺激材料产生较弱的唤醒度(耿元卿, 2013; 李虻, 2007; Liu, Niu, Feng, & Liu, 2014)。

被试对灯光颜色评价分析, 不同灯光颜色的情绪标签差异明显。灯光颜色的情绪效价标签显示, 蓝色灯光的情绪效价小于绿色灯光的情绪效价; 绿色灯光的情绪效价与红色灯光的情绪效价无显著差异。通过分析得出:蓝色灯光是消极情绪刺激, 红色灯光和绿色灯光是积极情绪刺激。与之前Elliot, Maier, Moller, Friedman和Meinhardt (2007)与Sutton和Altarriba (2016)的研究结果一致, 积极情绪词汇通常对应颜色排名为红色、绿色、蓝色。此外, 灯光颜色评价的唤醒度标签显示, 蓝色灯光的唤醒度小于绿色灯光的唤醒度; 绿色灯光的唤醒度小于红色灯光的唤醒度, 表明灯光颜色在唤醒度上的情绪影响分类与情绪效价相同。但是之前的研究也有不同的结果, 比如Sutton和Altarriba (2016)的研究认为红色是消极情绪词最常见的颜色, 其次是蓝色, 绿色; 还有Viola, James, Schlangen和Dijk (2008)表明, 蓝色灯光具有提高唤醒度的能力, 提高被试的表现。推测原因, 可能是西方被试认为红色与愤怒等消极词汇相联系, 中国文化中红色具有喜庆含义, 导致灯光颜色作为情绪刺激材料, 中国被试标签的差异; 还可能是照射灯光时间长短不同, 使被试对灯光有依赖性和疲劳性, 长时间的蓝光照射, 会加强对蓝色灯光的依赖并提高唤醒程度(Viola et al., 2008; Park, Ha, Ryu, Kim, & Jung, 2013)。

4.2 音乐调式和灯光颜色环境因素对情绪的影响

本研究采用qEEG技术和自我报告法分析了环境因素(音乐、灯光颜色)对情绪的影响。在实验1中, 音乐情绪效价和唤醒度的行为数据(表1)显示, 被试在大调音乐、宫调音乐刺激后, 对情绪效价和唤醒度有积极影响; 被试在小调音乐、羽调音乐刺激后, 对情绪效价和唤醒度有消极影响。在音乐对情绪的影响方面, 实验结果与Bakker和Martin (2015)、Jaimovic, Coghlan和Knapp (2012)和白学军等(2016)的实验结果一致, 大调音乐和宫调音乐在情感表达上表达积极情绪, 而小调音乐和羽调音乐表达的是消极情绪(Sutton & Altarriba, 2016; Vieillard et al., 2008)。根据qEEG的情绪效价和唤醒度数据(表2)显示, 在效价上大调音乐和宫调音乐都属于积极情绪刺激, 小调音乐和羽调音乐属于消极情绪刺激。与行为数据结果和大部分实验研究结果(Bakker & Martin, 2015; 蔡之幸, 张振贤, 吴丽丽, 余元殊, 2015; Jaimovich et al., 2012; Koelsch et al., 2010; Vieillard et al., 2008; 王金芳, 张宁, 2009)相同, 证明音乐调式对情绪效价和脑电波影响有一致性, 但在唤醒度上没有发现显著差异。推测其原因, 可能是小调音乐会使被试的大脑额叶部位的β频带功率大于大调音乐(Jenni et al., 2017), 使得情感悲伤, 调速缓慢的音乐计算出较高的唤醒度, 令不同调式音乐对情绪影响无法形成显著差异。

表2   音乐和灯光颜色作为单环境因素影响被试的生理反应(n = 21)

生理反应 大调 小调 宫调 羽调 红色 蓝色 绿色
M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD
情绪效价 0.42 1.42 -1.26 1.56 0.72 0.90 -0.34 0.99 -0.43 1.36 -0.15 0.90 0.35 1.11
唤醒度 -0.06 1.17 -0.08 1.01 0.03 0.70 0.08 1.31 0.02 0.86 -0.09 1.05 0.10 0.92

