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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (10): 1131-1141    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01131
     研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
消极前情绪对积极情绪感染的调节:反向与降阈——以教学情境为例
张奇勇1(),闫志英2
1扬州大学教育科学学院, 扬州 225002
2云南师范大学心理系, 昆明 650092
The regulation effect of the antecedent negative emotion on emotional contagion: Counter and threshold-descent
Qiyong ZHANG1(),Zhiying YAN2
1 The College of Educational Science, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, China
2 Psychology School, Yunnan Normal University, Yunnan 650092, China
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摘要 

以往研究表明, 认知对情绪感染具有调节作用, 那么被试的先前情绪对情绪感染是否同样具有调节作用?研究分为攻击性消极前情绪和消沉性消极前情绪对快乐情绪感染的反向调节和降阈调节, 两个实验均采用被试内设计, 使用BioNeuro八通道生物反馈仪记录被试在模拟教学情境下观看视频时的生理指标。在反向调节实验中, 通过组织被试观看南京大屠杀视频来唤醒仇恨情绪, 之后播放两段东方人的生活搞笑视频, 通过不同的指导语, 考察仇恨情绪对快乐情绪感染的反向调节效应; 在降阈调节实验中, 通过屡次失败唤起被试的烦躁情绪, 再比较烦躁情绪唤醒前后被试观看两段搞笑视频时的情绪感染的差异性。实验结果表明:(1)在反向调节实验中, 被试观看“日本”搞笑视频时与观看《南京大屠杀》视频时生理指标的变化趋势相同, 且程度更甚; (2)在降阈调节实验中, 被试在体验烦躁情绪后观看搞笑视频时的生理唤醒程度要强于体验前。实验结果表明, 被试的仇恨前情绪反向调节了“日本人”的快乐情绪感染; 被试的烦躁前情绪让被试对他人的快乐情绪产生易感性。

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张奇勇
闫志英
关键词 反向情绪感染降阈情绪感染前情绪后情绪教学情境    
Abstract

According to the previous studies, emotional contagion can be regulated by the subsequent cognition which can be retrieved by unconsciousness or consciousness. Can emotional contagion be regulated by people’s antecedent emotion or not? That is, the receiver’s antecedent emotion, which has existed before the sender’s emotional display, regulates the final effect of emotional contagion. If true, there might be two possibilities in the regulation: counter and threshold-descent. Our goal is to explore the regulation effect of the antecedent negative emotion on emotional contagion with two possibilities.

We designed two experiments in this study to verify two mental phenomena, viz., counter and threshold-descent emotional contagion respectively. In these two experiments, a within-subject design was employed, and the biofeedback technology was used to measure the participants’ emotional state in them. All participants should accept the baseline measurement after they took psycho-relaxation exercises at the beginning of the experiment. Firstly, we implemented the experiment of counter emotional contagion. Taking hostility as a case of the antecedent emotion, we aroused Chinese participants’ hostility by playing video of The Nanjing Massacre to them, and then let them watch two funny videos about Chinese and Japanese lives. Meanwhile, the participants’ physiological indices were collected. The aim of the experiment was to compare the participants’ emotional experience when they watched the above two funny videos. Secondly, in the experiment of threshold-descent emotional contagion, the restless experience, as the antecedent emotion, was aroused by undergoing repeated several “unsuccessful” experiments. The participants’ physiological indices were collected and compared too when they watched funny video before and after the restless experience elicited which corresponded to the episodes 1 and 2 respectively. The experiments aimed to explore whether the participants’ antecedent emotional state would affect their emotional contagion via different experimental treatment.

