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## 孤独症青少年的情绪韵律注意偏向缺陷：低效率的知觉模式*

,1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2

1 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029

2 大连医科大学基础医学院, 大连 116044

## The deficiency of attention bias to emotional prosody in the teenagers with autism spectrum disorders: A perceptual mode of low efficiency

,1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2

1 School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China

2 College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China

 基金资助: 辽宁特聘教授基金、辽宁省社会科学基金项目资助.  L17DSH001

Abstract

Results showed that: (1) Reaction time of ASD subjects were longer than TD subjects under any different emotions rhyme categories. (2) Whether in high or low perceptual load, reaction times and error rates of the main task as well as accuracy of emotional prosody detection task between two groups of participants have no significant differences. In providing notice indicating conditions, even in a high perceptual load level, ASD subjects of emotional rhythm detection capability and error rates are similar to TD subjects, but for emotional rhythm react time with neutral rhythm no difference. These findings revealed that ASD have the similar attention processing level with TD in attention conditions.

The results of two studies strongly suggested that the attention bias to emotional prosody was deficient in the teenagers with ASD, which was consistent with the results from visual channels and the teenagers with ASD have defect on emotional attention bias in auditory channel, main showed low perception efficiency on emotional rhythm perception.

Keywords： autism spectrum disorders ; teenagers ; attention bias ; perceptual load

HU Jinsheng, LI Chengshi, WANG Qi, LI Songze, LI Taotao, LIU Shuqing. The deficiency of attention bias to emotional prosody in the teenagers with autism spectrum disorders: A perceptual mode of low efficiency[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(6): 637-646 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00637

## 1 引言

2.1.1 被试

2.1.2 实验材料

2.1.3 实验设计与程序

3.1.1 被试

3.1.2 实验材料

3.1.3 实验设计与程序

### 3.2 结果

3.2.1 字母判断任务

618.84 (127.41) 654.02 (144.84) 553.12 (83.09) 648.98 (135.02) 632.25 (140.32) 593.60 (111.13)
863.93 (143.28) 753.06 (151.50) 748.23 (154.48) 839.98 (127.54) 819.49 (82.68) 797.96 (108.23)

### 图6

0.19 (0.17) 0.13 (0.11) 0.07 (0.05) 0.24 (0.18) 0.16 (0.14) 0.08 (0.06)
0.49 (0.18) 0.40 (0.14) 0.36 (0.13) 0.46 (0.06) 0.40 (0.16) 0.37 (0.06)

3.2.2 情绪韵律检测任务和控制任务

100% (2.4%) 93.33% (2.1%) 100% (1.8%) 93.33% (3.3%) 93.33% (2.3%) 100% (2.1%)
86.67% (2.0%) 93.33% (1.9%) 100% (2.7%) 86.67% (3.0%) 80.00% (1.6%) 100% (2.8%)

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

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The adaptive threat-detection advantage takes the form of a preferential orienting of attention to threatening scenes. In this study, we compared attention to social scenes in 15 high-functioning individuals with autism (ASD) and matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Eye-tracking was recorded while participants were presented with pairs of scenes, either emotional positive-neutral, emotional negative-neutral or neutral eutral scenes. Early allocation of attention, the first image fixated in each pair, differed between groups: contrary to TD individuals who showed the typical threat-detection advantage towards negative images, the ASD group failed to show a bias toward threat-related scenes. Later processing of stimuli, indicated by the total fixation to the images during the 3-s presentation, was found unaffected in the ASD group. These results support the hypothesis of an early atypical allocation of attention towards natural social scenes in ASD, that is compensated in later stages of visual processing.

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There’s more to anxiety than meets the eye: Isolating threat-related attentional engagement and disengagement biases

Emotion, 13(3), 520-528.