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分析灯光颜色刺激情绪效价和唤醒度的行为数据, 结果(表1)显示, 被试经过红色、蓝色和绿色灯光刺激后, 唤醒度显著大于小调音乐。但是3种颜色之间并没有出现主效应显著, 与之前Elliot和Maier (2014)的研究结果不一致。其原因一方面可能是在安静、无干扰的环境下, 被试的情绪更趋近于平静状态, 仅有灯光颜色一种情绪刺激改变还不足以使被试的心情发生明显的变化; 另一方面可能是被试的情绪确实被灯光颜色改变所影响, 但是变化还不足以使被试发现自己情绪的变化。根据qEEG的情绪效价和唤醒度数据(表2), 红色灯光在情绪效价对被试产生消极影响, 而在唤醒度产生积极影响; 而蓝色灯光在两方面都是消极影响; 只有绿色灯光在情绪效价和唤醒度上都能产生积极影响且其影响大于其他两种颜色。虽然3种颜色之间没有出现显著性差异, 但是与以往研究相同, 如Yoto, Katsuura, Iwanaga和Shimomura (2007)的研究结论, 在观察颜色刺激时, 红色对被试情绪的β波频带功率的影响大于蓝色。

在实验2中双环境因素刺激与单环境因素刺激作对比。音乐灯光的行为数据(表3)整体分析表明, 在音乐与灯光颜色刺激作用下, 两者交互作用不明显, 音乐调式主效应显著, 大调、宫调音乐对情绪效价和唤醒度是积极影响; 小调、羽调音乐对情绪效价和唤醒度是消极影响。表明同时给予视觉和听觉刺激时, 听觉占据主导影响位置, 即大脑更倾向于分析音乐的情感内容(Lee et al., 2017; Oechslin, van de Ville, Lazeyras, Hauert, & James, 2013)。细致分析显示, 不同颜色灯光与音乐调式组合会产生与单环境因素不同的结论。比如从情绪效价上分析, 红色灯光不仅抑制了大调和宫调音乐的积极影响, 还抑制了小调和羽调音乐的消极影响; 此外, 蓝色和绿色灯光都促进了西方调式音乐的积极影响, 但也抑制了东方调式音乐的消极影响。说明当音乐和灯光进行互补会增强情绪的影响(Lee et al., 2017)。再比如唤醒度上分析, 红色、绿色灯光促进了大调和宫调音乐的积极影响, 却抑制了小调和羽调音乐的消极影响; 红色、绿色灯光与音乐对情绪的影响不相同, 推测其原因, 可能是音乐调式使人产生共鸣, 产生联想。当红色灯光符合联想场景可以促进情绪状态的改变, 反之抑制情绪的转变。当联想的场景为欢庆喜悦时, 红色灯光令人有温暖、幸福之感, 当联想的场景为悲惨凄凉时, 红色灯光使人恐怖、恐惧(Elliot & Maier, 2014; Konečni, 2008; Sutton & Altarriba, 2016; Yoto et al., 2007; Park et al., 2013), 也可以认为灯光颜色与受试的经历有密切关系。

音乐灯光qEEG数据(表4)整体分析表明, 与行为结果结论相同音乐调式在情绪效价上主效应显著, 两者交互作用不明显。大调、宫调音乐对情绪有积极影响, 小调、羽调对情绪有消极影响。根据上文分析听觉优势的特点, 以及结合脑部不对称理论, 可知即使灯光颜色对情绪没有影响, 但是在脑部不同区域或者频段都会做出相应的反应。比如Plitnick, Figueiro, Wood和Rea (2010)实验表明β波频带功率可以测量昏暗条件下对被试紧张度的影响; Shin等人(2015)研究表明θ波频带功率可以作为不同灯光环境反映情绪状态的标志。以上结果都说明可以从多方面测量灯光颜色对情绪的影响(Hsu et al., 2018; Maher et al., 2001; Shin et al., 2015)。从情绪效价和唤醒度综合分析, 红色灯光促进音乐对情绪积极影响; 绿色灯光抑制音乐对情绪积极影响; 蓝色灯光促进西方音乐对情绪效价的积极影响, 但是对东方古典音乐却是抑制这种影响。这与之前讨论的情况相符合, 红色灯光营造一种暖色调氛围调节情绪向积极的方向, 这种调节作用大于蓝色或者绿色的能力(Tantanatewin & Inkarojrit, 2016)。但蓝色灯光依然能产生积极的影响, 比如Iskra-Golec等(2012)等人的研究结论发现, 因为由于蓝色属于冷色系列, 容易让人产生消极的影响, 但是能使人感觉到愉悦, 即蓝光对被试影响为平静和满足。

