Please wait a minute...
心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (5): 572-582    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00572
  本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
 对水稻理论的质疑: 兼新论中国人偏好整体思维的内外因
 汪凤炎
 (南京师范大学 道德教育研究所, 暨 心理学院, 南京 210097)
 Questioning the Rice Theory: Also on the internal and external causes of Chinese preference for holistic thinking
 WANG Fengyan
 (Institute of Moral Education Research and School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China)
全文: PDF(517 KB)   评审附件 (1 KB) 
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)       背景资料
文章导读  
摘要  Talhelm等人认为种植水稻与种植小麦有重大差别, 所以, 中国水稻文化与小麦文化是两种不同类型的文化:南方的水稻文化更倾向于东亚文化, 北方的小麦文化看起来更像西方文化。“水稻理论”视角颇新颖, 但能否成立有待检验。以整体思维为例, 用“水稻理论”解释中国人偏好整体思维的缘由时存在两个矛盾:一是南宋之前的多数中国人虽长期生活在小麦区, 但他们的思维方式却主要是整体思维, 几乎没有分析思维, 且整体思维至迟到春秋战国时期已炉火纯青; 二是目前无足够的可靠证据证明种植小麦的中国北方在文化上看起来更像西方, 并且北方人擅长的同样是整体思维。这两个矛盾证明“水稻理论”解释不通。其实, 促成中国古人崇尚整体思维最可能的外因是:先人从长期的治水经验尤其是从鲧治水失败而大禹治水成功的一反一正事例中直观、真切地看到了天人密切相关理念、顺应自然和通盘考虑(整体思维的雏形)在成功解决复杂问题时的重要性; 促成中国古人崇尚整体思维最可能的内因是蕴含阴阳思维的阴阳学说、蕴含五行思维的五行学说和蕴含阴阳五行思维的阴阳五行学说的提出与被认可, 它们为中国人如何运用整体思维提供了一整套完整的思维运作方式。
服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
汪凤炎
关键词  整体思维 水稻理论 治水 阴阳学说 五行学说 阴阳五行学说    
Abstract: Based on the significant differences between rice and wheat cultivation, Talhelm et al. (2014) divided the Chinese culture into two types, respectively: rice culture and wheat culture. The former is closer to East Asian culture, and the latter to Western culture. Although the “Rice Theory” provides a novel perspective, it remains to be tested before it’s established. For example, why is holistic-thinking prevalent in China? The “Rice Theory” argues that agricultural types result into cultural differences. Specifically, a long history of rice cultivation should make people live in the rice area more interdependent and thus prefer holistic-thinking, while that of wheat cultivation should make people live in the wheat area more individualistic and thus prefer analytical-thinking. Although the “Rice Theory” provides a new perspective in explaining the differences between rice culture and wheat culture and the prevalence of holistic-thinking in China, the real reason for Chinese, especially ancient Chinese, preferring holistic-thinking may not be a long history of rice cultivation. This paper focuses on explaining this new theory in details. Two contradictions come out when explaining Chinese preference for holistic-thinking by the “Rice Theory”. (1) Before the Southern Sung Dynasty (1127-1279), the majority of Chinese, who lived in wheat-growing area for a long time, used holistic-thinking, barely with any analytic-thinking. Moreover, the holistic-thinking had already reached a high degree no later than the Chhun Chhiu and Warring States Period (770-221 BC). (2) There is no firm evidence insofar to support that the wheat-growing northern Chinese are more culturally Western, no sufficient evidence to support that northerners were more analytical than southerners, or southerners were more holistic than northerners. In fact, northerners are also good at holistic-thinking. The founders and main representatives of “the hundred schools of thought” in pre-Qin period, who have largely influenced Chinese culture and holistic-thinking mode after the Qin and Han dynasties (221-220 BC), were mostly from the northern wheat region. Overall, these two contradictions suggested that the “Rice Theory” was invalid. The external reasons for the prevalence of holistic-thinking in China is probably the enlightenments and inspirations derived from flood control practices, especially the contrast between Yu’s success and Gun’s failure in flood control, which made the Chinese ancients intuitively realized the importance of the harmony between man and nature, and thus considering beings comprehensively (the prototype of holistic-thinking) in solving complicated problems. And the internal reasons is probably the proposal and acceptance of the Yin-Yang theory which contains the thought of Yin-Yang, the Five Elements theory which contains the thought of Five Elements, and the combined Yin Yang-Five Elements theory which contains the thought of Yin-Yang and Five Elements. They provide a complete set of thinking methods to utilize the holistic-thinking for Chinese. Due to the logical and systematic explaining of the birth, growing, sickness and death of the universe, these theories were regarded the rule of thinking by ancient Chinese. They also promoted ancient Chinese to use the holistic, dynamic, and self-adaptive thinking model to explain manifold natural and social phenomena. To sum up, (1) the “Rice Theory” is invalid to explain preference of holistic thinking among Chinese, due to its lack of cultural and ecological validity. (2) It is the flood control practice together with the Yin-Yang thinking, Five Elements thinking, and combined Yin Yang-Five Elements theory that lead to the holistic thinking of ancients Chinese. Insofar, the habit of using holistic thinking to understand and solve problems by Chinese is indestructible.
