心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 666-675 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00666

研究前沿

时间洞察力对成瘾行为的影响及其机制

曹华, 杨玲,, 何圆圆, 苏红婷, 张建勋, 张炀

西北师范大学心理学院, 兰州 730070

The influence of time perspectives on addictive behavior and its mechanism

CAO Hua, YANG Ling,, HE Yuan Yuan, SU Hong Ting, ZHANG Jian Xun, ZHANG Yang

School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China

通讯作者: 杨玲E-mail: yangling@nwnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-06-5   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目.  31660276
西北师范大学学生“创新能力提升计划”.  CX2018Y180

Received: 2018-06-5   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

成瘾行为给个体和社会带来了严重的危害。对成瘾人群时间洞察力的研究成为探讨成瘾行为产生和发展的一个新的视角。过去消极、现在享乐和现在宿命时间洞察力取向的个体更可能出现成瘾行为, 而未来时间洞察力取向则是成瘾行为的一个保护性因素, 它不仅可以减少成瘾行为的发生, 也有利于成瘾行为的康复。从自我调节, 冲动性决策等行为机制和前额叶的神经机制方面可以帮助我们深入理解时间洞察力对成瘾行为的影响。未来研究可以进一步探讨不同成瘾行为者时间洞察力的一致性与特异性; 采用纵向研究方法探讨成瘾者时间洞察力的动态变化过程; 对成瘾者的洞察力进行干预, 增加成瘾者的未来时间洞察力, 减少其过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向来帮助成瘾者实现时间洞察力的平衡, 从而提高其戒断效果。

关键词: 时间洞察力 ; 成瘾行为 ; 决策 ; 作用机制

Abstract

Addictive behaviors have caused serious harm to individuals and society. The study on the time perspective of groups with addictive behaviors has developed a new perspective from which to explore the emergence and development of addictive behaviors. Individuals with negative past perspectives and present hedonistic and fatalistic orientations are more likely to have addictive behaviors, while the orientation of future time perspective is a protective factor against addictive behaviors. This not only reduces the occurrence of addictive behaviors, but also benefits recovery from addictive behaviors. Behavioral mechanisms such as self-regulation, impulsive decision, and neural mechanisms of the prefrontal cortex can help us to thoroughly understand addictive behaviors from the time perspective. Future research can further explore the consistency and specificity of the time perspective in different addictive behaviors and use longitudinal research methods to explore the dynamic processes of addicts' time perspectives. Additionally, intervention addressing the time perspectives of addicts can help addicts achieve balance by improving their future time perspectives and reducing their orientations of past negative and present time perspectives, which can then help addicts increase their abstinence.

Keywords: time perspective ; addictive behavior ; decision-making ; mechanisms.

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本文引用格式

曹华, 杨玲, 何圆圆, 苏红婷, 张建勋, 张炀. (2019). 时间洞察力对成瘾行为的影响及其机制. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 666-675

CAO Hua, YANG Ling, HE Yuan Yuan, SU Hong Ting, ZHANG Jian Xun, ZHANG Yang. (2019). The influence of time perspectives on addictive behavior and its mechanism. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 666-675

1 引言

成瘾行为主要分为行为成瘾(病理性赌博、网络成瘾、手机成瘾等)和物质成瘾(香烟、酒精成瘾和药物成瘾等) (刘勤学, 杨燕, 林悦, 余思, 周宗奎, 2017; 彭娟, 冯廷勇, 2014)。近年来, 研究者越来越关注成瘾行为的产生原因和内在作用机制, 并不断地探索有效的预防和干预方法。而时间洞察力(Time Perspective, TP)作为一个重要的个体差异变量, 可以帮助我们有效地解释和预防成瘾行为(Przepiorka & Blachnio, 2016)。时间洞察力是指个体对时间的认知、体验和行动(或行动倾向)上所表现出来的较为稳定的心理和行为特征, 它是一种相对稳定的人格特质, 反映了人们对过去、现在、未来的一贯看法, 它可以区分为过去时间洞察力、现在时间洞察力和未来时间洞察力(Agarwal, 1993; 黄希庭, 2004)。Zimbardo和Body (1999)编制的《津巴多时间洞察力量表》(Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, ZTPI)用于评估个体对过去、现在和未来的认知、情绪和行为方式, 被广泛用于探讨时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系之中。该量表将时间洞察力划分为5个维度: (1)过去消极(Past Negative, PN), 表达对过去的消极、悲观态度; (2)过去积极(Past Positive, PP), 反映对过去富有情感和快乐体验; (3)现在享乐(Present Hedonistic, PH), 指对现在享受快乐的渴望和追求; (4)现在宿命(Present Fatalistic, PF), 指持无法控制的外力决定命运的信念; (5)未来(Future, F)指实现未来长期目标的思考与计划(吕厚超, 杜刚, 2017)。

当前, 时间洞察力与成瘾行为关系的研究结果主要体现在两个方面。一方面, 时间洞察力的不同维度与成瘾行为的关系存在差异。例如, 大多数研究表明过去消极、现在享乐和现在宿命时间洞察力与成瘾行为为正相关关系, 未来时间洞察力与成瘾行为为负相关, 而过去积极时间洞察力和成瘾行为的相关不显著(Keough, Zimbardo, & Boyd, 1999; Mckay, Percy, & Cole, 2013; Mckay, Percy, Cole, Worrell, & Andretta, 2016; Petry, Bickel, & Arnett, 1998); 另一方面, 对于不同类型的成瘾者, 其时间洞察力具有一致性的同时也存在特异性, 例如, 行为成瘾、酒精成瘾和香烟成瘾者表现出过去消极、现在享乐和现在宿命时间洞察力取向, 具有更少的未来时间洞察力取向, 而药物成瘾者则更多地表现出现在享乐时间洞察力取向(Beenstock, Adams, & White, 2011; Cheong, Tucker, Simpson, & Chandler, 2014)。深入探讨时间洞察力与成瘾行为之间的关系及其内在作用机制, 有利于我们探索成瘾行为产生背后的深层原因, 对成瘾行为的预防和干预治疗也具有重要的现实意义。因此, 本文在总结新近研究的基础上, 首先, 从风险性和保护性时间洞察力两个视角阐述了时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系; 其次, 重点分析时间洞察力视角下成瘾行为的内在作用机制; 最后, 对时间洞察力对成瘾行为影响的未来研究方向进行了展望。

2 时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系

过去消极、现在享乐时间洞察力和现在宿命时间洞察力(现在享乐时间洞察力和现在宿命时间洞察力在之后统称为现在时间洞察力)对于成瘾行为是一种风险性因素, 会增加成瘾行为发生的可能性和干预的难度, 而未来时间洞察力则是一种保护性因素, 会减少成瘾行为发生的可能性, 帮助成瘾者戒除成瘾行为(Chavarria, Allan, Moltisanti, & Taylor, 2015)。

2.1 风险性时间洞察力

对成瘾行为而言, 过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向是一种风险性因素。一方面, 过去消极时间洞察力和现在时间洞察力取向的个体更容易出现成瘾行为, 成瘾的严重程度更高, 在成瘾戒断中更困难, 且过去消极时间洞察力和现在时间洞察力可以显著地正向预测成瘾行为; 另一方面, 相比正常人, 成瘾者普遍表现出过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向(Mckay, Andretta, Magee, & Worrell, 2014)。这种关系在病理性赌博(Donati, Sottili, Morsanyi, & Primi, 2018; 戴雅玲, 张运红, 郑安云, 苗丹民, 2009)、网络成瘾(Chittaro & Vianello, 2013)、手机成瘾(Jung & Han, 2014)、香烟成瘾(Kovač & Rise, 2007; Merson & Perriot, 2011)、酒精成瘾(Cole, Andretta, & Mckay, 2015; Laghi, Liga, Baumgartner, & Baiocco, 2012; Roos & Albers, 1965)和毒品成瘾(Alvos, Gregson, & Ross, 1993; Apostolidis, Fieulaine, Simonin, & Rolland, 2006; Fieulaine & Martinez, 2011; King & Manaster, 1975; Melges, Tinklenberg, Hollister, & Gillespie, 1971; Moskalewicz, 2016)中得到验证。例如, Noël, Saeremans, Kornreich, Jaafari和D'Argembeau (2017)的一项研究结果表明, 相比正常人, 病理性赌博者显示出更大的过去消极时间洞察力和现在时间洞察力取向, 而且, 现在时间洞察力取向越高的病理性赌博者, 其冲动性和风险倾向越高。Chittaro和Vianello (2013)调查了149名Facebook用户, 结果也发现过去消极和现在宿命时间洞察力可以显著地预测病理性网络的使用。研究者认为可以将时间洞察力作为个体差异变量考虑到病理性网络的使用背景中。同样, 在物质成瘾中, 研究结果也表明, 现在时间洞察力取向者会报告更多的香烟、酒精和非法药物的使用频率, 并且现在时间洞察力可以显著地预测成瘾物质使用频率(Chua, Milfont, & Jose, 2014; Peters et al., 2005; Wills, Sandy, & Yaeger, 2001)。

过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向的个体更容易出现成瘾行为, 成瘾者也表现出更倾向于过去消极时间洞察力、现在宿命和现在享乐主义时间洞察力以及对未来时间洞察力的短视。这可能是由于过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向个体的自我调节能力更差。自我调节能力被视为一种态度或特质因素, 这种因素会影响个体是否能够成功控制自身行为, 低自我调节能力则可能直接诱发无意识行为(程翠萍, 张永红, 2011)。除自我调节能力外, 过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向的个体往往伴随更多的抑郁和焦虑问题(Davies & Filippopoulos, 2015), 他们更倾向于满足当前的情绪发泄, 很少关注未来, 即使关注未来, 也总是感觉前途渺茫, 因而更加关注当前的快乐和满足, 不考虑当前的行为对未来的影响, 也不相信这会影响他们的未来, 这也是他们更容易出现成瘾行为的重要原因。例如, 有研究就表明, 倾向于过去消极时间洞察力的个体, 会伴随着更多的消极情绪, 这会持续地影响到他们现在和未来的行为, 而现在时间洞察力取向的个体更倾向于即时的满足, 表现为高冲动性。这也可以解释为什么成瘾者往往更具有高冲动性, 倾向于获得即时的奖赏而忽视未来的不良后果(Mackillop, Anderson, Castelda, Mattson, & Donovick, 2006b; Nigro, Cosenza, & Ciccarelli, 2017)。

2.2 保护性时间洞察力

未来时间洞察力是个体对未来社会和自我发展, 尤其是对未来自我发展可能性的认知、情感和行为(或倾向) (宋其争, 2004)。它与个体的态度、行为意向和行为控制感知有很强的相关性, 具有预期性、动力性、倾向性的特点(Andre, van Vianen, Peetsma, & Oort, 2018)。不论是行为成瘾还是物质成瘾, 研究结果普遍表明, 未来时间洞察力与成瘾行为之间为显著的负向关系, 未来时间洞察力取向个体的成瘾行为更少, 成瘾严重程度更低, 成瘾者也表现出更少的未来时间洞察力取向。增强未来时间洞察力不仅可以减少成瘾行为, 而且有助于成瘾者的戒断和康复(Alm & Låftman, 2016; Chodkiewicz & Nowakowska, 2011; Lennings, 1994)。这种关系在手机成瘾(常若松, 彭姓, 符明弘, 张长路, 唐晓雨, 2017; 彭姓, 2016)、香烟成瘾(Adams, 2009; Adams & Nettle, 2009)、酒精成瘾(Cole et al., 2015; Wells, Morgan, Worrell, Sumnall, & McKay, 2018)和毒品成瘾(Apostolidis, Fieulaine, & Soulé, 2006)等成瘾行为的研究中得到验证。例如, 对来自5个国家(苏格兰、法国、德国、中国和马来西亚)的吸烟者(N = 10341)和非吸烟者(N = 4955)进行调查分析发现, 相比吸烟者, 非吸烟者更可能是未来时间洞察力取向, 在控制国家、年龄、性别、教育水平和民族等变量的条件下, 分析时间洞察力和吸烟状态之间的关系, 结果表明, 时间洞察力和吸烟状态之间存在显著的相关关系, 且时间洞察力可以预测吸烟状态。未来时间洞察力取向的个体更可能是非吸烟者而不是吸烟者(Sansone et al., 2013)。在时间洞察力中, 还有一个重要的维度, 即过去积极时间洞察力, 它反映个体对过去富有情感和快乐体验, 研究表明, 过去积极时间洞察力和健康的生活方式(主要指饮食, 睡眠和身体锻炼)为显著的正相关(甄一凡, 任政, 钮文异, 2015), 而且过去积极时间洞察力可以正向预测健康的生活方式(崔萌萌, 周艳玲, 钮文异, 2014)。但是, 在时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系研究中, 研究结果普遍表明过去积极时间洞察力与病理性赌博(Donati, Sottili, Morsanyi, & Primi, 2018; Noël et al., 2017)、网络成瘾(Chittaro & Vianello, 2013; 丁凯, 2009)、酒精使用障碍(Loose, Pont, Acier, & El-Baalbaki, 2018)和药物成瘾(Cheong, Tucker, Simpson, & Chandler, 2014)之间并不存在显著的相关关系。基于此, 我们认为未来时间洞察力可以作为成瘾行为的潜在保护性因素, 且这种观点也得到理论和实证研究结果的支持(Zajenkowski, Carelli, & Ledzińska, 2014)。