In the first experiment, the results indicated that the funny Japanese video did not infect the Chinese participants after they watched The Nanjing Massacre. Actually, the two funny videos are being earmarked as “Chinese” or “Japanese” at random. The participants’ negative emotion was successfully elicited by watching The Nanjing Massacre. BVP amplitude significantly descended, whereas BVP frequency ascended drastically in comparison with the baseline level. After the experiment, we asked the participants what emotion they experienced while watching The Nanjing Massacre, and their answer was hostility and anger. We compared the participants’ physiological changes when watching the funny Japanese video and The Nanjing Massacre with those of the baseline level respectively. As the results revealed, the participants’ physiological changes when watching the above two videos obtained the same changed trend relative to the baseline level, which proved that the funny Japanese video did not induce the participants’ positive emotional experience successfully. Meanwhile, we compared further the participants’ physiological changes during the process of watching the funny Japanese video with those when watching The Nanjing Massacre. The results showed that their physiological changing tendency in watching the funny Japanese video was the same as that in watching The Nanjing Massacre, and the former’s level of psychological arousal was greater than the latter’s, which further confirmed that the funny Japanese video amplified the participants’ anger rather than the positive emotional experience. We gather, therefore, that the counter emotional contagion appeared in this experiment. Rather, the participants’ positive emotion was aroused when they watched the funny Chinese video, for their physiological changing trend of BVP amplitude and frequency was completely opposite to that when watching the funny Japanese video.

The repeated measures ANOVA were employed to analyze the data from the experiment of threshold-descent emotional contagion. In the episode 1, the results showed that the participants’ positive emotion was aroused successfully by watching funny video 1, in which BVP amplitude significantly descended, whereas BVP frequency ascended in comparison with the baseline level. Statistical analysis of data suggested that the participants’ emotion was more negative when they were feeling down by the repeated “unsuccessful” experience, but more positive when watching another funny video after the restless experience (episode 2), in which BVP amplitude and SC significantly ascended, whereas BVP frequency descended in comparison with watching funny video 1 (episode 1). That indicated the participants’ negative emotion (restlessness) facilitated the positive emotional contagion by lowering the threshold value of the positive emotion perception, so we call it “threshold-descent regulation”. Subjective ratings of funniness of these two videos were obtained, and the scores were compared by using the t test. The result demonstrated that the score of funniness of video 1, which participants evaluated, was significantly higher than that of video 2.

In the experiment of counter emotional contagion, the findings suggested that, the antecedent negative emotion not only prevented the subsequent positive emotional contagion, but also intensified the participants’ antecedent negative emotion experience. So we conclude that the result that “the observer gets ‘infected’ by the emotion he or she perceives” is not always attained as people think. In the experiment of threshold-descent emotional contagion, the antecedent negative emotion could intensify the positive emotional contagion. Hence, the participants’ antecedent emotion did not weaken the effect of emotional contagion, but magnified their subsequent positive emotional experience, instead.