4.3 情绪标签与影响情绪的一致程度

综合音乐、灯光颜色和情绪标签的结果。单环境因素对情绪的影响实验表明:从音乐分析, 音乐情绪标签与音乐对情绪影响的匹配程度达到100%, 即表示, 音乐调式携带的情绪会影响听者, 并诱导听者向其携带的情绪改变; 从灯光颜色分析, 蓝色和绿色灯光符合情绪标签与情绪影响的一致性, 红色灯光不满足一致性。可以证明红色作为中国传统喜庆颜色, 会直接给红色标签为积极情绪, 但是在情绪影响上往往是令人感到恐惧、警告等消极影响(Elliot & Maier, 2014; Elliot et al., 2007; Sutton & Altarriba, 2016)。双环境因素对情绪的影响实验表明:根据听觉优势的特点, 音乐调式对情绪影响的强度大于灯光颜色对情绪影响的强度, 所以满足情绪标签与双环境因素对情绪影响的一致性(Lee et al., 2017)。

5 结论

在本实验条件下可得出如下结论:(1)通过qEEG技术研究不同类型的音乐调式和灯光颜色对人情绪的影响是可行的。(2)大调、宫调音乐和绿色灯光产生积极情绪影响, 小调、羽调音乐和红色灯光产生消极情绪影响。(3)音乐和灯光双环境因素对情绪同时刺激时, 具有交互作用, 情绪正相关影响双环境因素对情绪影响有加强, 负相关影响双环境因素对情绪影响有削弱。(4)在灯光颜色与音乐作为双环境因素刺激被试时, 主要由音乐调式影响情绪变化, 但是灯光颜色与音乐调式组合时, 对情绪影响程度依然有显著差异。红、蓝、绿三色的灯光刺激, 唤醒度均大于小调音乐。(5)音乐刺激本身具有的情绪信息与被试被诱发的情绪相一致, 灯光颜色的情绪标签与被试被影响的情绪基本一致。

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Three alternative views regarding how Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) alters emotional reactivity have been featured in the literature: positive attenuation (reduced positive reactivity), negative potentiation (increased negative reactivity), and emotion context insensitivity (ECI; reduced positive and negative reactivity). Although empirical studies have accumulated on emotional reactivity in MDD, this report is to our knowledge the first systematic quantitative review of this topic area. In omnibus analyses of 19 laboratory studies comparing the emotional reactivity of healthy individuals to that of individuals with MDD, MDD was characterized by reduced emotional reactivity to both positively and negatively valenced stimuli, with the reduction larger for positive stimuli ( d =61.53) than for negative stimuli ( d =61.25). Results were similar when 3 major emotion response systems (self-reported experience, expressive behavior, and peripheral physiology) were analyzed individually. The ECI view of emotional reactivity in MDD is well supported by laboratory data. Implications for the understanding of emotions in MDD are discussed.

Cai Z. X., Zhang Z. X., Wu L. L., & Yu Y. S . ( 2013).

Clinical effect of Gong-tune of Wuxing-music therapy combination with “Lixu Jieyu Formula” in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome

Acta Universitatis Traditionis Medicalis Sinensis Pharmacologiaeque Shanghai,29( 3), 18-22.

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[ 蔡之幸, 张振贤, 吴丽丽, 余元殊 . ( 2015).

五行宫调(正调式)音乐联合理虚解郁方治疗慢性疲劳综合征临床观察

上海中医药大学学报, 29( 3), 18- 22.]

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Cook I. A., O'Hara R., Uijtdehaage S. H., Mandelkern M., & Leuchter A. F . ( 1998).

Assessing the accuracy of topographic EEG mapping for determining local brain function

Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology,107( 6), 408-414.

URL     PMID:9922086      [本文引用: 2]

There has been considerable discussion regarding the accuracy of topographic electroencephalographic (EEG) maps for assessing local cerebral function. We performed this study to test the accuracy of EEG mapping by examining the association between electrical activity and the perfusion under each electrode as another measure of local cerebral function. EEG mapping was performed simultaneously with (H15)2O positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in 6 normal adult subjects, both at rest and during a simple motor task. EEG data were processed using 3 different montages; two EEG power measures (absolute and relative power) were examined. Relative power had much stronger associations with perfusion than did absolute power. In addition, calculating power for bipolar electrode pairs and averaging power over electrode pairs sharing a common electrode yielded stronger associations with perfusion than data from referential or single source montages. These findings indicate (1) that topographic EEG mapping can accurately reflect local brain function in a way that is comparable to other methods, and (2) that the choice of EEG measure and montage have a significant influence on the degree with which maps reflect this local activity and function.

Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A . ( 2014).

Color psychology: Effects of perceiving color on psychological functioning in humans

Annual Review of Psychology,65, 95-120.