期望-价值理论(Wigfield, 1994)认为个体行为动机由结果期待和价值评估决定, 而未来时间洞察力则可以通过影响相关选择物的期望和价值来影响延迟满足。解释水平理论也表明未来时间洞察力通过促使个体关注高水平特征相关的价值(即延迟奖励), 使即时满足得到贬值, 而延迟目标得到增值(庞雪, 吕厚超, 华生旭, 2014)。自我控制能力受损, 不能有效控制自己选择延迟满足是成瘾者的一个重要表现(周宏丽, 2015)。延迟满足(delay of gratification)指一种个体甘愿为更有价值的长远结果而放弃即时满足的抉择取向, 属于人格中自我控制的一个部分, 是心理成熟的表现, 其产生机制在很大程度上基于未来取向的自我调节(郝春东, 刘晓燕, 2006)。在追求未来目标和预期行为结果时, 延迟满足需要理解监控、寻求帮助、时间管理、自我评估、批判性思维等一系列自我调节策略。Zimmerman (2008)的自我调节周期模型(self-regulation cyclical model)认为在坚持未来目标过程中, 延迟行为是一个需要自我监控的调节周期(涉及深思熟虑、表现、反省三个阶段), 这就可以解释延迟满足与未来时间洞察力在整个自我调节过程中的相互关联。根据该模型, 具有较高未来时间洞察力的个体在深思熟虑阶段有更多的投入, 会运用自我动机信念来实现延迟目标; 在表现阶段, 能更多地参与意志管理过程, 如自我指导、自我编码和自我试验等; 在反省阶段, 能更好地评估行为, 检验因果属性, 考察对任务完成的满意程度, 发展行为的适宜性和防御性反应。因此, 未来时间洞察力可以作为成瘾行为的一个保护性因素, 可能是由于未来时间洞察力个体具有更强的成就动机、自我调节和自我控制能力, 从而能够明确的设置未来目标, 不断的坚持和调整自己的行为(Kim, Hong, Lee, & Hyun, 2017; 庞雪等, 2014)。

综上所述, 不论是在行为成瘾还是物质成瘾中, 作为一个重要的个体差异变量, 时间洞察力与成瘾行为的发生和发展存在密切关系。过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向是成瘾行为的一种风险性因素, 而未来时间洞察力则是成瘾行为的一个重要的保护性因素。过去消极时间洞察力取向的个体更有可能将过去消极的体验带入到现在, 现在时间洞察力倾向的个体则可能会对过去和未来不屑一顾而更多地关注于即时的满足(Barnett, Melugin, & Hernandez, 2018; Hyun, Park, Lee, & Kim, 2014), 而未来时间洞察力取向个体能够对自己的行为不断地进行自我调节和自我控制, 甘愿为价值更大的遥远结果而放弃即时的满足(Przepiorka & Blachnio, 2016), 因此, 过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向的个体更容易产生成瘾行为, 而未来时间洞察力取向不仅可以减少成瘾行为的发生, 而且也可以帮助成瘾行为的戒除。同时, 成瘾者也表现出更多过去消极和现在时间洞察力以及更少的未来时间洞察力, 于是越来越多的研究者鼓励个体用未来时间洞察力来代替过去消极和现在时间洞察力(Chan & Hyun, 2014)。

3 时间洞察力与成瘾行为关系的内在作用机制

在探讨时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系的基础上, 深入理解其内在的作用机制有利于我们了解个体时间洞察力是如何作用于成瘾行为, 为进一步的临床干预提供理论基础。从自我调节、冲动性决策等行为机制和神经机制两个方面可以进一步帮助我们理解时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系。

3.1 行为机制

自我调节指的是控制或改变自己的思维、情感、冲动以及行为的能力, 尤其是通过这种改变达到理想、价值观、道德以及社会期望等标准, 以逐渐实现自己的长期目标(Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2010; Gailliot et al., 2007)。研究表明自我调节与成瘾行为的发生和发展、戒断和复发均存在密切的关系(Baumeister & Vonasch, 2015)。在时间洞察力与自我调节的关系研究中, 未来时间洞察力与自我调节之间存在显著的正相关, 与现在宿命主义和过去消极主义时间洞察力则是显著的负相关(Bilde, Vansteenkiste, & Lens, 2011)。这或许表明当个体更关注未来时会更好地去调节自己的行为, 倾向于有计划有目的的行为, 而与之相反, 当个体只关注过去和现在的时候, 他们不能对自己的行为进行合理的规划, 而是倾向于即时的满足和冲动性行为(Miller & Brickman, 2004; Stanescu & Iorga, 2015)。因此, 在时间洞察力与成瘾行为关系中, 个体的自我调节能力起着重要作用。过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向的个体并不能对自己的行为进行及时有效的控制和改变, 从而做出更多的冲动性行为, 更容易出现成瘾行为, 而未来时间洞察力取向的个体则相反。

决策是一种高级且复杂的认知功能, 行为的冲动性是其外在表现, 个体的冲动行为与不良决策息息相关(苏中华, 王会, 赵晓丹, 徐芳芳, 郝伟, 2014)。冲动性作为一种人格特质, 具有这种特质的人在内部或者外部刺激的作用下通常会讯速地、没有计划地做出反应, 而且不考虑这些反应对自身或他人是否产生负面的影响(Moeller, Barratt, Dougherty, Schmitz, & Swann, 2001; 周亮, 何晓燕, 肖水源, 2006)。研究表明, 不论是行为成瘾(例如, 病理性赌博、网络成瘾、手机成瘾)群体, 还是物质成瘾(香烟成瘾、酒精成瘾和药物成瘾)群体常表现出高冲动性, 更容易做出一些冲动性决策行为(Tang, Zhang, Yan, & Qu, 2017; 徐四华, 2012; 严万森, 李纾, 隋南, 2011; 周平艳等, 2014)。时间洞察力是个体通过过去、现在和未来的时间范畴来过滤其经历的无意识过程, 这个过程会影响到其信息加工、决策和目标设定, 最终会影响其行为(Griva, Tseferidi, & Anagnostopoulos, 2015)。时间洞察力本身与冲动性之间存在密切关系(Ciccarelli, Malinconico, Griffiths, Nigro, & Cosenza, 2016)。以现在时间洞察力为取向的个体会倾向于进行不经思考的冲动性行为, 倾向于在没有未来计划的情况下做出快速的决定, 实现即时的满足, 而不去考虑未来可能导致的后果; 未来时间洞察力取向的个体则会倾向于思考未来可能会导致的后果, 做出理性的决策行为以获得更长远的利益(Agarwal & Srivastava, 1981)。因此, 过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向的个体之所以更容易出现成瘾行为, 可能是由于过去消极时间洞察力取向的个体更容易把过去消极的情绪体验带到当前, 影响其决策行为, 现在时间洞察去取向个体倾向于即时的满足, 容易做出冲动性决策行为, 因而过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向个体更容易出现成瘾行为。相反, 未来时间洞察力取向的个体则会采取更加理性的决策, 减少或者降低成瘾行为产生的可能性。

3.2 神经机制

脑影像研究表明, 不同的时间洞察力(过去、现在和未来时间洞察力)取向个体大脑的激活区域具有一致性的同时也存在差异(Carelli & Olsson, 2014; Chen, Guo, & Feng, 2018; Coull, Vidal, Nazarian, & Macar, 2004)。其中主要激活区域包括前扣带回、颞叶皮层、顶叶和前额叶皮质。例如, 与未来时间洞察力(更多激活腹侧前额叶皮质, Brodmann 47区)相比, 过去和现在时间洞察力的内侧前额叶皮质出现更多的激活(过去时间洞察力激活更多的Brodmann 10区, 现在时间洞察力更多地激活Brodmann 32区), 其中, 过去消极和过去积极时间洞察力更多地激活内侧前额皮质, 而现在宿命时间洞察力和现在享乐时间洞察力更多地与前扣带回(anterior cingulate cortex)、Brodmann 32区和内侧额上皮质(superior medial frontal cortex)有关(陶安琪, 2014; Carelli & Olsson, 2014)。研究者也发现内侧前额叶和包括海马在内的内侧颞叶等区域的活动强度能反映时间洞察力能力的差异(索涛, 2012), 且腹内侧前额叶受损会影响未来的时间洞察力(Fellows & Farah, 2005)。成瘾的双系统理论认为, 成瘾是大脑反思系统(Reflective System)和冲动系统(Impulsive System)之间失衡的结果(Bechara, 2005; Stacy & Wiers, 2010; 严万森, 张冉冉, 刘苏姣, 2016)。冲动系统的神经基础主要是杏仁核-纹状体系统, 它在自然奖赏和药物奖赏的情绪及动机效应中起关键作用, 是一个相对内隐的、无意识的、自动化的系统; 反思系统的神经基础主要是前额叶皮质系统, 它在冲动控制、计划决策、情绪调节等过程中起重要作用, 是相对外显的、有意识的、受控性的系统。当以前额叶为中心的反思系统控制能力下降、以纹状体为中心的冲动系统功能亢进时, 个体的行为变得冲动而不可控。在赌博成瘾(Balodis et al., 2012)、酒精成瘾(Courtney, Ghahremani, & Ray, 2013)、可卡因成瘾(Ersche et al., 2011)的研究中, 均发现成瘾者的额叶-纹状体环路功能存在异常, 因此, 前额叶皮质可能是时间洞察力对成瘾行为的影响的重要神经基础。

综上, 不论是在行为机制还是神经机制中, 自我控制以及决策在时间洞察力与成瘾行为的关系中均起着重要作用, 且自我控制和决策之间也存在相互作用(窦凯, 王玉洁, 聂衍刚, 黎建斌, 沈汪兵, 2014; 熊素红, 孙洪杰, 2017)。因此, 时间洞察力与成瘾行为之间的关系具有复杂性。当前, 对于时间洞察力与成瘾行为之间的内在作用机制研究还存在不足, 未来需要进一步探讨其更深层次的作用机制, 特别是不同维度的时间洞察力与成瘾关系的内在作用路径及其神经机制。