Key wordscounter emotional contagion    threshold-descent emotional contagion    the antecedent emotion    the subsequent emotion    teaching situation
收稿日期: 2017-05-13      出版日期: 2018-08-23
ZTFLH:  B849:G44  
基金资助:* 教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(15YJC190030);扬州大学校教改重点课题(YZUJX2016-1A)
引用本文:   
张奇勇,闫志英. (2018). 消极前情绪对积极情绪感染的调节:反向与降阈——以教学情境为例. 心理学报, 50(10): 1131-1141.
Qiyong ZHANG,Zhiying YAN. (2018). The regulation effect of the antecedent negative emotion on emotional contagion: Counter and threshold-descent. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1131-1141.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01131      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I10/1131
  反向情绪感染的实验流程图
  7个生理指标在4种实验条件下的描述性统计图
生理指标 F p Partial η2 Observed Power
α波 4.48* 0.03 0.09 0.65
SMR 17.96** 0.00 0.29 1.00
β波 58.97** 0.00 0.57 1.00
BVP幅度 36.93** 0.00 0.45 1.00
BVP频率 11.01** 0.00 0.20 0.94
SC 27.09** 0.00 0.38 1.00
脸颊EMG 13.02** 0.00 0.22 0.97
  7个生理指标的一元方差分析结果
生理指标 Ⅱ-Ⅰ Ⅲ-Ⅰ Ⅲ-Ⅱ
MD p MD p MD p
α波 1.14** 0.00 1.02 0.05 -0.12 0.79
SMR 1.32** 0.00 1.51** 0.00 0.19 0.56
β波 3.51** 0.00 2.67** 0.00 -0.85* 0.04
BVP幅度 -1.82** 0.00 -3.37** 0.00 -1.55** 0.00
BVP频率 1.08** 0.00 3.10** 0.00 2.01* 0.02
SC 0.88** 0.00 1.83** 0.00 0.95** 0.00
脸颊EMG 1.19** 0.00 1.08** 0.00 -0.11 0.72
  7个生理指标在三种实验条件下多重比较的结果
生理指标 F p Partial η2 Observed Power
α波 8.36** 0.00 0.16 0.93
SMR 14.93** 0.00 0.25 0.99
β波 43.52** 0.00 0.49 1.00
BVP幅度 91.29** 0.00 0.67 1.00
BVP频率 22.55** 0.00 0.33 1.00
SC 4.74* 0.02 0.10 0.71
脸颊EMG 43.36** 0.00 0.49 1.00
  7个生理指标的一元方差分析结果
生理指标 Ⅱ-Ⅰ Ⅳ-Ⅰ Ⅳ-Ⅱ
MD p MD p MD p
α波 1.14** 0.00 1.01** 0.00 -0.12 0.74
SMR 1.32** 0.00 1.08** 0.00 -0.24 0.46
β波 3.51** 0.00 2.11** 0.00 -1.41** 0.01
BVP幅度 -1.82** 0.00 2.38** 0.00 4.20** 0.00
BVP频率 1.08** 0.00 -1.30** 0.00 -2.38** 0.00
SC 0.88** 0.00 0.34 0.24 -0.55 0.13
脸颊EMG 1.19** 0.00 2.28* 0.04 1.09** 0.00
  7个生理指标在三种实验条件下多重比较的结果
  降阈情绪感染的实验流程图
  7个生理指标在4种实验条件下的描述性统计图
生理指标 F p Partial η2 Observed Power
α波 9.75** 0.00 0.17 0.95
SMR 6.59** 0.01 0.12 0.82
β波 17.32** 0.00 0.26 1.00
BVP幅度 88.74** 0.00 0.64 1.00
BVP频率 26.37** 0.00 0.35 1.00
SC 95.25** 0.00 0.66 1.00
脸颊EMG 24.70** 0.00 0.34 1.00
  7个生理指标的一元方差分析结果
生理指标 Ⅱ-Ⅰ Ⅲ-Ⅰ Ⅲ-Ⅱ
MD p MD p MD p
α波 0.43** 0.00 0.01 0.86 -0.42** 0.01
SMR 0.43** 0.00 0.11 0.17 -0.32* 0.04
β波 0.80** 0.00 0.02 0.79 -0.77** 0.04
BVP幅度 1.14** 0.00 -1.13** 0.00 -2.27** 0.00
BVP频率 -0.99** 0.00 0.77** 0.01 1.76** 0.00
SC -0.04 0.42 0.97** 0.00 1.02** 0.00
脸颊EMG 1.07** 0.00 0.15 0.09 -0.92** 0.00
  7个生理指标在三种实验条件下多重比较的结果
生理指标 F p Partial η2 Observed Power
α波 42.65** 0.00 0.47 1.00
SMR 9.74** 0.00 0.17 0.97
β波 25.77** 0.00 0.35 1.00
BVP幅度 103.82** 0.00 0.68 1.00
BVP频率 43.18** 0.00 0.47 1.00
SC 1.71 0.19 0.03 0.34
脸颊EMG 32.51** 0.00 0.40 1.00
  7个生理指标的一元方差分析结果
生理指标 Ⅱ-Ⅰ Ⅳ-Ⅰ Ⅳ-Ⅱ
MD p MD p MD p
α波 0.43** 0.00 1.33** 0.00 0.90** 0.00
SMR 0.43** 0.00 0.65** 0.00 0.22 0.19
β波 0.80** 0.00 1.18** 0.00 0.38* 0.03
BVP幅度 1.14** 0.00 2.75** 0.00 1.61** 0.00
BVP频率 -0.99** 0.00 -1.76** 0.00 -0.77** 0.00
SC -0.04 0.42 0.07 0.26 0.11 0.11
脸颊EMG 1.07** 0.00 1.53** 0.00 0.46* 0.03
  7个生理指标在三种实验条件下多重比较的结果
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