URL     PMID:23808916      [本文引用: 3]

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual stimulus that is often considered in terms of aesthetics. Here we review theoretical and empirical work that looks beyond color aesthetics to the link between color and psychological functioning in . We begin by setting a historical context for research in this area, particularly highlighting methodological issues that hampered earlier empirical work. We proceed to overview theoretical and methodological advances during the past decade and conduct a review of emerging empirical findings. Our empirical review focuses especially on color in achievement and affiliation/attraction contexts, but it also covers work on consumer as well as food and beverage evaluation and consumption. The review clearly shows that color can carry important meaning and can have an important impact on people's affect, , and . The literature remains at a nascent stage of , however, and we note that considerable work on boundary conditions, moderators, and real-world generalizability is needed before strong conceptual statements and recommendations for application are warranted. We provide suggestions for future research and conclude by emphasizing the broad promise of research in this area.

Elliot A. J., Maier M. A., Moller A. C., Friedman R., & Meinhardt J . ( 2007).

Color and psychological functioning: The effect of red on performance attainment

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,136( 1), 154-168.

URL     PMID:17324089      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This research focuses on the relation between color and psychological functioning, specifically, that between red and performance attainment. Red is hypothesized to impair performance on achievement tasks, because red is associated with the danger of failure in achievement contexts and evokes avoidance motivation. Four experiments demonstrate that the brief perception of red prior to an important test (e.g., an IQ test) impairs performance, and this effect appears to take place outside of participants' conscious awareness. Two further experiments establish the link between red and avoidance motivation as indicated by behavioral (i.e., task choice) and psychophysiological (i.e., cortical activation) measures. The findings suggest that care must be taken in how red is used in achievement contexts and illustrate how color can act as a subtle environmental cue that has important influences on behavior. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

Figueiro M. G., Bierman A., Plitnick B., & Rea M. S . ( 2009).

Preliminary evidence that both blue and red light can induce alertness at night

BMC Neuroscience,10, 105.

URL     PMID:2744917      [本文引用: 2]

Background A variety of studies have demonstrated that retinal light exposure can increase alertness at night. It is now well accepted that the circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light and is quite insensitive to long-wavelength (red) light. Retinal exposures to blue light at night have been recently shown to impact alertness, implicating participation by the circadian system. The present experiment was conducted to look at the impact of both blue and red light at two different levels on nocturnal alertness. Visually effective but moderate levels of red light are ineffective for stimulating the circadian system. If it were shown that a moderate level of red light impacts alertness, it would have had to occur via a pathway other than through the circadian system. Methods Fourteen subjects participated in a within-subject two-night study, where each participant was exposed to four experimental lighting conditions. Each night each subject was presented a high (40 lx at the cornea) and a low (10 lx at the cornea) diffuse light exposure condition of the same spectrum (blue, ??max = 470 nm, or red, ??max = 630 nm). The presentation order of the light levels was counterbalanced across sessions for a given subject; light spectra were counterbalanced across subjects within sessions. Prior to each lighting condition, subjects remained in the dark (< 1 lx at the cornea) for 60 minutes. Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, electrocardiogram (ECG), psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), self-reports of sleepiness, and saliva samples for melatonin assays were collected at the end of each dark and light periods. Results Exposures to red and to blue light resulted in increased beta and reduced alpha power relative to preceding dark conditions. Exposures to high, but not low, levels of red and of blue light significantly increased heart rate relative to the dark condition. Performance and sleepiness ratings were not strongly affected by the lighting conditions. Only the higher level of blue light resulted in a reduction in melatonin levels relative to the other lighting conditions. Conclusion These results support previous findings that alertness may be mediated by the circadian system, but it does not seem to be the only light-sensitive pathway that can affect alertness at night.

Geng, Y. Q . ( 2013).

Effects research of Baduanjin & five-notes-music on the mental sub-health state (Unpublished doctorial dissertation)

. Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine.

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[ 耿元卿 . ( 2013).

八段锦和五行音乐对心理亚健康状态干预作用的研究(博士学位论文)

南京中医药大学. ]

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Gilbert A. N., Fridlund A. J., & Lucchina L. A . ( 2016).

The color of emotion: A metric for implicit color associations

Food Quality and Preference,52, 203-210.

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Color cues impact the chemosensory perception of foods and beverages. Evidence suggests that color exerts these effects through a link with emotion. In this study, color associations to 20 emotion terms were obtained by having 194 participants use a touch-screen display to select a matching color. The resulting color matches were displayed visually and their coordinates in the L 65 a 65 b 65 system were analyzed statistically. Matching colors were found to differ as a function of emotion, with participants’ age and sex somewhat moderating color matches. Color matches were also obtained to nine beverage-related sensory scenarios. The results indicate that consumers have pre-existing expectations regarding the appropriate color for specific flavors and types of drinks. Quantitative assessment of color-emotion associations may help clarify the cross-modal effects of color on taste and smell.