Key wordsholistic-thinking    Rice Theory    flood control    Yin-Yang theory    Five Elements theory    Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory
收稿日期: 2017-08-10      出版日期: 2018-03-31
ZTFLH:     
  B849: C91  
基金资助: 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地2016年度重大项目(项目批准号:16JJD880026)。
通讯作者: 汪凤炎, E-mail: fywangjx8069@163.com     E-mail: E-mail: fywangjx8069@163.com
引用本文:   
汪凤炎.  对水稻理论的质疑: 兼新论中国人偏好整体思维的内外因[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 572-582.
WANG Fengyan.  Questioning the Rice Theory: Also on the internal and external causes of Chinese preference for holistic thinking. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(5): 572-582.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00572      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I5/572
[1] 尚俊辰, 刘智慧, 陈文锋, 傅小兰.  美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 693-702.
[2] 刘璐, 闫国利.  聋人阅读中的副中央凹视觉注意增强效应 ——来自消失文本的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 715-726.
[3] 易仲怡, 杨文登, 叶浩生.  具身认知视角下软硬触觉经验 对性别角色认知的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 793-802.
[4] 陈伟, 李俊娇, 曹杨婧文, 杨勇, 胡琰健, 郑希付.  预期错误在复合恐惧记忆提取消退中的作用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 739-749.
[5] 谢其利, 李崇敬, 全小山, 何 飞, 江光荣.  少年夫妻老来伴:夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 771-781.
[6] 柳武妹, 雷亮, 李志远, 苏云, 黄晓治.  触摸, 还是不触摸? 先前触摸促进新产品接受[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 782-792.
[7] 晏碧华, 刘晓敏, 刘浩哲.  飞行场景中表征动量的 地标吸引效应和排斥效应[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 703-714.
[8] 孙鑫, 黎坚, 符植煜.  利用游戏log-file预测学生推理能力和数学成绩——机器学习的应用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 761-770.
[9] 胡月, 王斌, 马红宇, 李改.  彩民命运控制与问题购彩的关系: 基于意义维持模型的视角[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 549-557.
[10] 李毕琴, 李玲, 王爱君, 张明.  言语工作记忆内容在语义水平的注意捕获[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 483-493.
[11] 殷融.  旁观者对集体行动的支持:目标合理性、 行动策略及目标实现预期的作用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 558-571.
[12] 武萌, 陈欣银, 张莹, 卢珊, 王争艳.  流动和城市家庭中母亲的控制策略与 幼儿顺从行为[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 517-527.
[13] 杨伟星, 张堂正, 李红霞, 张佳佳, 司继伟.  数学困难儿童估算策略运用的 中央执行负荷效应[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 504-516.
[14] 朱瑜, 谢斌斌.  差序氛围感知与沉默行为的关系:情感承诺的 中介作用与个体传统性的调节作用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 539-548.
[15] 罗婷, 邱茹依, 陈斌, 傅世敏.  无意识信息的刺激表征及其时间特性[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 473-482.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
版权所有 © 《心理学报》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn