ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (01): 29-36.

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规则策略和样例策略在归类过程中的运

莫雷,陈战胜   

  1. 华南师范大学心理应用研究中心,广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-29 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2003-01-30 发布日期:2003-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 莫雷

RULE-BASED CATEGORIZATION STRATEGY AND EXAMPLE-BASED CATEGORIZATION STRATEGY IN CATEGORIZATION

Mo Lei,Chen Zhansheng   

  1. Department of Psychology, South China Normal University,Guangzhou,China 510631
  • Received:2002-05-29 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2003-01-30 Published:2003-01-30
  • Contact: Mo Lei

摘要: 探讨人们在归类过程中对规则策略和样例策略的运用。包括3个实验,被试为华南师范大学110名本科生。用计算机呈现类别学习材料,被试学习后立即进行归类迁移测试,考察被试的归类策略倾向。实验1提高了Erickson和Kruchke研究中例外类别规则的清晰性,考察当学习材料中潜在规则易于掌握时,被试是否会倾向于运用规则策略进行归类;实验2探讨当学习材料中的潜在规则较难掌握时,被试是否会倾向于运用样例策略进行归类;实验3探讨人们在运用规则进行归类时对不同规则选用的特点。结果表明:当学习情境中潜在规则易于掌握时,被试倾向于运用规则策略进行归类;当潜在规则难以掌握时,被试则倾向于运用样例策略进行归类;当同时可以运用不同规则时,被试会选用更概括、更有普遍性的规则而弃用较具体、适用范围较限定的规则。据此,研究初步认为,人们在归类中首选的是规则策略,只有当学习情境中潜在规则难以掌握时,才转而采用样例策略;当有多种规则可以选择时,则倾向于选择更概括、更有普遍意义的规则

关键词: 规则策略, 样例策略, 归类

Abstract: How do people use rules and examples in categorization? The authors studied this question by three experiments. Ss were 110 university students. After Ss learned the materials of categorization, they were asked to administer the transfer test in categorization. The categorizing strategy of Ss was investigated. In experiment 1,it was explored whether the subjects tended to use the rule-based categorization strategy after the category structure in Erickson and Kruchke’s experiment was changed so that the rule was more conspicuous. Contrary to experiment 1,it was examined whether the subjects would use the example-based categorization strategy mainly when they faced more complex category structure in experiment 2. In experiment 3,it was explored what kind of rule would be facilitated when more than one rule was suitable. The results showed that the subjects would use the rule-based categorization strategy when the rule was easy to grasp,and they would use the example-based categorization strategy when the task was harder. The subjects tended to choose the general rule than the concrete one,and the universal rule than the limitary one. These results suggested that the rule-based categorization strategy is chosen first in category learning,and that the example-based strategy would be used only when the rule is difficult to be extracted. The results also suggest that the general and the universal rules are more possible to be used when there are several rules available

Key words: rule-based categorization strategy, example-based categorization strategy, categorization

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