Hsu J. L., Zhen Y. L., Lin T. C., & Chiu Y. S . ( 2018).

Affective content analysis of music emotion through EEG

Multimedia Systems,24: 195-210.

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Emotion recognition of music objects is a promising and important research issues in the field of music information retrieval. Usually, music emotion recognition could be considered as a training/clas

Iskra-Golec I. M., Wazna A., & Smith L . ( 2012).

Effects of blue-enriched light on the daily course of mood, sleepiness and light perception: A field experiment

Lighting Research & Technology,44( 4), 506-513.

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Jaimovich J., Coghlan N., & Knapp R. B . ( 2012).

Emotion in motion: A study of music and affective response. In M. Aramaki, M. Barthet, B. Kronland-Martinet, & S. Ystad (Eds.)

From sounds to music and emotions (vol.7900, pp. 19-43). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

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Jenni R., Oechslin M. S., & James C. E . ( 2017).

Impact of major and minor mode on EEG frequency range activities of music processing as a function of expertise

Neuroscience Letters,647, 159-164.

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Juslin P. N., Liljeström S., Västfjäll D., Barradas G., & Silva A . ( 2008).

An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: Listener, music, and situation

Emotion,8( 5), 668-683.

URL     PMID:18837617      [本文引用: 1]

The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence.

Kaya, N., & Epps, H. H . ( 2004).

Relationship between color and emotion: A study of college students

College Student Journal,38( 3), 396-405.

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Ninety-eight college students were asked to indicate their emotional responses to five...

Knez, I. ( 1995).

Effects of indoor lighting on mood and cognition

Journal of Environmental Psychology,15( 1), 39-51.

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Two experiments investigated the effect of indoor lighting on cognitive performance via mood. Experiment 1 varied two lighting parameters in a factorial, between-subject design: two illuminance levels (dim; 300 lx vs bright; 1500 lx) by two colour temperatures ('warm' white; 3000K vs 'cool' white; 4000K) at high CRI (Colour Rendering Index; 95). In experiment 2 the parameters of lighting were identical to the first experiment, except for the low CRI (CRI; 55). In both experiments gender was introduced as an additional grouping factor. Results in experiment 1 showed that a colour temperature which induced the least negative mood enhanced the performance in the long-term memory and problem-solving tasks, in both genders. In experiment 2, the combination of colour temperature and illuminance that best preserved the positive mood in one gender enhanced this gender's performance in the problem-solving and free recall tasks. Thus, subjects' mood valences and their cognitive performances varied significantly with the genders' emotionally different reactions to the indoor lighting. This suggests, in practice, that the criteria for good indoor lighting may be revised, taking into account females' and males' emotional and cognitive responses as well.

Koelsch S., Fritz T., V Cramon D. Y., Müller K., & Friederici A. D . ( 2006).

Investigating emotion with music: An fMRI study

Human Brain Mapping,27( 3), 239-250.

URL     PMID:16078183      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract The present study used pleasant and unpleasant music to evoke emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural correlates of emotion processing. Unpleasant (permanently dissonant) music contrasted with pleasant (consonant) music showed activations of amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal poles. These structures have previously been implicated in the emotional processing of stimuli with (negative) emotional valence; the present data show that a cerebral network comprising these structures can be activated during the perception of auditory (musical) information. Pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music showed activations of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, inferior Brodmann's area (BA) 44, BA 45, and BA 46), the anterior superior insula, the ventral striatum, Heschl's gyrus, and the Rolandic operculum. IFG activations appear to reflect processes of music-syntactic analysis and working memory operations. Activations of Rolandic opercular areas possibly reflect the activation of mirror-function mechanisms during the perception of the pleasant tunes. Rolandic operculum, anterior superior insula, and ventral striatum may form a motor-related circuitry that serves the formation of (premotor) representations for vocal sound production during the perception of pleasant auditory information. In all of the mentioned structures, except the hippocampus, activations increased over time during the presentation of the musical stimuli, indicating that the effects of emotion processing have temporal dynamics; the temporal dynamics of emotion have so far mainly been neglected in the functional imaging literature. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Konečni V.J . ( 2008).

Does music induce emotion? A theoretical and methodological analysis

Psychology of Aesthetics,Creativity, and the Arts, 2( 2), 115-129.

