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刘思耘; 周倩; 贾会宾; 赵庆柏
(青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079)
The impact of the irrelevant speech on visual awareness
LIU Siyun; ZHOU Qian; JIA Huibin; ZHAO Qingbai
(Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 China)
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前人多在记忆层面探讨不相关言语效应(the Irrelevant Speech Effect, ISE), 而本文选择在意识觉察(conscious awareness)阶段观察这一现象。所有实验均采用视觉掩蔽及听觉输入不相关声音的视听交互方式。实验1在安静、纯音及不相关言语3种听觉背景下让被试对简单图片做视觉觉察判断, 结果发现不相关言语干扰了视觉觉察, 而纯音则未产生干扰。实验2在相同的3种听觉背景下要求被试对复杂图片做视觉觉察判断, 结果同实验1。实验3采用事件相关电位技术, 在同样的3种听觉背景下观察被试对简单图片做视觉觉察判断时的脑电变化, 结果发现不相关言语干扰了视觉觉察负波的形成, 验证了行为学研究的结果。本文结果表明不相干言语在视觉意识觉察阶段就对被试的行为产生了干扰。

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关键词 不相关言语效应 视觉意识 视觉觉察 视觉觉察负波    

The pioneer work on the irrelevant speech effect (ISE) can be traced back at Colle and Welsh’s report in 1976, and since then many behavioral and neuropsychological experiments have been carried out on this topic. In previous studies, the ISE refers to, compared to a silent-control condition, the disruption of serial recall due to the presentation of auditory distractors. To date, there are many models to explain ISE which have made great progress, such as phonological store hypothesis, changing state hypothesis, feature model and so on. However, most of the work were based on the working memory model, and none of them could satisfactorily explain the discrepancies among different models. And there are ongoing debates on how attention plays a role in the ISE. In the current study, we shifted the observed window to the earliest stage of visual perception (visual awareness or consciousness) and aimed to find out if the irrelevant speech would influence visual information processing earlier than in the memory stage. Three experiments were conducted in this study. All the participants were required to detect the target stimulus which was presented near subjective threshold under three different acoustic conditions. In Experiment 1, a 3 (the type of the irrelevant speech: monosyllabic word vs. pure tone vs. silence) × 3 (the type of picture: gray solid circle vs. cartoon face vs. cartoon clock) mix design was implemented. In Experiment 2, a 3 (the type of the irrelevant speech: monosyllabic word vs. pure tone vs. silence) × 2 (the type of picture: real face vs. real house) within-subject design was implemented. In Experiment 3, in order to examine the neural correlates of the irrelevant speech effect that was found in the previous two experiments, a single factor with 3 levels of the irrelevant sound background (monosyllabic word vs. pure tone vs. silence) were designed and the corresponding event-related potentials (VAN) were recorded. All the behavioral results were analyzed according to the Signal Detection Theory. The results in Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that the irrelevant speech did impair participants’ behavioral performances in the visual awareness task. The ERP results in Experiments 3 were in line with those of Experiments 1 and 2 in that the visual awareness negativity (VAN) around 200ms disappeared under the condition of irrelevant speech, whereas not under the condition of pure tone or silence. In summary, it is concluded that the irrelevant speech damages visual awareness, and this damage was not on the content of visual awareness, nor on the concurrent attentional mechanism.

Key wordsthe irrelevant speech effect    visual consciousness    visual awareness    visual awareness negative
收稿日期: 2015-08-24      出版日期: 2016-07-25

中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(项目号:CCNU14A02015; CCNU15A02041), 国家自然科学基金项目(31400875), 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室开放课题项目(2014A01; 2014B03)。

通讯作者: 赵庆柏, E-mail:   
刘思耘; 周倩; 贾会宾; 赵庆柏. 不相关言语对视觉觉察的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00770.
LIU Siyun; ZHOU Qian; JIA Huibin; ZHAO Qingbai. The impact of the irrelevant speech on visual awareness. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(7): 770-782.
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