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Abstract Threat-related attentional biases represent a basic survival mechanism. These biases include an engagement bias involving rapid direction of attention toward threat and a disengagement bias involving slow direction of attention away from threat. The exact nature of these biases in healthy and anxious individuals remains controversial because of the challenges associated with accurately isolating each of these attentional biases. Combining a cognitive attentional task with classical conditioning using electric stimulation, we created a new paradigm that makes it possible to more clearly isolate these attentional biases. Utilizing this novel paradigm, we detected both types of attentional bias and differentiated between levels of trait anxiety, in which low- and high-trait anxiety individuals showed equal levels of engagement bias, but only high-trait anxiety individuals showed impaired disengagement from threat.

Snodgrass J. G., & Vanderwart M . ( 1980).

A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6(2), 174-215.

URL     PMID:7373248

Abstract In this article we present a standardized set of 260 pictures for use in experiments investigating differences and similarities in the processing of pictures and words. The pictures are black-and-white line drawings executed according to a set of rules that provide consistency of pictorial representation. The pictures have been standardized on four variables of central relevance to memory and cognitive processing: name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. The intercorrelations among the four measures were low, suggesting that they are indices of different attributes of the pictures. The concepts were selected to provide exemplars from several widely studied semantic categories. Sources of naming variance, and mean familiarity and complexity of the exemplars, differed significantly across the set of categories investigated. The potential significance of each of the normative variables to a number of semantic and episodic memory tasks is discussed.

Tillmann J., & Swettenham J . ( 2017).

Visual perceptual load reduces auditory detection in typically developing individuals but not in individuals with autism spectrum disorders

Neuropsychology, 31(2), 181-190.

URL     PMID:27819451

Objective: Previous studies examining selective attention in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting results, some suggesting superior focused attention (e.g. on visual search tasks), others demonstrating greater distractibility. This pattern could be accounted for by the proposal (derived by applying the Load theory of attention, e.g. Lavie, 2005) that ASD is characterized by an increased perceptual capacity (Remington, Swettenham, Campbell, & Coleman, 2009). Recent studies in the visual domain support this proposal. Here we hypothesize that ASD involves an enhanced perceptual capacity that also operates across sensory modalities, and test this prediction, for the first time using a signal detection paradigm. Method: 17 neurotypical (NT) and 15 ASD adolescents performed a visual search task under varying levels of visual perceptual load while simultaneously detecting presence/absence of an auditory tone embedded in noise. Results: Detection sensitivity (d’) for the auditory stimulus was similarly high for both groups in the low visual perceptual load condition (e.g. 2 items: p = .391, d = 0.31, 95% CI [-.39, 1.00]). However, at a higher level of visual load, auditory d’ reduced for the NT group but not the ASD group leading to a group difference (p = .002, d = 1.2, 95% CI [.44, 1.96]). As predicted, when visual perceptual load was highest, both groups then showed a similarly low auditory d’ (p = .9, d = 0.05, 95% CI [-.65, .74]). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that increased perceptual capacity in ASD operates across modalities.

Waxer M., & Morton J. B . ( 2011).

Children’s judgments of emotion from conflicting cues in speech: Why 6-year-olds are so inflexible

Child Development, 82(5), 1648-1660.

URL     PMID:21793819

Abstract Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds ( n =40) were as inflexible when switching from paralanguage to content as when switching from content to paralanguage. In Experiment 2, 6-year-olds ( n =32) and adults ( n =32) had more difficulty when switching between conflicting emotion cues than conflicting nonemotional cues. Thus, 6-year-olds' inflexibility appears to be tied to the presence of conflicting emotion cues in speech rather than a bias to judge a speaker's feelings from content.

Wetzel, N. ( 2015).

Effects of the short-term learned significance of task-irrelevant sounds on involuntary attention in children and adults

International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(1), 17-26.

URL     PMID:26093029

61The impact of learned significance of task-irrelevant deviant sounds on distraction was examined.61Performance was similarly modulated by significant deviant sounds in children and adults.61Post-deviant processing was modulated by deviant's significance in children only.61Attention control, particularly in the context of significant sounds, is immature in late childhood.

Wolff N., Chmielewski W. X., Beste C., & Roessner V . ( 2017).

Working memory load affects repetitive behaviour but not cognitive flexibility in adolescent autism spectrum disorder

The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, doi: 10.1080/15622975.2017.1296973

URL     PMID:28299954