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心理学报
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“达”则兼济天下?社会比较对亲社会行为的影响及心理机制
郑晓莹;彭泗清;彭璐珞
(北京大学光华管理学院, 北京 100871)
Feeling Better and Becoming MoreBenevolent: Impact of Social Comparison on ProsocialBehavior
ZHENG Xiaoying; PENG Siqing; PENG Luluo
(Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871 China)
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摘要 

本文通过两个研究探讨社会比较对亲社会行为的影响及其内在机制。研究一中, 被试被随机要求与学习成绩排名第一或者最后的人相比, 然后测量其助人倾向。结果发现, 与向上比较组和控制组相比, 向下社会比较会提高个体的助人倾向。研究二通过虚构的智力测验排名反馈操纵社会比较, 然后测量被试的捐款意愿。结果发现, 得知测验成绩比大多数人好的时候, 人们更愿意捐款。两个实验共同表明, 社会比较对亲社会行为的影响由个体对弱势群体的同理心所中介。

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郑晓莹
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关键词 社会比较亲社会行为同理心助人捐款    
Abstract

Social comparison is the process of evaluating oneself in comparison with others. People actively or passively, consciously or nonconsciously engage in social comparison. Upward comparison---comparing to better off others, engenders psychological inferiority, while downward comparison---comparing to worse off others, elicits psychological superiority. The purpose of the current research was to explore how such psychological inferiority and superiority information resulted from social comparison would influence others-oriented behavior, namely, prosocial behavior. We postulated that downward comparison could increase people’s empathy towards others, and thus would promote prosocial behavior. Two studies were conducted to test the hypotheses. In Study 1, undergraduates were randomly assigned to the upward comparison, the downward comparison, and the control conditions. In the upward (downward) comparison condition, participants were asked to compare their academic performance with the classmate whose academic performance was ranked the first place (last place) in their major. In the control condition, information aboutacademic performance or comparison was not mentioned. After making the comparison, participants indicated their willingness to help in four hypotheticalscenarios. Empathy, self evaluation, and emotion were measured. In Study 2, we used donation intention as an indicator of prosocial behavior. Rather than asking participants to consciously make upward or downward comparison as in Study1, we manipulated social comparisonbygivingfalse intelligence test feedback. All participants completed a subset of Raven intelligence test. Participants in the upward comparison condition were told that their performance in the test was ranked the bottom 10% of our population. Participants in the downward comparison condition were told their rank was in the top 10%. Those in the control condition did not receive any feedback about the test score. Then we asked participants to read two scenarios and indicate their willingness to donate. Empathy was also measured using the same scale as in Study 1. Results of Study 1 indicated that as compared to the upward comparison condition and the control condition, participants in the downward comparison were more likely to help others. There was no significant difference between those in the upward comparison condition and the control condition. Empathy, rather than emotionorself evaluation, acted as the mediator of this effect. Study 2 further replicated this result, and suggested that those who knew they were better than others showed higher empathic concern for people who needed help, which in turn increased donation intention. In conclusion, downward social comparison would promote prosoical behavior by increasing people’s empathy towards those who need help. This effect was not driven by positive emotionnor enhanced self evaluation, but was mediated by the empathetic feeling.

Key wordssocial comparison    prosocial behavior    empathy    helping    donation
收稿日期: 2014-06-23      出版日期: 2015-02-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(71372025), 北京大学光华管理学院院长科研基金。

通讯作者: 郑晓莹, E-mail: zhengxiaoyingpku@gmail.com   
引用本文:   
郑晓莹;彭泗清;彭璐珞. “达”则兼济天下?社会比较对亲社会行为的影响及心理机制[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00243.
ZHENG Xiaoying; PENG Siqing; PENG Luluo. Feeling Better and Becoming MoreBenevolent: Impact of Social Comparison on ProsocialBehavior. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(2): 243-250.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00243      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I2/243
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