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心理学报
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高绩效要求与亲组织不道德行为:基于社会认知理论的视角
陈 默1;梁 建2
(1中国科学技术大学管理学院, 合肥 230026) (2上海交通大学安泰经济与管理学院, 上海 200030)
High performance expectation and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Social cognitive perspective
CHEN Mo1; LIANG Jian2
(1 School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China) (2 Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China)
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摘要 

通过确立较高的绩效目标以提升组织绩效被普遍认为是一项有效的管理措施。然而, 学术界对它的负面影响却缺乏研究。本文提出了高绩效要求将启动员工道德推脱机制为其随后进行的亲组织不道德行为开脱, 即道德推脱在高绩效要求与亲组织不道德行为之间起到了中介作用。为了检验这一观点, 本研究提出两种不同效应的调节变量:感知的市场竞争正向调节变量之间的间接关系, 而道德认同则负向调节这一间接关系。通过对某零售企业225名员工的两阶段调查, 本研究提出的调节−中介模型获得了观察数据的支持。本研究的发现有利于进一步了解亲组织不道德行为发生的中介心理机制和边界条件, 指导管理者采取恰当的管理措施, 以期有效地管控亲组织不道德行为的出现。

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陈默
梁建
关键词 高绩效要求 道德推脱 亲组织不道德行为 道德认同 感知的市场竞争    
Abstract

Unethical behavior in the workplace has been widely reported last decades. In view of its serious consequences, there has been a surge of business ethics research focusing on workplace unethical behavior. Especially, an emerging stream of research has begun to systematically theorize and investigate unethical pro-organizational behavior. In the study, we propose a moderated-mediation model to uncover the underlying mechanism and the boundary conditions of the relationship between high performance expectation and unethical pro-organizational behavior. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, we hypothesize that high performance expectation is indirectly related to unethical pro-organizational behavior through moral disengagement. We further propose that perceived industrial competition strengthens the hypothesized relationship and that moral identity weakens the hypothesized relationship. To test those hypotheses, we collected a two-wave field data, one month apart each other, from a group of Chinese retailing employees. In the first wave, 300 employees from 35 retail stores responded to questions assessing their level of high performance expectation, moral identity, moral disengagement, and industrial competition. We also measured a set of control variables at this time. Two hundreds and twenty-five employees completed the second-wave survey which assess their willingness to engage in unethical pro-organizational behavior. To control for nesting effects, we applied multilevel structural equation modeling to analyze the data. Results showed that high performance expectation was positively related to unethical pro-organizational behavior. By applying Monte Carlo simulation, we found that the indirect relationship between high performance expectation and unethical pro-organizational behavior via moral disengagement was significant. We also found a positive interaction between high performance expectation and perceived industrial competition on moral disengagement and a negative interaction between high performance expectation and moral identity on moral disengagement. Finally, we found that: the indirect effect of high performance expectation on unethical pro-organizational behavior via moral disengagement was stronger when employees perceived a high level of industrial competition; the indirect effect of high performance expectation on unethical pro-organizational behavior via moral disengagement was stronger when employees had a low level of moral identity. Our findings are among the first to demonstrate the dark side of leader’s high performance expectation toward subordinates, and explore the psychological mechanism and two key and contrasting boundary conditions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Key wordshigh performance expectation    moral disengagement    unethical pro-organizational behavior    moral identity    perceived industrial competition
收稿日期: 2016-03-25      出版日期: 2017-01-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金(71222201和71572111)和上海曙光人才计划(12SG20)资助。

通讯作者: 陈默, E-mail: mochen@ustc.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
陈默;梁建. 高绩效要求与亲组织不道德行为:基于社会认知理论的视角[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00094.
CHEN Mo; LIANG Jian. High performance expectation and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Social cognitive perspective. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(1): 94-105.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00094      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2017/V49/I1/94
[1] 王栋;陈作松. 运动员运动道德推脱与运动亲反社会行为的关系[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(3): 305-317.
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