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ABSTRACT Is music ubiquitous in part because it is causally linked to emotion? In this article, a comprehensive theoretical and methodological reevaluation is presented of a classical problem: The direct induction of emotion by music (M→E). The author's Prototypical Emotion-Episode Model (PEEM) is used in the conceptual critique. A close scrutiny of the major published studies, and the author's new data regarding some substantive and methodological issues in several of these, reveal weak support for the M→E model. The conclusion seems justified that music may induce low-grade basic emotions through mediators, such as dance and cognitive associations to real-world events. However, it is suggested--on the basis of the recently developed Aesthetic Trinity Theory (ATT; Kone00ni, 2005) and its further development in the present article--that being moved and aesthetic awe, often accompanied by thrills, may be the most genuine and profound music-related emotional states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Kroemer K. H. E., Kroemer H. B., & Kroemer-Elbert K. E . ( 1994).

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Effects of environmental colour on males and females: A red or white or green office

Applied Ergonomics,21( 4), 275-278.

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Abstract This experiment assessed the effects of a red versus a green versus a white office environment on worker productivity and mood. An equal number of males and females completed a mood questionnaire before and after proofreading in one of the three offices. It was predicted that the subjects in the red office would report more tension and possibly make more errors. However, the subjects in the red office made the fewest errors, while the subjects in the white office made the most errors. Females scored significantly better on the proofreading task, and reported more tension and less vigour than males in the experiment. Subjects who worked in the red office found the colour of their office more distracting than subjects who worked in and rated the white office. The subjects in the white office reported that they would like to work in this environment and considered this colour most appropriate for an office. The authors speculate that a sterile, white environment may not be as conducive to work as is believed.

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The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention

American Psychologist,50( 5), 372-385.

URL     PMID:7762889      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Emotions are action dispositions--states of vigilant readiness that vary widely in reported affect, physiology, and behavior. They are driven, however, by only 2 opponent motivational systems, appetitive and aversive--subcortical circuits that mediate reactions to primary reinforcers. Using a large emotional picture library, reliable affective psychophysiologies are shown, defined by the judged valence (appetitive/pleasant or aversive/unpleasant) and arousal of picture percepts. Picture-evoked affects also modulate responses to independently presented startle probe stimuli. In other words, they potentiate startle reflexes during unpleasant pictures and inhibit them during pleasant pictures, and both effects are augmented by high picture arousal. Implications are elucidated for research in basic emotions, psychopathology, and theories of orienting and defense. Conclusions highlight both the approach's constraints and promising paths for future study.

Lee I. E., Latchoumane C.-F. V., & Jeong J . ( 2017).

Arousal rules: An empirical investigation into the aesthetic experience of cross-modal perception with emotional visual music

Frontiers in Psychology,8, 440.

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Liu X. F., Niu X., Feng Q. J., & Liu Y. M . ( 2014).

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A control system for the remote activation of electronic devices, based on alpha-wave synchronisation, must be robust over a wide range of lighting conditions. This study investigates the effect that low light levels have on the increase in amplitude of the occipital alpha-wave component of the human electro-encephalogram spectrum in response to eye closure. Measurements of the time required for the amplitude of the occipital alpha wave to increase above a predetermined threshold, upon eye closure, were taken from 21 subjects and at four illuminances, ranging from 2×10 611 lx to 2×10 615 lx. The light source used to provide these illuminances was a featureless, uniformly illuminated white paper that subtended 30° of the visual field. Statistical analysis showed that the time to exceed threshold (TTET) upon eye closure was not independent (p<0.001) of illuminance, and that the main source of this lack of independence occurred at the lowest illuminance, 2×10 615 lx. At this luminance, the median TTET value was 15.0 s. However, at 2×10 614 lx, the median value of the TTET was 4.2 s. This is a sufficiently short time for device activation, and therefore a control system based on alpha-wave synchronisation is functional at very low light levels.

Meier B. P., Robinson M. D., & Clore G. L . ( 2004).

Why good guys wear white: Automatic inferences about stimulus valence based on brightness

Psychological Science,15( 2), 82-87.

URL     PMID:14738513     

Affect is a somewhat abstract concept that is frequently linked to physical metaphor. For example, good is often depicted as light (rather than dark), up (rather than down), and moving forward (rather than backward). The purpose of our studies was to examine whether the association between stimulus brightness and affect is optional or obligatory. In a series of three studies, participants categorized words as negative or positive. The valence of the words and the brightness of the letters were varied orthogonally. In Studies 1, 2, and 3, we found that categorization was inhibited when there was a mismatch between stimulus brightness (e.g., light) and word valence (e.g., negative). Studies 4 and 5 reveal boundary conditions for the effect. The studies suggest that, when making evaluations, people automatically assume that bright objects are good, whereas dark objects are bad.

Min B. K., Jung Y. C., Kim E., & Park J. Y . ( 2013).