4 展望

4.1 不同成瘾行为时间洞察力的一致性与特异性

虽然, 已有的研究表明时间洞察力与成瘾行为之间存在密切关系, 成瘾者普遍存在过去消极时间洞察力和现在时间洞察力取向以及未来时间洞察力短视, 但是, 不同成瘾行为的时间洞察力存在一致性的同时也会存在特异性(Akamatsu, 2014; Kleftaras & Georgiou, 2014; Miura, 2017)。例如, Barnett等人(2013)的研究也发现未来时间洞察力可以预防香烟、大麻和硬药的使用, 但是对酒精没有效果, 这可能是由于酒精和其他药物成瘾者在风险感知上存在差异。有研究发现个体对时间的态度和认知与风险感知关系密切, 表现为过去时间洞察力取向的个体可能会低估现在的行为对未来造成不良影响的风险, 进而出现更多的风险行为, 而未来时间洞察力取向个体会增加其对成瘾行为带来的危害的风险感知, 进而减少成瘾行为的可能性(Zajenkowski, Carelli, & Ledzińska, 2014)。但也有研究表明某些成瘾行为在时间洞察力上差异不显著, 时间洞察力的某些维度(例如, 过去积极时间洞察力)与成瘾行为之间相关不显著, 例如, Mackillop, Anderson, Castelda, Mattson和Donovick (2006a)在研究中并没有发现非病理性赌博者、潜在的病理性赌博者和病理性赌博者的时间洞察力存在差异性, 这可能是由于此次调查是以大学生为研究对象, 并非临床样本。虽然三组是不同方面的赌博行为, 但是作为一种非临床的样本, 他们心理痛苦程度并没有什么不同。正如Hodgins和Engel (2002)指出, 时间洞察力的差异可能是由于痛苦导致, 而不是成瘾行为本身。而且时间洞察力结构的复杂性决定了并非时间洞察力的每个维度都与成瘾行为存在直接的关系。此外, 时间洞察力会受到年龄、性别、人格特征、社会角色、价值观、情绪等多种因素的影响(吕厚超, 黄希庭, 2005)。因此, 在时间洞察力与成瘾行为关系的研究中存在一致性的同时也会出现特异性, 未来需要进一步在研究不同成瘾行为者的时间洞察力的一致性和特异性的同时, 将更多的影响因素考虑其中, 并深入探讨这种特异性背后的内在机制。

4.2 采用纵向研究方法探讨成瘾者时间洞察力的动态变化过程

时间洞察力作为一种人格特征, 是由过去、现在和未来组成, 而这种过去、现在和未来是相对变化的过程, 因此, 时间洞察力具有稳定性, 同时也具有一定的可变化性, 它也会随着个体发展和环境而发生变化。Zimbardo和Boyd (1999)把同时具有三个时间倾向性的表现称作是一种平衡的时间洞察(Balanced Time Perspective, BTP)能力, 是一种高的时间洞察能力, 具体表现为个体具有较高的过去积极时间观, 中度的现在享乐时间洞察力和未来时间洞察力, 较低的过去消极时间洞察力和现在宿命时间洞察力。具有平衡时间洞察力的个体, 能够正视现在, 审时度势, 及时把握时机, 具有长远眼光, 因此, 更容易适应快速发展的社会, 更能够取得成功。研究表明, 成瘾者普遍存在过去消极、现在享乐、现在宿命和未来短视的时间洞察力, 存在明显时间洞察力的偏离。然而, 由于以往研究普遍采用的是横断研究的方法, 更多的是探讨成瘾者的时间洞察力现状, 时间洞察力对成瘾行为的预测作用, 而鲜有研究采用纵向研究的方式揭示成瘾者时间洞察力的动态变化过程, 特别是什么因素导致个体偏离平衡时间洞察力, 出现过去消极和现在享乐时间洞察力取向, 最终出现成瘾行为。而以动态的方式揭示这种偏离平衡时间洞察力的变化过程, 对于成瘾行为的干预可能更有价值。有研究表明, 对于刚开始戒断毒品的成瘾者而言, 他们会由于过去的吸毒经历而产生更高的过去消极时间洞察力, 而超过1年的戒断者, 他们开始忽视过去的消极的经历, 转向关注未来(Zentsova & Leonov, 2013)。因此, 未来可以通过纵向追踪的研究方法来探讨成瘾者时间洞察力的动态发展变化过程, 为成瘾行为的预防和康复提供指导。

4.3 提高成瘾者的未来时间洞察力, 实现平衡的时间洞察力

平衡的时间洞察力对于个体可能具有更加积极的意义(Boniwell & Zimbardo, 2004), 然而, 不论是行为成瘾者还是物质成瘾者均存在明显的平衡时间洞察力的偏离, 更偏向于过去消极和现在时间洞察力, 而缺少过未来时间洞察力取向。偏离平衡的时间洞察力和抑郁、焦虑、压力等消极情绪正相关(Mooney, Earl, Mooney, & Bateman, 2017), 因此, 未来时间洞察力作为成瘾行为的一个保护性因素, 对成瘾行为的预防和戒断具有重要意义。而且时间洞察力是可以进行干预的。研究表明, 未来时间洞察力可以显著地预测8个月后的戒烟尝试行为, 增强当前吸烟者的未来时间洞察力能够帮助当前吸烟者更多地去尝试戒烟(Hall et al., 2012)。对于酒精滥用者, 增加他们的未来时间洞察力可以减少酒精滥用的危害(Acuff et al., 2017)。然而, 当前还缺少从时间洞察力视角来预防和干预成瘾行为的研究, 未来研究需要进一步探索对时间洞察力的干预方法及这种干预对预防成瘾行为的效果。同时, 对于成瘾者, 未来研究可以进一步探索如何通过提高成瘾者未来时间洞察力, 减少其过去消极和现在时间洞察力取向来帮助成瘾者实现时间洞察力的平衡, 使成瘾者更好地适应社会生活, 提高戒断效果(Do & Shin, 2017)。

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心理发展与教育, 22, (3), 120-124.

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延迟满足从20世纪70年代开始,就受到了心理学家们的广泛重视和研究。本文首先从研究方法上回顾了延迟满足的实验室研究基本模式;其次,从理论上对延迟满足的生物社会模型-冷热系统分析进行了介绍,并总结了延迟满足的非认知因素研究方面的最新成果;最后对延迟满足在不同领域及不同群体中的研究进行了述评,并对延迟满足研究进行了展望。

黄希庭 . ( 2004).

论时间洞察力

心理科学, 27, (1), 5-7.

[本文引用: 1]

刘勤学, 杨燕, 林悦, 余思, 周宗奎 . ( 2017).

智能手机成瘾: 概念、测量及影响因素

中国临床心理学杂志, 25, (1), 82-87.

[本文引用: 1]

吕厚超, 杜刚 . ( 2017).

津巴多时间洞察力类型划分: 基于聚类分析的结果

. 西南大学学报(社会科学版), 43, (5), 97-104.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

基于ZTPI区分时间洞察力的类型,并探究不同类型在相关心理变量上的差异。对1264名大学生施测《津巴多时间洞察力量表》(ZTPI)中文版,在检验量表信效度和相关分析的基础上,采用聚类分析,形成五个类型:消极、冲动寻求、未来取向、平衡和宿命。宿命、未来取向、冲动寻求人数各占27.8%,27.2%和25.9%。未来取向和平衡类型在自尊、自我概念清晰度、人格特质、冲动性、网络成瘾和生活满意度上优于其他三个类型;不同于国外研究结果,虽然平衡类型是最优结果,但对中国大学生而言,未来取向在某些心理变量上优于平衡类型。

吕厚超, 黄希庭 . ( 2005).

时间洞察力的概念及研究方法

心理科学, 28, (1), 166-169.

[本文引用: 1]

庞雪, 吕厚超, 华生旭 . ( 2014).

延迟满足: 基于未来时间洞察力的自我调节

心理科学, 37, (1), 78-82.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

延迟满足是个体为扶得更有价值的奖励结果,坚持目标行为而推迟即时讹满足的倾向与行为。其产生机制在很大程度上基于术来取向的自我调节。未来时间洞察力对延迟满足的作用可由期望-价值理论、解释水平理论和自我调节周期模型等多种理论进行解释.除行为层面的机制,未来时间洞察力与延迟满足涉及腹侧额叶-纹状体环路等相似的脑机制。未来研究需深化和延迟满足的理论机制,明确与时间洞察力各维度的复杂关系,探究与时间洞察力相同的生理神经机制,促进其应用于社会实践、

彭娟, 冯廷勇 . ( 2014).

成瘾人群跨期选择的神经机制及干预方法

心理科学进展, 22, (5), 810-821.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Addiction can be divided into substance addiction and behavioral addiction. Although different type of addictions has its own specific characteristics on intertemporal choice, all of addictions show steep delay discounting. The neural basis of addicts’ intertemporal choice deficits focuses on the valuation network (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, striatum and posterior cingulate cortex), the cognitive control network (prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and the imagery /prospection network (hippocampus and amygdala). We can use mental trainings to improve addicts’ intertemporal choice deficits. With regard to intervention, Working Memory Training、Prospection / Imagery Training and Advisor-Teller Money Manager therapy are the effective ways which have been proved to reduce addicts’ delay discounting. Future studies should pay attention to the cognitive mechanism of addicts’ intertemporal choice deficits, the interaction between neural networks (valuation network, cognitive control network and imagery/prospection network), the basis of behavioral genetics and developing effective methods to reduce addicts’ delay discounting.

彭姓 . ( 2016).

职校学生的手机成瘾、手机使用动机与时间洞察力的现状及其关系研究(硕士学位论文)

云南师范大学.

[本文引用: 1]

宋其争 . ( 2004).

大学生未来时间洞察力的理论和实证研究(硕士学位论文)

西南大学.

[本文引用: 1]

苏中华, 王会, 赵晓丹, 徐芳芳, 郝伟 . ( 2014).

苯丙胺类物质所致精神障碍患者的冲动性和认知决策能力研究

中华精神科杂志, 47, (3), 164-168.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的 了解苯内胺类物质所致精神障碍患者的冲动性特点和认知决策能力,以及抗精神病药治疗前后的变化.方法 对100例苯丙胺所致精神障碍患者(病例组)进行抗精神病药治疗4周,采用Barratt冲动性量表(BIS)、Buss攻击性量表(BAS)和爱衙华博 弈测验(IGT)于治疗前后分别评估其冲动攻击性和认知决策能力,并与100名年龄、性别相匹配的健康对照者(对照组)比较;采用单一样本t检验、独立样 本t检验和重复测量方差分析对数据进行分析.结果 (1)病例组BIS、BAS治疗前总分显著高于对照组[(97.01 ±20.04)分比(62.56±11.59)分,t=13.45,P=0.000;(91.15±20.83)分比(57.78±13.48) 分,t=14.88,P=0.000];病例组治疗后评分分别为(68.02±13.17)分和(61.78±13.38)分,较治疗前显著降低 (t=11.95,P=0.000;t=11.86,P=0.000),但仍高于对照组(t =3.05,P=0.000;t=2.11,P=0.037);(2)病例组治疗后IGT评分优于治疗前(F=22.99,P=0.000),但治疗前后 评分均差于对照组(F=23.51,P=0.000;F=24.15,P=0.000).结论 苯丙胺类物质所致精神障碍患者冲动攻击性较高,决策认知能力较差,抗精神病药治疗后可改善,但仍未达到无药物滥用者水平

索涛 . ( 2012).

个体人格特质对跨期决策的影响及其神经基础(硕士学位论文)

西南大学.

[本文引用: 1]

陶安琪 . ( 2014).

不同时间洞察力个体的跨期选择偏好及神经机制研究(硕士学位论文)

西南大学.

[本文引用: 1]

熊素红, 孙洪杰 . ( 2017).

奖赏敏感性在冲动性饮食行为中的作用

心理科学, 40, (2), 429-435.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

肥胖会导致癌症、心脏病、糖尿病等诸多健康问题,而冲动性饮食是肥胖的一个重要影响因素。厘清奖赏敏感性在冲动性饮食中的作用,有助于深入理解冲动性饮食行为。本文介绍了奖赏敏感性的概念、涉及的主要研究领域、生物学基础及测量;整理归纳出奖赏敏感性影响冲动性饮食的三种可能路径:通过注意力偏向影响对享乐性食品的感知、影响消费欲望及随后的自我控制;文章最后指出了基于奖赏敏感性对冲动性饮食进行拓展研究的可能方向。

徐四华 . ( 2012).

