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心理学报
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幼儿在地图任务中对自我位置与自我朝向的结合
胡清芬;卢静
(北京师范大学发展心理研究所, 北京 100875)
The combination of self-position and self-orientation in children’s map task
HU Qingfen; LU Jing
(Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
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摘要 

使用地图−空间和空间−地图两种地图定向任务, 设置需同时表征自我位置和自我朝向的任务情境, 探讨了5~6岁幼儿在地图使用中结合自我位置和自我朝向表征的能力。结果发现:(1)位置选择和朝向选择同时正确的比率显著高于概率水平; (2)被试在位置选择上的准确性显著高于朝向选择; (3)位置表征与朝向表征之间的关系在不同任务条件下表现出一定的差异。这些结果说明, 5~6岁幼儿在使用地图时已经能够同时关注空间位置与朝向, 实现位置表征与朝向表征的结合。

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胡清芬
卢静
关键词 幼儿 自我位置表征 自我朝向表征 位置与朝向表征的结合 地图    
Abstract

Previous studies from neurophysiology have found that animals' position representation and direction representation in navigation have different neural mechanisms. Recent study from developmental psychology demonstrated that these two types of representations had divergent development trajectories. When using map to seek for self-position and self-orientation, children begin to perform better than chance in the location task but do not show the ability to solve the direction problems until 5 years old. However, no research has yet focused on the combination of these two types of representation, which is a common situation in map use. In the present study, the paradigm used in Lu and Hu's study was modified to explore the capacity to combine self-position and self-orientation in children's map use. Five- to 6-year-old children solved four map-to-space problems and four space-to-map problems. For the map-to-space problems, children were given a map with a doll on it and asked to go to the corresponding location and face the corresponding direction. For the space-to-map problems, children were asked to indicate their own location and orientation by placing a doll on the map. It was found that 5- to 6-year-old children successfully combined the representations of self-position and self-orientation. Their performance was largely better than chance. However, compared to orientation choice, children performed better in position choice. Additionally, the relation between accuracy of orientation choice and that of position choice was varied according to the situation. When the target orientation was to face the adjacent wall, the orientation choice seemed to depend on the position choice. When the target orientation was to face a far wall, the relation was weak. Based on these results, we suggested that children have distinct strategies to combine position and orientation in varied situations. When the target orientation was to face the adjacent wall, they decided the position first and then faced the adjacent wall. When the target orientation was to face a far wall, however, this simple strategy was invalid. Then, they represented the position and the orientation separately. That is to say, children used a strategy that is more concise and less resource-consumed in a specific situation to combine the representation of self-position and self-orientation.

Key wordschildren    self-position representation    self-orientation representation    combination of position and orientation    map
收稿日期: 2015-09-20      出版日期: 2016-09-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年项目(31500900); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助。

通讯作者: 胡清芬, E-mail: qingfenhu@bnu.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
胡清芬;卢静. 幼儿在地图任务中对自我位置与自我朝向的结合[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01143.
HU Qingfen; LU Jing. The combination of self-position and self-orientation in children’s map task. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(9): 1143-1150.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01143      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I9/1143
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