Bright illumination reduces parietal EEG alpha activity during a sustained attention task

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61High illuminance yields longer reaction times during a sustained attention task.61High illuminance results in longer N1 latencies during a sustained attention task.61High illuminance yields lower parietal alpha activity during a sustained attention task.

Moharreri S., Rezaei S., Dabanloo N. J., & Parvaneh S . ( 2014).

Study of induced emotion by color stimuli: Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability

In Proceedings of 2014 computing in cardiology(pp. 977-980) . Cambridge, MA, USA: IEEE.

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The current study analyzed heart rate variability in the frequency domain to study the effect of different colors on the autonomic nervous system and emotions induced by different colors. Sixteen female volunteers were presented with four different colors on a digital screen as a visual stimulus while the lead II of ECG was recorded. For assessment of induced emotion by colors, validated Self-Assessment Manikin Test were used. Effects of colors on power spectrum of HRV were reported. The results showed that red and yellow increased power in high frequency (p<;1E-4). Also, the value of low frequency power in response to yellow and green were less than control state.

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Basic hue-meaning associations

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Naranjo C., Kornreich C., Campanella S., Noël X., Vandriette Y., & Gillain B., … Constant E . ( 2011).

Major depression is associated with impaired processing of emotion in music as well as in facial and vocal stimuli

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Oechslin M. S., van de Ville D., Lazeyras F., Hauert C.-A., & James C. E . ( 2013).

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Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing.

Park J. Y., Ha R.-Y., Ryu V., Kim E., & Jung Y.-C . ( 2013).

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An EEG-based dual-channel imaginary motion classification for brain computer interface (Unpublished master’s thesis)

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Enhancing performance of EEG-based emotion recognition systems using feature smoothing

.In S. Arik, T. W. Huang, W. K. Lai, & Q. S. Liu (Eds.), Neural information processing (vol.9492, pp.95-102). Cham, Germany: Springer.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used recently in emotion recognition. However, the drawback of current EEG-based emotion recognition systems is that the correlation between EEG and emotion characteristics is not taken into account. There are the differences among EEG features, even with the same emotion state in adjacent time because EEG extracted features usually change dramatically, while emotion states vary gradually or smoothly. In addition, EEG signals are very weak and subject to contamination from many artefact signals, thus leading to an accuracy reduction of emotion recognition systems. In this paper, we study on feature smoothing on EEG-based Emotion Recognition Model to overcome those disadvantages. The proposed methodology was examined on two useful kinds of features: power spectral density (PSD) and autoregressive (AR) for two-level class and three-level class using DEAP database. Our experimental results showed that feature smoothing affects to both the feature sets, and increases the emotion recognition accuracy. The highest accuracies are 77.38 % for two-level classes and 71.75 % for three-level classes, respectively in valence space.

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This study was designed to explore the roles that long- and short-wavelength lights have on momentary mood and alertness at night. Twenty-two subjects participated in a mixed-design experiment, where we measured the impact of two levels of long- and short-wavelength lights on brain activity and on self-assessments of alertness, sleepiness and mood. Measurements were obtained 60 minutes prior to, during and after light exposure. Results showed that the red and the blue lights increased electroencephalographic beta power (12鈥30 Hz), reduced sleepiness, and increased positive affect relative to the previous dim-light period indicating that alertness and mood can be affected by light without necessarily stimulating the melatonin pathway. The impact of light was modest, however, compared to the increase in fatigue over the course of the night.

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Abstract In a sham-controlled design (n = 12), slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 20 min, and the subsequent effects on mood and the EEG spectrum were investigated, Analysis revealed a significant left hemisphere increase in EEG theta activity at 25-35 and 55-65 min after stimulation. In addition, participants reported significant decrease in anxiety immediately after stimulation, as well as 35 and 65 min after rTMS. These findings indicate that reductions in anxiety after slow rTMS at the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are associated with a contralateral increase in theta activity.

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In retail design, the use of color and light are important design techniques which aim to attract customers and increase market opportunities. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of color and lighting on impression and identity of a bank sub-branch in Thailand. In this study, 144 research participants evaluated six computer-generated scenes with different color hues, lighting arrangements and correlated color temperatures using a semantic differential scaling method. The results show that different color and lighting conditions significantly affect both the impression of space and perception of retail identity. The results indicate that bank sub-branch space with chromatic conditions, especially space with warm color tone and colored-light, received a higher positive score of impression and identity. To fully understand the effect of color and lighting on space perception and retail identity, this study suggests that other color properties should be examined.