网络成瘾者的行为冲动性——来自爱荷华赌博任务的证据

心理学报, 44, (11), 1523-1534.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Internet addiction, defined as a maladaptive use of the Internet, is estimated to occur in 8 13% of college students (Chou, Condron, & Belland, 2005). It has become a serious mental health issue worldwide because addicts are impaired in various behavioral aspects including social interactions and academic performance (Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Scherer, 1997; Young, 1998). Some researchers consider Internet addiction as a kind of behavioral addiction. However, there are few experimental studies on the cognitive functions of Internet addicts and limited data are available to compare Internet addicts with other addictive behaviors, such as drug abuse and pathological gambling. In the present study, we examined internet addicts function of decision making. Two groups of participants, 42 Internet addicts (18~22 years old, 32 male, M = 19.79, SD = 1.14) and 42 controls (18~22 years old, 26 male, M = 19.71, SD = 1.13), were compared on the cognitive function and impulsivity by using a Chinese computerized versions of the IGT and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). In the IGT, subjects had to choose between four decks of cards. Unknown to the subjects, two piles offered larger short-term gains that are offset by greater risks of heavy losses, and hence were disadvantageous in the long run. The other two piles offered smaller short-term gains and a lower risk of loss that result in long-term maximization of the monetary payoff. The results of the present study showed that (1) compared with controls, sensation seeking of internet addicts was higher significantly, and internet addicts showed significantly higher scores on subscales of thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and they selected significantly less net decks in the Iowa Gambling Task. Furthermore, Internet addicts made no progress in selecting strategy along with the time course of the decision making. (2) reaction patterns for pure win-cards were consistent between Internet addicts and controls, however, the former still preferred to choose high win-cards in spite of potential high punishment whereas the latter tended to transform the direction of card selection after getting corresponding feedback to avoid potentially high risks. (3) Net scores of the IGT were not correlated with SSS. These results showed some similarities between Internet addiction and other addictive behaviors such as drug abuse and pathological gambling. The findings from the Iowa Gambling Task indicated that Internet addicts have deficits in decision making function, which are characterized by an immediate win-priority selection pattern and tolerance to high risk.

严万森, 李纾, 隋南 . ( 2011).

成瘾人群的决策障碍: 研究范式与神经机制

心理科学进展, 19, (5), 652-663.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

药物成瘾者和赌博成瘾者常常偏好即刻的奖赏而忽视将来的消极结果。在进行决策任务时,他们倾向于做出不利的选择,偏好短时的获益而不顾长期的损失,这是一种决策障碍的表现。延迟折扣任务(DDT)、爱荷华赌博任务(IGT)和剑桥赌博任务(CGT)是研究决策障碍的三种常用方法和范式,分别考察成瘾人群的冲动性决策、决策短视和决策时的冒险行为。近十几年来的研究表明,前额叶皮层(PFC)在人类的决策活动中起重要作用。其中,腹内侧前额叶(VMPFC)、眶额叶(OFC)、背外侧前额叶(DLPFC)等皮层的功能变化与成瘾人群的决策障碍有密切关系。

严万森, 张冉冉, 刘苏姣 . ( 2016).

冲动性对不同成瘾行为发展的调控及其神经机制

心理科学进展, 24, (2), 159-172.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Mounting evidence has demonstrated that impulsivity could be a potential biomarker that plays a crucial role in the development of addictive behaviors, thus impulsivity is considered a possible treatment target for early intervention of addiction. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the mechanisms underlying the trajectories of impulsivity are involved in drug addiction and non-drug addiction. This project aims to identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity in both nicotine dependence and internet gaming disorder by combining a direct comparison of drug and non-drug addictive behaviors with longitudinal studies and a cognitive-behavioral intervention study, using neurocognitive tasks and neuroimaging techniques. Firstly, nicotine-dependent individuals and internet gaming addicts would be tested on a series of behavioral tasks of impulsivity as well as in fronto-striatal brain systems using both structured and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3T Philips Trio MRI. Then we will move on to investigate the predictive role of impulsivity for nicotine dependence and internet gaming disorder through a 2 to 3 year follow-up study with a large sample of non-addicted adolescents consisting of two groups with either high- or low- levels of impulsivity. Thirdly, a study of 6 to 12 month cognitive behavioral intervention would be conducted on nicotine-dependent individuals and internet gaming addicts to explore the possible effects of reducing impulsivity level on the exacerbation of addictive behaviors. And this study will also evaluate the effects of continuous behavioral training on brain functions in fronto-striatal brain systems through fMRI tests. Totally, these studies should be helpful for shedding light on the possible efficacy of impulsivity as a potential biomarker and treatment target for addictive disorders.

甄一凡, 任政, 钮文异 . ( 2015).

某校本科生时间洞察力与生活方式关系的结构方程模型分析

中国学校卫生, 36, (10), 1551-1554.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的 探索北京某高校本科生时间洞察力与生活方式的关系,为结合时间洞察力教育开展生活方式课程提供依据.方法 采用结合课程内容设计的生活方式问卷和津巴多时间洞察力量表,对北京某高校2014-2015学年上学期选修“健康的生活方式与健康传播”通选课的137名本科生进行问卷调查,使用Spearman相关和结构方程模型分析时间洞察力与生活方式的关系.结果 本科生的时间洞察力过去消极、过去积极、现在宿命、现在享乐、未来5个维度的得分分别为(3.09±0.59),(3.95±0.56),(2.72±0.55),(3.29±0.41),(3.52±0.47)分.Spearman相关分析显示,健康的生活方式各个项目与过去积极和未来时间洞察力呈正相关,与现在宿命时间洞察力呈负相关(P值均<0.05).结构方程模型拟合优度可以接受(RMSEA =0.13,90%CI=0.12~0.15,P<0.01,CFI=0.78).性别、父母文化程度和未来时间洞察力对生活方式有直接影响,未来时间洞察力得分每增加1,生活方式得分平均增加0.36(标准化系数=0.36,t=4.22,P<0.01).结论 本科生的时间洞察力与生活方式有较高的相关性,可尝试在生活方式课程中结合时间洞察力的教育,提高生活方式的教育效果.

周宏丽 . ( 2015).

网游成瘾者的跨期选择和风险决策的认知神经机制(硕士学位论文)

浙江师范大学.

[本文引用: 1]

周亮, 何晓燕, 肖水源 . ( 2006).

冲动性测量的方法学问题

中国临床心理学杂志, 14, (5), 455-457.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

近年来,有关冲动性的研究比较活跃,冲动性已经成为心理学、精神病学、行为医学以及精神药理学等研究中经常涉及的概念。然而,冲动性并没有一个统一的概念,不同的研究领域使用的测量方法也不尽相同。本文综述了目前冲动性研究中常用的几种定义以及测量的方法,并讨论了各种方法的优缺点。

周平艳, 刘丹玮, 周仁来, 孙本良, 肖洁, 李松 . ( 2014).

药物成瘾对决策行为的损伤及戒断后的恢复

中国临床心理学杂志, 22, (6), 951-956.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的:本研究采用赌博任务考察不同戒断时长的药物戒断者(短期戒断组:平均2.7个月,中期戒断组:平均19.4个月,长期戒断组:平均49.6个月),行为决策能力的损伤与恢复情况。方法:实验中要求药物戒断者与正常控制组完成赌博任务,被试根据屏幕所示的概率判断目标出现在屏幕的左边还是右边。结果:行为结果发现,所有戒断组赌博得分均低于控制组,说明药物戒断者的行为具有高冲动性;中期组和长期组的赌博得分在实验的中期、后期均显著高于实验的前期,表明随着戒断时间延长,药物成瘾对学习能力产生的损伤逐渐恢复。脑电结果发现,面对不同类型的赌博界面,短期组和中期组均未显示出N2波的差异,而长期组能够区分Pass类型与Gamble类型,以及Pass类型与Nogo类型,但是区分的方向与控制组相反,说明药物对长期戒断者决策偏好、选择能力的损伤并未完全恢复。结论:药物成瘾者的行为决策偏好、选择能力和执行控制能力都存在损害,戒断4年后的长期组决策能力有所恢复,但仍未恢复至正常水平。

Acuff S. F., Soltis K. E., Dennhardt A. A., Borsari B., Martens M. P., & Murphy J. G . ( 2017).

Future so bright? Delay discounting and consideration of future consequences predict academic performance among college drinkers

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25, (5), 412-421.

URL     PMID:28910128      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract College student drinking is a major public health concern and can result in a range of negative consequences, from acute health risks to decreased academic performance and drop out. Harm reduction interventions have been developed to reduce problems associated with drinking but there is a need to identify specific risk/protective factors related to academic performance among college drinkers. Behavioral economics suggests that chronic alcohol misuse reflects a dysregulated behavioral process or reinforcer pathology-alcohol is overvalued and the value of prosocial rewards are sharply discounted due, in part, to their delay. This study examined delay discounting, consideration of future consequences (CFC) and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as predictors of academic success (grade point average; GPA) and engagement (time devoted to academic activities) among 393 college drinkers (61% female). In multivariate models, PBS were associated with greater academic engagement, but were not with academic success. Lower discounting of delayed rewards and greater CFC were associated with both academic success and engagement among drinkers. Previous research suggests that future time orientation is malleable, and the current results provide support for efforts to enhance future time orientation as part of alcohol harm-reduction approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record.

Adams J . ( 2009).

The role of time perspective in smoking cessation amongst older English adults

Health Psychology, 28, (5), 529-534.

URL     PMID:19751078      [本文引用: 1]

To study the longitudinal relationship between time perspective and smoking cessation over 4 years of follow-up among a cohort of older English adults and to determine whether the predictive utility of time perspective in smoking cessation.Analysis of data from core members of the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing who took part in face-to-face interviews in 2002, 2004, and 2006 (n = 7,174).Time perspective was measured using a question on time period for financial planning. Smoking at baseline and quitting over follow-up was determined through self-report.At baseline, planning for longer periods was associated with lower odds of being a smoker, after controlling for age, gender, and education. Among those who were smokers at baseline, planning for longer periods at baseline was associated with increased odds of quitting over 4 years, after controlling for age, gender, and education.Including help to become more future orientated in smoking cessation interventions may increase their effectiveness.

Adams J., &Nettle D . ( 2009).

Time perspective, personality and smoking, body mass, and physical activity: An empirical study

British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, (1), 83-105.

URL     PMID:18435866      [本文引用: 1]

Time perspective describes how individuals conceptualize and value future events, and may be related to health behaviours. Research to date has focused on addictive behaviours, used a variety of different measures of time perspective, and not explored the role of personality. This work aimed to: explore the relationships between: five previously used measures of time perspective; time perspective and the broad domains of the five-factor model of personality; and time perspective and smoking, body mass, and physical activity after controlling for socio-demographics and personality. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected using a web based survey. Participants (N=423) were recruited via local community internet message boards in US urban areas. The survey collected information on: delay discount rate, the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS), the future scale of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), subjective probability of living to age 75, and time period for financial planning, the five-factor personality inventory, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity. After controlling for socio-demographics, most markers of time perspective were significantly correlated with each other, but the strength of correlations was rarely strong. Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Openness were associated with some markers of time perspective. After controlling for socio-demographic and personality domains, only CFCS score was associated with smoking status and BMI. There is some overlap between previously used markers of time perspective and the five-factor personality domains but this is neither strong nor consistent. Smoking and BMI, but not physical activity, are associated with CFCS, but not other measures of time perspective.

Agarwal A . ( 1993).

Time, memory, and knowledge representation: The Indian perspective

Advances in Psychology, 103, 45-55.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Agarwal A., &Srivastava M. ( 1981).

Significance of time perspective in reflection impulsivity

Psychological Studies, 26, (2), 100-103.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Agarwal A., &Srivastava M., Akamatsu R. ( 2014).

Does future time perspective in life relate to health behaviors among Japanese workers?

Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 46 (4), S153.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Visual estimation is an easy-to-perform technique commonly used in hospitals to measure patients' dietary intake. We performed qualitative research with nurses and dietitians to assess this practice. In September 2014, we conducted individual interviews with 10 dietitians and 10 clinical nurses in Tokyo, Japan. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods.... [Show full abstract]

Alm S., &Låftman S.B . ( 2016).

Future orientation climate in the school class: relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problems

Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 324-331.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61The study focused on the future orientation (FO) climate at the school class level.61Swedish survey data were analyzed by means of multilevel modeling.61A positive school class FO was linked with less alcohol use at the student level.61A positive school class FO was also associated with fewer internalizing problems.61A similar but non-significant tendency was found for delinquency.

