ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1962, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (04): 30-42.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

精密檢驗的观察誤差的原因分析

彭瑞祥   

  • 出版日期:1962-12-25 发布日期:1962-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 彭瑞祥

AN ANALYSIS OF THE OBSERVATIONAL ERRORS IN INDUSTRIAL PRECISION INSPECTION

PENG JUI-HSIANG   

  • Online:1962-12-25 Published:1962-12-25

摘要: <正> 一、目的 观察誤差是精密检驗誤差的重要原因之一。在現行的精密检驗方法中,人工操作还占很重要的位置,检驗最后的数值。还是依靠人来判断,因此,检驗者观察誤差的大小,对检驗质量起着一定的影响。在精密检驗中,观察誤差一般分为对准誤差和粗大誤差。前者在很大的程度上依从于检驗者对綫能力的大小(即視觉游标銳度)及精細的距离鉴別能力的优劣。 有关視觉游标銳度的問題,前人有过不少研究。Wuelfing(1892)最初測量的結果,认为如果两直綫上下并列,避免眼睛的扩散作用,游标阈限可降低到12秒弧度。French

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Abstract: The factors influencing the observational errors during precision instrument inspection were studied in a factory inspection center by the following methods: 1) Counting the frequency of the worker's eye-blinks; 2) Recording the worker's reaction time between the instant as he looked into the eye-piece of the optical micrometer and the recording of the results; 3) Administrating an aligning optimeter test, as designed by W. oMoede, before and after work.The results indicated that there were two kinds of errors in the inspection task, namely, aligning errors and negligent errors. The causes of aligning errors were: 1) Visual fatigue. The longer the worker engaged in such kind of strenous visual work, the higher the frequency of his eye-blinks; 2) Self-suggestion (preoccupation). As the worker acquired incorrectly the knowledge of results, the influence of preoccupation was the more obvious; 3) Emotional factor. The more the worker doubted of the inspection results, the more frequent the inspection errors; 4) Constant errors; and 5) The structure of the stimuli, such as length, direction and form of the instrumental scales, the contrast between the scales and background, etc. The causes of negligent errors were: 1) Fatigue of the second signaling system; and 2) Extra-stimuli, causing distraction.The author proposed a reasonable arrangement of the alternation of work and rest as well as the correct method of acquiring knowledge of results. The effect of using blinking as a measure of visual fatigue and the causes of constant errors were also discussed.

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