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Cognition and Emotion,22( 4), 720-752.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Three experiments were conducted in order to validate 56 musical excerpts that conveyed four intended emotions (happiness, sadness, threat and peacefulness). In Experiment 1, the musical clips were rated in terms of how clearly the intended emotion was portrayed, and for valence and arousal. In Experiment 2, a gating paradigm was used to evaluate the course for emotion recognition. In Experiment 3, a dissimilarity judgement task and multidimensional scaling analysis were used to probe emotional content with no emotional labels. The results showed that emotions are easily recognised and discriminated on the basis of valence and arousal and with relative immediacy. Happy and sad excerpts were identified after the presentation of fewer than three musical events. With no labelling, emotion discrimination remained highly accurate and could be mapped on energetic and tense dimensions. The present study provides suitable musical material for research on emotions.Keywords.

Viola A. U., James L. M., Schlangen L. J., & Dijk D.-J . ( 2008).

Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality

Scandinavian Journal of Work,Environment & Health, 34( 4), 297-306.

[本文引用: 1]

Wang J.F., &Zhang N. ( 2009).

Effect of the Yu-tone music to reduction of fear emotion

Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medicine and Brain Science,18( 4), 354-356.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的 探讨羽调音乐对恐惧情绪的缓解作用.方法 招募72名大学生通过观看恐怖影片片断诱发恐惧情绪,后听音乐或休息,分别比较两者的生理指标、主观体验指标间的差异.结果 当被试产生恐惧情绪后,与安静休息相比[分别为(0.96±1.64)1/Ω,(0.85±1.73)min-1,(4.48±43.54)μV, (-5±15.37)min-1],听羽调音乐引起皮肤电阻、呼吸频率、肌电、心率[分别为(2.04±2.22)1/Ω, (0.09±1.79)min-1,(8.47±26.24) μV,(1.57±20.88)min-1]更大的下降,差异有显著性 ( P <0.01,P <0.01,P <0.01,P <0.05).当被试产生恐惧情绪后,与安静休息相比[分别为(-0.37±2.71)μV,(0.13±1.16)℃],听羽调音乐引起血容波 幅、指温[分别为(-0.53±3.8)μV,(-0.02±0.87)℃]更大的上升,差异无显著性( P >0.05,P >0.05).结论 听羽调音乐相比安静休息更能促进恐惧情绪的恢复,降低交感神经系统的兴奋性,提高副交感神经的功能,且提升个体愉快和平静等正性情绪体验和认知.

[ 王金芳, 张宁 . ( 2009).

羽调音乐对大学生恐惧情绪的缓解作用

中华行为医学与脑科学杂志, 18( 4), 354- 356.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的 探讨羽调音乐对恐惧情绪的缓解作用.方法 招募72名大学生通过观看恐怖影片片断诱发恐惧情绪,后听音乐或休息,分别比较两者的生理指标、主观体验指标间的差异.结果 当被试产生恐惧情绪后,与安静休息相比[分别为(0.96±1.64)1/Ω,(0.85±1.73)min-1,(4.48±43.54)μV, (-5±15.37)min-1],听羽调音乐引起皮肤电阻、呼吸频率、肌电、心率[分别为(2.04±2.22)1/Ω, (0.09±1.79)min-1,(8.47±26.24) μV,(1.57±20.88)min-1]更大的下降,差异有显著性 ( P <0.01,P <0.01,P <0.01,P <0.05).当被试产生恐惧情绪后,与安静休息相比[分别为(-0.37±2.71)μV,(0.13±1.16)℃],听羽调音乐引起血容波 幅、指温[分别为(-0.53±3.8)μV,(-0.02±0.87)℃]更大的上升,差异无显著性( P >0.05,P >0.05).结论 听羽调音乐相比安静休息更能促进恐惧情绪的恢复,降低交感神经系统的兴奋性,提高副交感神经的功能,且提升个体愉快和平静等正性情绪体验和认知.

Yoto A., Katsuura T., Iwanaga K., & Shimomura Y . ( 2007).

Effects of object color stimuli on human brain activities in perception and attention referred to EEG alpha band response

Journal of Physiological Anthropology,26( 3), 373-379.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

, Zhang H. ., & Tang Z. (2011).

To judge what color the subject watched by color effect on brain activity

IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security,11( 2), 80-83.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

SummaryMoods are known to be changed by color. In order to observe the activity of the brain with the color stimulus, the event-related potential (ERP) and electroencephalogram (EEG) images are used to be analyzed. The ERP and EEG of alpha brainwave could be considered whether the person is under relaxation. In the other hand, the beta brainwave means the people represent arousal. In this paper, based on experiment data, we analyze the brain responses which come from color stimuli. The result gives us a measure to estimate the color stimulus.Key words:color stimulus, alpha brainwave, beta brainwave, event-related potential (ERP), electroencephalogram (EEG)

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