Andre L., van Vianen A. E., Peetsma T. T., & Oort F. J . ( 2018).

Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health

PloS One, 13, (1), e0190492.

URL     PMID:29364917      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

Apostolidis T., Fieulaine N., Simonin L., & Rolland G . ( 2006).

Cannabis use, time perspective and risk perception: Evidence of a moderating effect

Psychology and Health, 21 (5), 571-592.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study explores the relationship between time perspective (TP), cannabis use and risk perceptions associated with this substance. A sample of French students (n65=65198) were provided with a valid French version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scale. Risk perceptions linked to cannabis consumption were evaluated from a list of 22 items referring to different risks. Respondents were asked to declare how frequently they consumed this substance. Data analysis was based firstly on ZTPI scores, secondly on declared consumption and finally on the two risk perception indices which were established after factorial analysis. Results showed that TP acted as a significant predictor of both psychoactive substance use and of cannabis consumption frequency. Significant links between consumption and risk perceptions also appeared. A second series of analyses showed that TP moderated the link between cannabis consumption and risk perceptions. These findings highlight the importance of TP when analyzing the complexity of contemporary cannabis use. 69This is a revised version of a poster communication presented at the 18th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society, University of Helsinki (Finland) in June 2004. 69This is a revised version of a poster communication presented at the 18th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society, University of Helsinki (Finland) in June 2004.

Apostolidis T, Fieulaine N, & Soulé F . ( 2006).

Future time perspective as predictor of cannabis use: Exploring the role of substance perception among French adolescents

Addictive Behaviors, 31, (12), 2339-2343.

URL     PMID:16626883      [本文引用: 1]

This study explored the relation of Future time perspective (FTP) to cannabis use and tested the potential mediating role of cannabis perception, with a sample of 276 French adolescents. FTP was assessed using ZTPI subscale, cannabis perception was evaluated from a list of nine items related to drug-oriented perception (DOP), and participants were asked to report both their cannabis use and the level of use. Results showed that FTP acts as a significant predictor of cannabis use, and is significantly linked to DOP. A significant relationship between DOP and cannabis use also appeared. Regression analyses showed that DOP acts as a mediator in the link between FTP and cannabis use. These findings confirm the protective role of FTP in cannabis use and suggest the indirect nature of this role.

Alvos L., Gregson R. A. M., & Ross M. W . ( 1993).

Future time perspective in current and previous injecting drug users

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 31 (2), 193-197.

URL     PMID:8436064      [本文引用: 1]

Future time perspective (FTP) is a measure of an individual's ability to conceptualise the future which has been shown to be foreshortened in drug addicts. We studied 100 opiate injecting drug users (IDUs) in New South Wales, Australia, of which half were currently injecting and half were not. There was a significant difference between the two groups on FTP, with those currently injecting having a truncated FTP extension. Factor analysis of the FTP scale suggested that the dimensions of future time may differ between groups, with current injectors having a perspective of loss and isolation compared to the dimension of self-evaluation and self-acceptance in those not currently injecting. These data support previous studies which demonstrated truncated FTP, also demonstrating a difference in currently (as opposed to previously) IDUs and suggest that both extension of FTP and an alteration of the dimensions of FTP are associated with cessation of injecting and entry into treatment.

Balodis I. M., Kober H., Worhunsky P. D., Stevens M. C., Pearlson G. D., & Potenza M. N . ( 2012).

Diminished fronto-striatal activity during processing of monetary rewards and losses in pathological gambling

Biological Psychiatry, 71, (8), 749-757.

URL     PMID:3460522      [本文引用: 1]

Mesocorticolimbic neurocircuitry and impulsivity have both been implicated in pathological gambling (PG) and in reward processing. However, the neural underpinnings of specific phases of reward and loss processing in PG and their relationships to impulsivity remain only partially understood. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity associated with different phases of reward and loss processing in PG. Given an inverse relationship between ventral striatal recruitment during anticipation of monetary rewards and impulsivity in alcohol dependence, the current study explored whether a similar association might also be present in PG. Fourteen adults with PG and 14 control comparison participants performed the Monetary Incentive Delay Task to identify brain activation changes associated with reward/loss prospect, reward/loss anticipation, and reward/loss notification. Impulsivity was assessed separately using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Relative to the control comparison group, the PG group exhibited significantly reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and ventral striatum during several phases, including the prospect and anticipation phases of both gains and losses. Activity in the ventral striatum correlated inversely with levels of impulsivity in PG participants, consistent with prior findings in alcohol dependence. Relatively decreased activity in corticostriatal neurocircuitry during multiple phases of reward processing suggests consistent alterations in neurocircuitry underlying incentive valuation and loss prediction. Together with findings in alcohol dependence, these results suggest that impulsive tendencies in addictions may be reflected in diminished ventral striatal activations to reward anticipation and may represent targets for treatment development in addictions.

Barnett E., Spruijt-Metz D., Unger J. B., Rohrbach L. A., Sun P., & Sussman S . ( 2013).

Bidirectional associations between future time perspective and substance use among continuation high-school students

Substance Use & Misuse, 48 (8), 574-580.

URL     PMID:4181553      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract We examined whether a bidirectional, longitudinal relationship exists between future time perspective (FTP), measured with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and any past 30-day use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or hard drugs among continuation high school students (N = 1,310, mean age 16.8 years) in a large urban area. We found increased FTP to be protective against drug use for all substances except alcohol. While any baseline use of substances did not predict changes in FTP 1 year later. The discussion explores why alcohol findings may differ from other substances. Future consideration of FTP as a mediator of program effects is explored.

Barnett M. D., Melugin P. R., & Hernandez J . ( 2018).

Time perspective, intended academic engagement, and academic performance

Current Psychology, 1-7.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Time perspective theory addresses how individuals’ emphasis on past, present, and future events influence their behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between time...

Baumeister R.F., &Vonasch A.J . ( 2015).

Uses of self-regulation to facilitate and restrain addictive behavior

Addictive Behaviors, 44, 3-8.

URL     PMID:25267213      [本文引用: 1]

61Role of conscious control changes across stages of addiction.61Self-regulation is used both for promoting and resisting addictive behaviors.61Self-regulation helps maintain regular usage despite situational obstacles.61Willpower fluctuates, and depleted willpower reduces control.

Baumeister R. F., Vohs K. D., & Tice D. M . ( 2010).

The strength model of self-control

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, (6), 351-355.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT090000 Self-control is a central function of the self and an important key to success in life. The exertion of self-control appears to depend on a limited resource. Just as a muscle gets tired from exertion, acts of self-control cause short-term impairments (ego depletion) in subsequent self-control, even on unrelated tasks. Research has supported the strength model in the domains of eating, drinking, spending, sexuality, intelligent thought, making choices, and interpersonal behavior. Motivational or framing factors can temporarily block the deleterious effects of being in a state of ego depletion. Blood glucose is an important component of the energy.

Bechara A . ( 2005).

Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: A neurocognitive perspective

Nature Neuroscience, 8, (11), 1458-1463.

[本文引用: 1]

Beenstock J., Adams J., & White M . ( 2011).

The association between time perspective and alcohol consumption in university students: Cross-sectional study

European Journal of Public Health, 21, (4), 438-443.

[本文引用: 1]

Bilde J., Vansteenkiste M., & Lens W . ( 2011).

Understanding the association between future time perspective and self-regulated learning through the lens of self- determination theory

Learning and Instruction, 21, (3), 332-344.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present cross-sectional research examined a process underlying the positive association between holding an extended future time perspective (FTP) and learning outcomes through the lens of self-determination theory. High school students and university students ( N = 275) participated in the study. It was found that students with an extended FTP regulated their study behaviour on the basis of several internal motives, including feelings of guilt and shame (introjected regulation), personal conviction (identified regulation) and interest (intrinsic motivation). The association with identified regulation was strongest and the association with intrinsic motivation fell below significance when controlling for identified regulation. Moreover, introjected and identified regulation emerged as mediators accounting for the association between FTP and cognitive processing. Further, to the extent that FTP engenders an internally pressuring mode of regulation it was found to be indirectly negatively associated with determination/metacognitive strategy use. In contrast to FTP, a present fatalistic and present hedonic time-orientation yielded more negative motivational and learning correlates. The link between FTP and self-determination theory is discussed.

Boniwell I., &Zimbardo P.G . ( 2004).

Balancing time perspective in pursuit of optimal functioning

Positive Psychology in Practice, 10, 165-180.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Summary Dealing with time is a fundamental feature of the human experience, both objective, or so-called clock time, and subjective, personal constructions of time. The focus of this chapter is the construct of time perspective (TP), which is viewed as an integral part of the subjective or personal experience of “lived time”. Time perspective is considered to have cognitive, emotional, and social components. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) is the latest modification of the STPI, which has addressed the shortcomings of the previous scales. Zimbardo and Boyd demonstrate that both Past-Negative and Present- Fatalistic perspectives are associated with strong feelings of depression, anxiety, anger, and aggression. Despite being conceived primarily at a theoretical level, the constructs of TP and a balanced TP offer considerable potential for practical interventions in clinical and occupational psychology. The construct of TP has a potential to provide a theoretical underpinning for time management interventions.

Carelli M. G., & Olsson C. J .( 2014). Neural correlates of time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; review, research and application: Essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo (pp. 231-242). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

[本文引用: 2]

Chan J.P., &Hyun J.S . ( 2014).

Internet literacy vs. technology addiction: Relationship analysis with time perspectives of secondary school students

Education 59 (5), 23-26.

[本文引用: 1]

Chavarria J., Allan N. P., Moltisanti A., & Taylor J . ( 2015).

The effects of present hedonistic time perspective and past negative time perspective on substance use consequences

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 152, 39-46.

URL     PMID:26003335      [本文引用: 1]

The overuse of substances can lead to economic, physical, and social consequences. Previous research has demonstrated associations between time perspective and frequency of substance use, but no studies have investigated time perspective's effect on substance use consequences. This study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. Using an MTurk sample (N=531), latent factor models tested the hypothesis that both Present Hedonistic Time Perspective (PrHTP) and Past Negative Time Perspective PaNTP positively predict alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. Bootstrap analyses were then used to test the hypothesis that PrHTP indirectly affected the relationship between PaNTP and alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. PrHTP significantly predicted alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. PaNTP also significantly predicted alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. PrHTP was found to indirectly affect the relationship between PaNTP and substance use consequences for both alcohol and illicit drugs. The findings are consistent with previous research and introduce time perspective as an individual differences risk factor for substance use consequences. The partial and full indirect effects are consistent with the idea that individuals with a PaNTP may develop a PrHTP, placing them at risk for substance use consequences.

Chen Z. Y., Guo Y. Q., & Feng T. Y . ( 2018).

Neuroanatomical correlates of time perspective: A voxel-based morphometry study

Behavioural Brain Research, 339, 255-260.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent... [Show full abstract]

Cheong J. W., Tucker J. A., Simpson C. A., & Chandler S. D . ( 2014).

Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas

Addictive Behaviors, 39, (4), 818-823.

URL     PMID:24531637      [本文引用: 2]

61Time horizons and drug use among disadvantaged African American urban youths were examined.61Substance use was related to greater present pleasure/reward-seeking orientation.61Substance use was related to lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals.61Delay discounting was not significantly related to substance use.61Results support interventions aimed at lengthening time perspectives.

Chittaro L., &Vianello A . ( 2013).

Time perspective as a predictor of problematic internet use: A study of facebook users

Personality and Individual Differences, 55, (8), 989-993.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Time perspective (TP) has been related to different problematic human behaviors. The work presented in this paper assesses the role of time perspective in predicting problematic Internet use (PIU) by studying a sample (n=149) of Facebook users. Participants (79 male, 70 female, mean age=32.40, SD=11.80) completed electronic versions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) to assess their TP, and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) to assess their PIU. Results show that Past Negative and Present Fatalistic temporal frames are predictors of problematic Internet use, suggesting that time perspective is an individual difference construct that should be taken into consideration in the context of PIU.

Chodkiewicz J., &Nowakowska K .( 2011).

