ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (1): 67-80.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00067

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

单亲家庭儿童相对剥夺感与心理适应的循环作用关系:一项追踪研究

熊猛1,2, 刘若瑾1, 叶一舵3()   

  1. 1长江大学教育与体育学院心理学系, 湖北 荆州 434023
    2Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH89JZ, UK
    3福建师范大学心理学院, 福州 350117
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-12 出版日期:2021-01-25 发布日期:2020-11-24
  • 通讯作者: 叶一舵 E-mail:yeyiduo@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 全国教育科学规划教育部青年课题“处境不利儿童的相对剥夺感对其心理社会适应的影响机制及追踪研究”(EBA160408)

Reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China: A longitudinal study

XIONG Meng1,2, LIU Ruojin1, YE Yiduo3()   

  1. 1Department of Psychology, School of Educaiton and Sport Sciences, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China
    2Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH89JZ, UK
    3School of Psychology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
  • Received:2019-10-12 Online:2021-01-25 Published:2020-11-24
  • Contact: YE Yiduo E-mail:yeyiduo@163.com

摘要:

本研究基于经典相对剥夺理论和发展情境理论, 采用纵向设计, 以湖北省某地区273名单亲家庭儿童为被试, 进行连续3次的追踪测查, 考察单亲家庭儿童相对剥夺感与心理适应的特点及其循环作用关系。结果发现: (1)单亲家庭男生的抑郁和孤独感水平比女生高; 贫困单亲家庭儿童的相对剥夺感、抑郁和孤独感水平比非贫困单亲家庭儿童高, 自尊水平比非贫困单亲家庭儿童低; (2)控制了性别、学段和家庭经济状况后, 在个体内水平上T1时的相对剥夺感显著负向预测T2时的心理适应, 进而显著负向预测T3时的相对剥夺感, 同时T2时的相对剥夺感也能显著负向预测T3时的心理适应; (3)相对剥夺感与心理适应的循环作用在不同家庭经济状况单亲儿童中存在显著差异, 贫困单亲家庭儿童的心理适应对其相对剥夺感的作用比非贫困单亲家庭儿童更大。可见, 单亲家庭儿童的相对剥夺感与心理适应存在循环作用关系, 即前测(Tn)的相对剥夺感会导致后测(Tn+1)的心理适应不良, 进而影响后测(Tn+2)的相对剥夺感, 研究结果对于单亲家庭儿童心理适应的干预具有一定启示意义。

关键词: 相对剥夺感, 心理适应, 单亲家庭儿童, 循环作用关系

Abstract:

Increasing divorce rates in China have led to greater numbers of children growing up in single-parent homes. Previous studies have indicated that such single-parent children reported greater senses of relative deprivation and more psychological adjustment problems than their counterparts in undivided families. However, few studies have yet examined associations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment and their directions. We thus explored characteristics of relative deprivation, psychological adjustment, and associations among them over 1.5 years beginning March, 2017. A sample of 273 single-parent children (50.5% boys) was recruited from two primary schools and two junior middle schools in Hubei, China. Attrition was relatively minor, namely, 93.4% of participants completed all surveys during three assessment waves.
Participants provided self-report data on individual and group cognitive and individual and group affective relative deprivation, and depression, loneliness, social anxiety, and self-esteem, as well as demographic variables (i.e., gender, academic period, and family economic status). All the measures had good reliability and validity. Results indicated that relative deprivation of single-parent children was not obvious, and psychological adjustment was generally good. Boys reported higher levels of depression and loneliness than girls. Moreover, single-parent children with poor family economic status reported higher levels of relative deprivation, depression, and loneliness, as well as lower levels of self-esteem than their counterparts.
To explore the possible reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment, as well as to separate between-person effects from within-person effects, we analyzed data by using the random intercepts cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM). Results showed that there were reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment at the within-person level when controlling for between-person effects and key demographic variables. Specifically, initial relative deprivation significantly negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 2, which in turn negatively predicted relative deprivation at Time 3. Moreover, relative deprivation at Time 2 also negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 3. These reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment did not differ by gender and academic period (i.e., primary or secondary school). However, the association between psychological adjustment and relative deprivation was stronger for single-parent children with poor family economic status than for those with good family economic status.
These observations expand the understanding of the complex relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China. Additionally, they have important implications for intervention and improvement of mental health for vulnerable groups, especially single-parent children. For instance, programs that aim to improve the mental health of single-parent children and to reduce the levels of relative deprivation among this vulnerable group may be helpful in breaking the detrimental cycle between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment.

Key words: single-parent children, relative deprivation, psychological adjustment, longitudinal study

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