Temporal orientation and a course of alcohol addiction therapy

Psychiatria Polska, 45 (2), 177-186.

URL     PMID:21714207      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract AIM: The aim of the study was assess the meaning of preferred temporal orientation for results of alcohol dependence therapy. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen (116) (95 men and 21 women) alcohol addict patients were evaluated at the beginning of the alcohol addiction outpatient therapy. The temporal orientation and attitude for time was assessed by using Temporal Orientation Questionnaire-AION and Carpe Diem, Fatalism and Hedonism Scale by Sobol-Kwapinska. RESULTS: The results showed that alcohol addict patients were in the highest degree focused on the past and the present in the hedonism and fatalism dimensions, while being relatively focused in the lowest degree on the present carpe diem dimension and the future at the beginning of the therapy. Men and women at the beginning of the therapy varied in some dimensions of temporal orientation. The differences occurred also between patients who finished and discontinued alcohol dependence therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients at the begging of alcohol addiction therapy prefer past and present temporal orientation. 1. There are differences between temporal orientation preferred by men and women. 2. Future temporal orientation is beneficial to finish addiction therapy by addict men. 3. Women who finish therapy are focused more on the past and hedonistic present orientation than women who discontinued therapy.

Chua L. W., Milfont T. L., & Jose P. E . ( 2014).

Coping skills help explain how future-oriented adolescents accrue greater well-being over time

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, (11), 2028-2041.

URL     PMID:25427783      [本文引用: 1]

Adolescents who endorse greater levels of future orientation report greater well-being over time, but we do not know the mechanism by which this happens. The present longitudinal study examined whether both adaptive as well as maladaptive coping strategies might explain how future orientation leads to ill-being and well-being over time in young New Zealanders. A sample of 1,774 preadolescents and early adolescents (51.902% female) aged 10–1502years at Time 1 completed a self-report survey three times with 102year intervals in between. Longitudinal mediation path models were constructed to determine whether and how maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies at Time 2 functioned as mediators between future orientation at Time 1 and ill-being and well-being at Time 3. Results showed that future orientation predicted lower maladaptive coping, which in turn predicted lower substance use and self-harming behavior. All three well-being outcomes (i.e., happiness with weight, vitality, and sleep) were consistently predicted by future orientation, and all three pathways were mediated by both lower maladaptive and higher adaptive coping strategies (with the exception of happiness with weight, which was mediated only by lower maladaptive coping). The results suggest that several pathways by which future orientation leads to greater well-being occurs through an increased use of adaptive coping, a decreased use of maladaptive coping, or both.

Ciccarelli M., Malinconico R., Griffiths M. D., Nigro G., & Cosenza M . ( 2016).

Reward preferences of pathological gamblers under conditions of uncertainty: An experimental study

Journal of Gambling Studies, 32 (4), 1175-1189.

PMID:26846482      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Among many personality traits, impulsivity represents one of the most important traits associated with pathological gambling. Empirical research has highlighted the multidimensional nature of impulsivity, which includes different heterogeneous traits and behavioral tendencies. The present study experimentally examined reward preferences of pathological gamblers under conditions of uncertainty using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Furthermore it also examined the relationship between impulsivity, time perspective, inability to tolerate delay in gratification, and risk-taking. The present study is the first to simultaneously examine all these variables simultaneously in a sample of pathological gamblers (n = 54) and healthy controls (n = 54) from Italy. All participants participated in the BART and were also administered Italian versions of the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Consideration of Future Consequences, and the Monetary Choice Questionnaire. Analyses revealed that compared to HCs, PGs were more risk prone on the BART, and reported elevated levels of impulsivity, steeper discounting rates and a shorter time perspective. All the measures correlated with the gambling severity and strong correlations between the BIS, CFC-14 and BART were observed. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that impulsivity and risk-taking were strong predictors of pathological gambling.

Cole J. C., Andretta J. R., & Mckay M. T . ( 2015).

The relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol-related problems in university undergraduates: Results from the United Kingdom

Addictive Behaviors, 55, 15-18.

URL     PMID:26735914      [本文引用: 2]

61Temporal profiles were formed using ZTPI scores.61These related meaningfully to AUDIT scores.61Future Positives were least likely to drink problematically — 80% of British university students are problematic drinkers.

Coull J. T., Vidal F., Nazarian B., & Macar F . ( 2004).

Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation

Science, 303, (5663), 1506-1508.

[本文引用: 1]

Courtney K. E., Ghahremani D. G., & Ray L. A . ( 2013).

Fronto-striatal functional connectivity during response inhibition in alcohol dependence

Addiction Biology, 18, (3), 593-604.

URL     PMID:23240858      [本文引用: 1]

Poor response inhibition has been implicated in the development of alcohol dependence, yet little is known about how neural pathways underlying cognitive control are affected in this disorder. Moreover, endogenous opioid levels may impact the functionality of inhibitory control pathways. This study investigated the relationship between alcohol dependence severity and functional connectivity of fronto-striatal networks during response inhibition in an alcohol-dependent sample. A secondary aim of this study was to test the moderating effect of a functional polymorphism (A118G) of the 0204-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene. Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (six females; 90% Caucasian; mean age090009=09000929.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Stop-Signal Task. The relationship between alcohol dependence severity and functional connectivity within fronto-striatal networks important for response inhibition was assessed using psychophysiological interaction analyses. Analyses revealed greater alcohol dependence severity was associated with weaker functional connectivity between the putamen and prefrontal regions (e.g. the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex) during response inhibition. Furthermore, the OPRM1 genotype was associated with differential response inhibition-related functional connectivity. This study demonstrates that individuals with more severe alcohol dependence exhibit less frontal connectivity with the striatum, a component of cognitive control networks important for response inhibition. These findings suggest that the fronto-striatal pathway underlying response inhibition is weakened as alcoholism progresses.

Davies S., &Filippopoulos P. ( 2015).

Changes in psychological time perspective during residential addiction treatment: A mixed-methods study

Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 10, (3), 249-270.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Time perspective (TP) refers to an individual's subjective relationship to the past, present, and future. Zimbardo's Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) is a scale designed to capture 5 distinct constructs of subjective temporality (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). It is regarded as a valid predictor of health-related choices and mental health. This mixed methodological study investigates psychological perspectives of time in a group of 63 individuals seeking help for alcohol/drug dependence issues who then successfully completed a group residential addiction treatment intervention. Measures of TP using a short-form ZTPI and a qualitative component were taken at preintervention and postintervention along with scores of depression and anxiety. Findings demonstrated that past-negative, present-fatalism, and present-hedonistic TPs were significantly positively associated with depression and anxiety. Significant negative relationships were found between mental health concerns and both past-positive and future TPs. Distinct changes were revealed in temporality between premeasures and postmeasures of the addiction treatment intervention from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives highlighting significant adaptations in relationships to time. The potential use and implications of these findings for understanding addiction and considering psychotherapeutic treatment are discussed.

Donati M. A., Sottili E., Morsanyi K., & Primi C . ( 2018).

Time perspectives and gambling in adolescent boys: Differential effects of present-and future-orientation

Journal of Gambling Studies, 1-18.

URL     PMID:29868999      [本文引用: 2]

Adolescent boys are characterised by increased risk-taking behavior, including a relatively high propensity to develop problem gambling habits. The association between gambling and sensitivity to...

Do Y.K., &Shin E. ( 2017).

Bidirectional relationship between time preference and adolescent smoking and alcohol use: Evidence from longitudinal data

Addictive Behaviors, 70, 42-48.

URL     PMID:28192688      [本文引用: 1]

61We examined a relationship between time preference and adolescent health behaviors.61Higher time discounting increases the risk of starting smoking and drinking.61Conversely, smoking and drinking leads to a higher discount rate.61The bidirectional relationship may help explain gateway effects of these behaviors.

Ersche K. D., Barnes A., Jones P. S., Moreinzamir S., Robbins T. W., & Bullmore E. T . ( 2011).

Abnormal structure of frontostriatal brain systems is associated with aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependence

Brain, 134, (7), 2013-2024.

URL     PMID:21690575      [本文引用: 1]

A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by impulsive behaviours and compulsive drug-taking. Here we compared self-report, behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging data on a relatively large sample of cocaine-dependent individuals (n=鈥60) with data on healthy volunteers (n= 60); and we investigated the relationships between grey matter volume variation, duration of cocaine use, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in the cocaine-dependent group. Cocaine dependence was associated with an extensive system of abnormally decreased grey matter volume in orbitofrontal, cingulate, insular, temporoparietal and cerebellar cortex, and with a more localized increase in grey matter volume in the basal ganglia. Greater duration of cocaine dependence was correlated with greater grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, cingulate and insular cortex. Greater impairment of attentional control was associated with reduced volume in insular cortex and increased volume of caudate nucleus. Greater compulsivity of drug use was associated with reduced volume in orbitofrontal cortex. Cocaine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption.

Fellows L.K., &Farah M.J . ( 2005).

Dissociable elements of human foresight: A role for the ventromedial frontal lobes in framing the future, but not in discounting future rewards

Neuropsychologia, 43, (8), 1214-1221.

URL     PMID:15817179      [本文引用: 1]

Impaired future thinking may be a core aspect of impulsive decision making. Recent efforts to understand the brain processes that underlie impulsivity have suggested a role for the frontal lobes. However, future thinking is unlikely to be a unitary process, and the frontal lobes are not a homogeneous entity. The present study contrasted the effects of dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal lobe damage on two distinct aspects of future thinking in humans. Temporal discounting, the subjective devaluation of reward as a function of delay, is not affected by frontal lobe injury. In contrast, a normal future time perspective (a measure of the length of an individual's self-defined future) depends on the ventromedial, but not dorsolateral, frontal lobes. Furthermore, investigation of the relationship of these two measures with classical symptoms of frontal lobe damage indicates that future time perspective correlates with apathy, not impulsivity. Apathy may deserve more attention in understanding both impaired future thinking and the impaired decision making that may result.

Fieulaine N., &Martinez F . ( 2011).

About the fuels of self-regulation: Time perspective and desire for control in adolescents substance use

In V. Barkoukis (Eds.), The psychology of self-regulation( pp. 102-121). New York: Nova. Science Publishers.

[本文引用: 1]

Gailliot M. T., Baumeister R. F., DeWall C. N., Maner J. K., Plant E. A., Tice D. M., .. Schmeichel B. J . ( 2007).

Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (2), 325-336.

[本文引用: 1]

Kleftaras G.., & Georgiou. C . ( 2014).

Substance use: Depressive symptomatology, desire for control and time perspective

Mental Health and Substance Use, 7, (3), 230-242.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the depressive symptomatology of drug users in Greece. More specifically, the study aimed at evaluating the severity of depression in this population in relation to desire for control (DC) and time perspective (TP). The sample consisted of 172 drug users, members of a rehabilitation program for substance use in Greece, who completed three questionnaires on Depressive Symptomatology, Desirability for Control and TP. Results indicated significant correlations between depressive symptomatology and TP. Particularly, future TP was inversely related to depressive symptomatology, while past and present positively. Among DC factors, only “relinquish control” was related to depression. It is worthwhile to mention that the rehabilitation program appeared to be an important protective factor against depression in drug users. Collectively, the rehabilitation program together with fatalistic time orientation accounted for about 37% of the variance in explaining depression. Implications are discussed.

Griva F., Tseferidi S. I., & Anagnostopoulos F . ( 2015).

Time to get healthy: Associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors

Psychology Health & Medicine, 20, (1), 25-33.

URL     PMID:24784153      [本文引用: 1]

The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N= 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

Hall P. A., Fong G. T., Yong H. H., Sansone G., Borland R., & Siahpush M . ( 2012).

Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

Addictive Behaviors, 37 (12), 1307-1313.

URL     PMID:4009361      [本文引用: 1]

78 Personality traits have previously been shown to predict smoking-related behaviors. 78 Time perspective has not been extensively studied as a predictor of quit attempts. 78 We found that a future-oriented time perspective predicted increased quit attempts. 78 The association between time perspective and quit attempts was invariant by country.

Hodgins D.C., &Engel A. ( 2002).

Future time perspective in pathological gamblers

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190 (11), 775-780.

URL     PMID:12436018      [本文引用: 1]

The hypothesis that pathological gambling is associated with shortened time horizons was investigated by administering the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Future Time Perspective Inventory (FPTI) to a group of pathological gamblers and two comparison groups, psychiatric day patients and social gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was used to assess the severity of the participants' gambling. Sixty-six participants were recruited, of which 35 were women. The mean age of participants was 39 years. Results showed significantly shorter time horizons in pathological versus social gamblers but few differences between pathological gamblers and psychiatric patients. These results suggest that shortened time horizons are not a unique feature of addicted populations. The role of psychological distress as a possible explanatory variable is discussed.

Hyun J. S., Park C. J., Lee K. E., & Kim J. Y . ( 2014).

Abstract thinking, risk-taking, and impulsivity: Implication for the smart phone addiction of adolescent

Information Japan, 17, (10), 5175-5180.

[本文引用: 1]

Jung E.J., &Han Y.J . ( 2014).

The effect of adolescents' time perspective and self-control on academic procrastination: The mediating effect of cellular phone addiction

Korean Journal of Child Studies, 35, (1), 119-133.

[本文引用: 1]

Keough K. A., Zimbardo P. G., & Boyd J. N . ( 1999).

Who's smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use

Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21 (2), 149-164.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Two studies examined whether those identified as having a more present time perspective (PTP) are more likely to report using alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. In Study 1, across 2,627 participants from 15 samples, we found that PTP, as assessed by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, was related to more frequent self-reported alcohol, drug, and tobacco use (Substance Use scale: average r = .34, p <.001). Future time perspective (FTP) was negatively related to reported substance use (average r = -.16, p < .001), but the relation was weaker than that of PTP, suggesting that PTP and FTP are independent constructs. In Study 2, we found that PTP was a significant predictor of reported substance use even after controlling for many personality traits that have been related to increased substance use. These findings indicate that time perspective is an important individual difference construct that should be considered when examining health-related behaviors, such as substance use and abuse, and in planning intervention programs.

Kim J., Hong H., Lee J., & Hyun M. H . ( 2017).

Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction

Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6 (2), 229-236.

URL     PMID:5520116      [本文引用: 1]

College students experiencing stress show tendencies to procrastinate and can develop Internet addiction problems. This study investigated the structural relationship between time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. Methods College students (N65=65377) residing in South Korea completed the following questionnaires: the Pathological Internet Use Behavior Symptom Scale for Adults, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Self-Control Rating Scale, and the Aitken Procrastination Inventory. The sample variance–covariance matrix was analyzed using AMOS 20.0. Results Time perspective had a direct effect on self-control and an indirect effect on Internet use and procrastination. In addition, self-control affected procrastination and Internet use. Conclusions Individuals with a present-oriented time perspective tend to evidence poorer self-control, increasing the likelihood of procrastination and Internet addiction. Individuals with a future-oriented time perspective, on the other hand, tend to have stronger self-control, decreasing their risk of procrastination and Internet addiction.

King M.R., &Manaster G.J . ( 1975).

Time perspective correlates of collegiate marijuana use

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (1), 99.

URL     PMID:1114251      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Data from 26 undergraduate marihuana users and 48 nonusers who completed the Time Reference Inventory show that users were significantly more past-oriented than nonusers. No significant differences in present or future orientations or age and sex variables were found.

Kovač V.B., &Rise J. ( 2007).

The relation between past behavior, intention, planning, and quitting smoking: The moderating effect of future orientation

Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 12 (2), 82-100.

[本文引用: 1]

Laghi F., Liga F., Baumgartner E., & Baiocco R . ( 2012).

Time perspective and psychosocial positive functioning among Italian adolescents who binge eat and drink

Journal of Adolescence, 35 (5), 1277-1284.

URL     PMID:22672793      [本文引用: 1]

Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge drinking and eating, time perspective and psychological functioning. A cross-sectional survey of 1350 17 19 year-old adolescents was conducted. Findings suggested that adolescents engaged in both binge eating and binge drinking behaviours reported negative experiences in the past, and they showed a lower future orientation and a greater inclination to fatalism than did the other students Additionally, they were more likely to report lower feelings of satisfaction with life and self-esteem than the others. The pattern of results allows to conclude that time perspective may be a salient dimension when exploring the psychosocial correlates of binge behaviours, particularly within adolescents.

Lennings C.J . ( 1994).

An investigation of the effects of agency and time perspective variables on career maturity

The Journal of Psychology, 128 (3), 243-253.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT High school and first-year university students (N = 395) completed a package of tests assessing positive temporal attitude, future temporal extensions, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and career attitude. I hypothesized that temporal extensions and self-efficacy would be the most important predictors of career attitude, because self-efficacy has had a proven relationship with career variables in the literature and, as a matter of logic, the degree to which people imagine their careers in the future should influence attitudes toward career formation. The results, however, suggest that the attitude one has toward the future is more important in predicting career attitude than the degree to which one can imagine a proximal or extended future. For older subjects, this relationship was associated with a sense of internal control.

Loose T., Pont L. R. D., Acier D., & El-Baalbaki G . ( 2018).

Time perspectives mediate the relationship between personality traits and alcohol consumption

Time & Society( 2), 0961463X1875851.

[本文引用: 1]

Mackillop J., Anderson E. J., Castelda B. A., Mattson R. E., & Donovick P. J . ( 2006 a).

Divergent validity of measures of cognitive distortions, impulsivity, and time perspective in pathological gambling

Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, (3), 339-354.

URL     PMID:16826455      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The present study assessed the divergent validity of several self-report and objective behavioral measures for assessing pathological gambling using three samples divided by South Oaks Gambling Scale score [Lesieur, & Blume (1987). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184-1188]: pathological gamblers, potential pathological gamblers, and non-pathological gamblers. Self-report measures included the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire [GBQ; Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan (2002). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 143-149], the Gambling Passion Scale [GPS; Rousseau, Vallerand, Ratelle, Mageau, & Provencher, (2002). Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 45-66], the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire [EIQ; Eysenck, & Eysenck (1978). Psychological Reports, 43, 1247-1255], and the Stanford Time Perspective Inventory [STPI; Zimbardo, & Boyd (1999). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288]. Behavioral tasks included the delay discounting task [Madden, Petry, Badger, & Bickel (1997). Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 256-263] and the Future Time Perspectives [FTP; Wallace (1956). Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 52, 240-245]. The GBQ, GPS, Impulsivity subscale of the EIQ, and DDT all exhibited robust divergent validity, however, neither measure of time perspective discriminated between groups. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical contexts are discussed.

Mackillop J., Anderson E. J., Castelda B. A., Mattson R. E., & Donovick P. J . ( 2006 b).

Convergent validity of measures of cognitive distortions, impulsivity, and time perspective with pathological gambling

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, (1), 75-79.

URL     PMID:16536668      [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigated the convergent validity of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ), Gambling Passion Scale (GPS), Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire (EIQ), and Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI) in reference to pathological gambling. The authors recruited 105 undergraduates representing categories of pathological gamblers, potential pathological gamblers, and nonpathological gamblers and administered the measures under neutral conditions. Both subscales of the GBQ and GPS and the Impulsivity subscale of the EIQ exhibited strong convergent validity, whereas the STPI showed weaker correspondence with symptoms of pathological gambling. Applications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

Mckay M. T., Andretta J. R., Magee J., & Worrell F. C . ( 2014).

What do temporal profiles tell us about adolescent alcohol use? Results from a large sample in the United Kingdom

Journal of Adolescence, 37, (8), 1319-1328.

[本文引用: 1]

Mckay M. T., Percy A., & Cole J. C . ( 2013).

Present orientation, future orientation and alcohol use in northern Irish adolescents

Addiction Research & Theory, 21, (1), 43-51.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Earlier initiation into more problematic drinking behaviour has been found to be associated with more problematic drinking later in life. Research has suggested that a lower future time perspective (and higher present time perspective) is associated with health-compromising behaviours such as problematic alcohol use in college student, University undergraduate and general population samples. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine whether consideration of future consequences (CFC), assessed by the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale, was significantly related to drinking behaviour in a large sample (n = 707) of Northern Irish adolescents. Alcohol use was self-reported by means of a composite measure of drinking behaviour. Demographic data were also gathered. After controlling for year in school (proxy for age), sex and for clustering at school level, lower future orientation and higher present orientation were found to be significantly associated with more problematic self-reported drinking behaviour. These results extend recent findings of a significant relationship between a foreshortened future time perspective and more problematic self-reported drinking behaviour in a UK sample of University undergraduates, to a large UK sample of adolescents. Given the relationship between early-onset drinking and more problematic use in later life, health promotion interventions might explore using the CFC construct in targeting adolescent drinkers.

Mckay M. T., Percy A., Cole J. C., Worrell F. C., & Andretta J. R . ( 2016).

The relationship between time attitudes profiles and self-efficacy, sensation seeking, and alcohol use: An exploratory study

Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 203-209.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61The present study examined time attitudes profiles in two large samples;61Five similar profiles emerged in both countries;61There were no substantive differences in terms of socio-demographic indicators;61Best results were observed for those with positive, ambivalent and balanced profiles.

Melges F. T., Tinklenberg J. R., Hollister L. E., & Gillespie H. K . ( 1971).

Marihuana and the temporal span of awareness

Archives of General Psychiatry, 24 (6), 564-567.

URL     PMID:4931045      [本文引用: 1]

Oral doses of extracts of marihuana were found to induce a greater concentration on the present and a foreshortening of the span of awareness into the future. Although there were individual differences in emotional reactions, the greater concentration on the present was associated, in general, with euphoric moods.

Merson F., &Perriot J. ( 2011).

Social deprivation and time perception, the impact on smoking cessation

Sante Publique, 23, (5), 359-370.

URL     PMID:22177703      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Smoking addiction and smoking behaviour are closely related to social deprivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social deprivation and time perspective on smoking cessation in order to improve the support provided to socially deprived persons seeking to quit smoking. The study examined the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. 192 patients (including 45% of socially disadvantaged people) participated in the study. Social deprivation was measured using the EPICES scale, while time perspective was measured using the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Data relating to individuals' characteristics, smoking addiction, behaviour and smoking cessation were collected as part of this research. Compared to the rest of the population, socially disadvantaged people were found to be more likely to stop smoking for financial reasons (p < 0.0001). The study also found that their attempts to quit smoking are more likely to fail (p = 0,006). In addition, socially disadvantaged people suffer more frequently from anxio-depressive disorders (p < 0.0001) and are also prone to a higher level of nicotine dependence (p < 0.0001). The 'Past-Negative' and ?Present-Fatalistic' dimensions of time perspective, toward which socially disadvantaged people are more likely to lean (p < 0.0001), are associated with failed smoking cessation. The ?Future' dimension, in which socially disadvantaged people are less likely to project themselves (p < 0.0002), is a predictive factor of smoking cessation. The results highlight the importance of taking into account social deprivation and time perspective in helping socially disadvantaged patients to quit smoking.

Miller R.B., &Brickman S.J . ( 2004).

A model of future- oriented motivation and self-regulation

Educational Psychology Review, 16, (1), 9-33.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article presents a theoretically grounded model of motivation and self-regulation that places personally valued future goals at its core. We attempt to integrate two lines of theorizing and research that have been relatively independent of one another: the social—cognitive perspective on self-regulation (e.g., Bandura, A., 1986) and theories of more future-oriented self-regulation (e.g., Markus, H., and Nurius, P., Am. Psychol. 41: 954–969, 1986; 1986; Nutin, J., Motivation, Planning, and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior Dynamics, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1984; Raynor, J. O., Motivation and Achievement, Winston, & Sons, New York, Chap. 7, pp. 121–154, 1974). We argue that personally valued future goals influence proximal self-regulation through their impact in the development of proximal subgoals leading to future goal attainment. The development of a system of proximal subgoals increases the likelihood that proximal tasks are perceived as instrumental to attaining future goals. Proximal tasks that are perceived as instrumental to reaching personally valued future goals have greater overall incentive value and meaning than proximal tasks lacking this instrumental relationship, and their impact on task engagement is correspondingly greater. Research supporting these claims is reviewed and the implications of this model of future-oriented self-regulation for research and intervention are discussed.

Miura T .( 2017).

Does time preference affect smoking behavior? A dynamic panel analysis

Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP) Osaka University Discussion Papers In Economics And Business, 16, 1-24.

[本文引用: 1]

Moeller F. G., Barratt E. S., Dougherty D. M., Schmitz J. M., & Swann A. C . ( 2001).

Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity

American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, (11), 1783-1793.

[本文引用: 1]

Mooney A., Earl J. K., Mooney C. H., & Bateman H . ( 2017).

Using balanced time perspective to explain well- being and planning in retirement

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1781.

URL     PMID:29081757      [本文引用: 1]

The notion of whether people focus on the past, present or future, and how it shapes their behavior is known as Time Perspective. Fundamental to the work of two of its earliest proponents, Zimbardo and Boyd (2008), was the concept of balanced time perspective and its relationship to wellness. A person with balanced time perspective can be expected to have a flexible temporal focus of mostly positive orientations (past-positive, present-hedonistic, and future) and much less negative orientations (past-negative and present-fatalistic). This study measured deviation from balanced time perspective (DBTP: Zhang et al.,2013) in a sample of 243 mature adults aged 45 to 91 years and explored relationships to Retirement Planning, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Positive Mood, and Negative Mood. Results indicate that DBTP accounts for unexplained variance in the outcome measures even after controlling for demographic variables. DBTP was negatively related to Retirement Planning and Positive Mood and positively related to Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Negative Mood. Theoretical and practical implications regarding balanced time perspective are discussed.

Moskalewicz M .( 2016).

Lived time disturbances of drug addiction therapy newcomers. A qualitative, field phenomenology case study at Monar-Markot center in Poland

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14 (6), 1023-1038.

URL     PMID:27942253      [本文引用: 1]

The aim of this study was to qualitatively assess the disturbances of lived time in individuals with multiple drug dependencies. The research was conducted at Monar-Markot Center for Humanitarian Aid in Roznowice (Poland) in 2014 through direct, non-disguised observational study in a therapeutic community setting. Overall, 10 clients with multiple drug dependencies forming a newcomers group participated in. They previously abstained from usage for negligible periods of time. The measurements included participant observation of collective time regimes at the center; group discussions; written accounts by clients; Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; semi-structured interviews. It was found that the clients experienced difficulties in following a strict therapeutic temporal regime, and they also showed a concomitant need to accelerate time as it passed. They also suffered an unpleasant domination by traumatic past within lived time. Their time horizons appeared significantly shortened and their planning capacity impaired, while a distant (dissociated) future was fantasized about in a realistic manner. Altogether, their disturbances of lived time consisted of the propensity to overemphasize their past dimensions at the expense of their future, while a gap between a close and a distant future appeared.

Nigro G., Cosenza M., & Ciccarelli M . ( 2017).

The blurred future of adolescent gamblers: Impulsivity, time horizon, and emotional distress

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, (486), 1-12.

URL     PMID:28421013      [本文引用: 1]

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the interplay of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, time perspective, and emotional negative states on gambling severity in Italian adolescents. A second aim of the study was to analyze the developmental trajectories of gambling involvement, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, consideration of future consequences, and negative affectivity in a cross-sectional perspective. One thousand and ten Italian adolescents aging between 12 and 19 years were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Functional and Dysfunctional Impulsivity Scale (FDIS), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21). Data analyses were conducted using correlational analysis, Chi-square test, analysis of variance, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results indicated that, relative to non-gamblers and non-problem gamblers, at-risk and problem gamblers showed higher levels of impulsivity, steeper delay discounting, shorter time horizon, and reported experiencing significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Results of hierarchical regression analysis, with SOGS-RA scores as the dependent variable, and gender, age, FDIS, MCQ, CFC-14, and DASS-21 scores as independent variables, indicated that, along with gender and age, low scores of future orientation and high scores of dysfunctional impulsivity, depression, anxiety, present orientation, and delay discounting significantly predicted gambling severity. These findings provide further evidence that the higher the gambling involvement, the greater the tendency to devalue delayed rewards and to focus on the immediate consequences of one's behavior. Interestingly, for the first time these results reveal an association between gambling severity and both dysfunctional impulsivity and negative affective states across adolescence. Finally, results of cross-sectional analyses suggest that gambling severity contributes more than age in shaping the developmental trajectories of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, time perspective, and negative affective states.

Noël X., Saeremans M., Kornreich C., Jaafari N., & D'Argembeau A . ( 2017).

Future-oriented mental time travel in individuals with disordered gambling

Consciousness and Cognition, 49, 227-236.

URL     PMID:28214771      [本文引用: 2]

This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5鈥10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores. Furthermore, problem gamblers rated imagined events as containing fewer sensory and contextual details, and lacking autonoetic consciousness. These findings demonstrate that problem gambling is associated with a reduced future-oriented mental time travel ability and, in particular, with diminished autonoetic consciousness when imagining future events.

Peters R. J., Tortolero S. R., Johnson R. J., Addy R. C., Markham C. M., Escobar-Chaves S. L., .. Yacoubian G. S . ( 2005).

The relationship between future orientation and street substance use among Texas alternative school students

The American Journal on Addictions, 14 (5), 478-485.

URL     PMID:16257885      [本文引用: 1]

Self-reported substance use data were collected from 963 alternative school students in grades 709000912 who were surveyed through the Safer Choices 2 study in Houston, Texas. Data were collected between October 2000 and March 2001. Logistic regression analyses indicated that lower levels of future orientation was significantly associated (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.810900090.97) with thirty-day substance use after controlling for age and gender. In addition, lower levels of future orientation was found to have a significant association with students' lifetime substance use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.87090009.99) after controlling for age, race, and gender. While the relationships tested in this study are exploratory, they provide evidence for an important connection between future orientation and substance use among adolescents attending alternative schools.

Petry N. M., Bickel W. K., & Arnett M . ( 1998).

Shortened time horizons and insensitivity to future consequences in heroin addicts

Addiction, 93 (5), 729-738.

[本文引用: 1]

Przepiorka A., &Blachnio A. ( 2016).

Time perspective in Internet and Facebook addiction

Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 13-18.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

61Past Negative and Present Fatalistic were positive predictors for both types of addiction and Facebook intensity.61Future was a negative predictor of these two types of addictions.61Present Hedonistic was a negative predictor only of Internet addiction.

Roos P., &Albers R. ( 1965).

Performance of alcoholics and normals on a measure of temporal orientation

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, (1), 34-36.

URL     PMID:14283645      [本文引用: 1]

SUMMARY An analysis of the gust and gust-load experience of a low-altitude transcontinental transport airplane, based on 83^ hours of VGA record, is presented. The relation of gust experience to airspeed, altitude, season of the year, and flight condition is

Sansone G., Fong G. T., Hall P. A., Guignard R., Beck F., Mons U., .. Jiang Y . ( 2013).

Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia

BMC Public Health, 13 (1), 346-354.

URL     PMID:3637613      [本文引用: 1]

Background: Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or nonsmoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies.Methods: The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information.Results: Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), chi(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, pConclusion: These findings establish time perspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.

Stacy A.W., &Wiers R.W . ( 2010).

Implicit cognition and addiction: A tool for explaining paradoxical behavior

Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 551-575.

URL     PMID:20192786      [本文引用: 1]

Research on implicit cognition and addiction has expanded greatly during the past decade. This research area provides new ways to understand why people engage in behaviors that they know are harmful or counterproductive in the long run. Implicit cognition takes a different view from traditional cognitive approaches to addiction by assuming that behavior is often not a result of a reflective decision that takes into account the pros and cons known by the individual. Instead of a cognitive algebra integrating many cognitions relevant to choice, implicit cognition assumes that the influential cognitions are the ones that are spontaneously activated during critical decision points. This selective review highlights many of the consistent findings supporting predictive effects of implicit cognition on substance use and abuse in adolescents and adults; reveals a recent integration with dual-process models; outlines the rapid evolution of different measurement tools; and introduces new routes for intervention.

Stanescu D.F., &Iorga M.E . ( 2015).

An exploratory study regarding the relations between time perspective, achievement motivation and self-regulation

Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 3, (1), 7-24.

[本文引用: 1]

Tang Z. X., Zhang H. J., Yan A., & Qu C . ( 2017).

Time Is money: The decision making of smartphone high users in gain and loss intertemporal choice

Frontiers in psychology, 8, 363-375.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Nowadays the smartphone plays an important role in our lives. While it brings us convenience and efficiency, its overuse can cause problems. Although a great number of studies have demonstrated that people affected by substance abuse, pathological gambling, and internet addiction disorder have lower self-control than average, scarcely any study has investigated the decision making of smartphone high users by using a behavioral paradigm. The present study employed an intertemporal task, the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11) to explore the decision control of smartphone high users in a sample of 125 college students. Participants were divided into three groups according to their SPAI scores. The upper third (69 or higher), middle third (from 61 to 68) and lower third (60 or lower) of scores were defined as high smartphone users, medium users and low users, respectively. We compared the percentage of small immediate reward/penalty choices in different conditions between the three groups. Relative to the low users group, high users and medium users were more inclined to request an immediate monetary reward. Moreover, for the two dimensions of time and money in intertemporal choice, high users and medium users showed a bias in intertemporal choice task among most of the time points and value magnitude compared to low users. These findings demonstrated that smartphone overuse was associated with problematic decision-making, a pattern similar to that seen in persons affected by a variety of addictions.

Wells K. E., Morgan G., Worrell F. C., Sumnall H., & McKay M. T . ( 2018).

The influence of time attitudes on alcohol-related attitudes, behaviors and subjective life expectancy in early adolescence: A longitudinal examination using mover-stayer latent transition analysis

International Journal of Behavioral Development, 42 (1), 93-105.

[本文引用: 1]

Wigfield A .( 1994).

Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective

Educational Psychology Review, 6 (1), 49-78.

[本文引用: 1]

Wills T. A., Sandy J. M., & Yaeger A. M . ( 2001).

Time perspective and early-onset substance use: A model based on stress-coping theory

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, (2), 118-125.

[本文引用: 1]

Zajenkowski M., Carelli M. G., & Ledzińska M . ( 2015).

Cognitive processes in time perspective. In I. M. Stolarski, W. van Beek, & N. Fieulaine (Eds.), Time perspective theory; review, research and applications (pp. 243-255)

Switzerland: Springer International Publishing

[本文引用: 2]

Zentsova N.I., &Leonov S.V . ( 2013).

Comparative characteristics of time perspective of professional athletes and drug addicted people

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 78, (2), 340-344.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present article analyses the comparative characteristics of time perspective of professional athletes and drug addicted people. Participants who are addicted to drugs and professional athletes pose significant difference in time perspective: in their perception of “Future”, “Negative Past” and Positive Past”. Characteristics of time perspective are dynamic and change in the context of meaning-life orientations and stressful events. Excessive concentration of participants on the past or on the future could be a predictor that contributes to dependent behavior. The necessity of individual profile consideration in psychological work with athletes and drug-addicted people was shown.

Zimbardo P.G., &Boyd J.N . ( 1999).

Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric

Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, (6), 1271-1288.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Time perspective (TP), a fundamental dimension in the construction of psychological time, emerges from cognitive processes partitioning human experience into past, present, and future temporal frames.

Zimmerman B.J . ( 2008).

Investigating self-regulation and motivation: historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects

American Educational Research Journal, 45, (1), 166-183.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The topic of how students become self-regulated as learners has attracted researchers for decades. Initial attempts to measure self-regulated learning (SRL) using questionnaires and interviews were successful in demonstrating significant predictions of students' academic outcomes. The present article describes the second wave of research, which has involved the development of online measures of self-regulatory processes and motivational feelings or beliefs regarding learning in authentic contexts. These innovative methods include computer traces, think-aloud protocols, diaries of studying, direct observation, and microanalyses. Although still in the formative stage of development, these online measures are providing valuable new information regarding the causal impact of SRL processes as well as raising new questions for future study.

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