心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 623-635 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00623

研究前沿

一图抵千言:多媒体学习中的自我生成绘图策略

王燕青, 王福兴,, 谢和平, 陈佳雪, 李文静, 胡祥恩,

华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079

A picture is worth a thousand words: Self-generation drawing for multimedia learning

WANG Yanqing, WANG Fuxing,, XIE Heping, CHEN Jiaxue, LI Wenjing, HU Xiangen,

School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China

通讯作者: 王福兴, E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; 胡祥恩, E-mail: xiangenhu@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-06-19   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金面上项目.  #31771236
贵州省教育改革发展研究重大课题.  #2017ZD005
中央高校基本科研业务费资助.  2018YBZZ093

Received: 2018-06-19   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

自我生成绘图是指学生使用可视化的学习方法绘制一幅能反映每一段文字中重要观点的图画, 通过图文结合的方式来促进学习的一种策略。综述以往研究发现, 先前研究通过操纵文本、动画等学习材料来考察自我生成绘图在学习中的作用, 发现自我生成绘图的效果并不稳健:一方面它可以通过提高学生的认知和元认知能力、激发积极的情感状态而提高学习效果, 得到了绘图建构生成理论和多媒体学习认知理论的支持; 另一方面也可以通过增加认知负荷而阻碍学习, 得到了认知负荷理论的支持。整体而言, 自我生成绘图策略还是有利于学习的, 已有研究在学习效果上的效应量中值为d保持 = 0.13, d理解 = 0.46, d迁移 = 0.38。未来的研究仍需要关注自我生成绘图策略的材料操纵、效果评定以及潜在变量等等。

关键词: 自我生成绘图 ; 绘图建构生成理论 ; 多媒体学习认知理论 ; 认知负荷理论 ; 多媒体学习

Abstract

Self-generated drawing is a learning strategy in which learners rely on a written text to construct representational drawings that correspond to the main elements and relations described in each portion of the text. Previous studies have examined the role of self-generated drawing in learning by manipulating text, animation and other learning materials. However, it remained various mixed results of the effects of self-generated drawing. From the perspectives of generative theory of drawing construction (GTDC) and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML), self-generated drawing can improve students' cognitive and metacognitive abilities, stimulate the positive emotional state and result in better retention or comprehension. In addition, cognitive load theory (CLT) might predict the opposite result of learning for the reason that drawing brings about an increase of extraneous cognitive load. In general, the self-generated mapping strategy is conducive to learning, the median effect sizes are dretention = 0.13, dcomprehension = 0.46, dtransfer = 0.38. The inconsistent results may be explained by the existence of potential boundary conditions, such as support, test methods, and prior knowledge, to name a few. Future studies should focus on the moderating effects of material manipulation, effectiveness evaluation, and other variables.

Keywords: self-generated drawing ; generation theory of drawing construction ; cognitive theory of multimedia learning ; cognitive load theory ; multimedia learning

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本文引用格式

王燕青, 王福兴, 谢和平, 陈佳雪, 李文静, 胡祥恩. (2019). 一图抵千言:多媒体学习中的自我生成绘图策略. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 623-635

WANG Yanqing, WANG Fuxing, XIE Heping, CHEN Jiaxue, LI Wenjing, HU Xiangen. (2019). A picture is worth a thousand words: Self-generation drawing for multimedia learning. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 623-635

设想这样一个场景:学生A和B同时学习一篇关于空调制冷原理的文本材料。学生A在阅读完每一段后, 绘制一幅空调制冷过程的图画, 通过图文整合的方式来进行学习, 而学生B则采用其他非绘图的方法来加工文本材料, 那么两者的学习效果会如何?其中, 学生A所进行的活动即使用自我生成绘图的学习策略来辅助学习, 如果自我生成绘图策略是有效的, 那么学生A的后测成绩应该好于学生B。已有大量的研究表明, 在学习过程中绘制有关学习内容的图画是一种有效提高学习成绩的策略(Leutner & Schmeck, 2014)。因为当学习者进行绘图时, 会运用自己的先验知识对学习材料进行选择、组织、整合, 并将这些认知加工的过程, 通过绘图实现外部可视化(van Meter & Firetto, 2013)。在这一过程中学习者所进行的建构性思维操作和转换能促进对学习内容的理解。例如, Schwamborn, Mayer, Thillmann和Leopold (2010)要求学生学习一篇关于洗衣服过程中肥皂和水产生化学反应的文章, 进行绘图的学习者需要在阅读文章后选择出主要的信息, 经过组织整合形成丰富的图像表征, 并画出一幅图画来表示每个段落的主要观点, 而控制组的学习者仅仅阅读文本内容。结果发现, 绘图组的成绩(保持测验, 迁移测验)均高于文本阅读组。虽然该研究结果支持绘图策略对学习成绩的促进作用, 然而也有研究得出了不同的结论(Leutner, Leopold, & Sumfleth, 2009; Ploetzner & Fillisch, 2017), 不一致结果产生的可能原因有很多, 比如, 是否为绘图提供支持(背景图、提供现成的图画)、绘图质量、学习者的先验知识水平等。因此, 本文结合以往的实证研究, 在阐述自我生成绘图策略的概念及实验操纵的基础上, 整理了建构绘图促进或阻碍学习的理论基础, 探讨了学习者进行绘图活动对学习效果产生的影响, 并详细分析了不一致结果的可能原因, 以期为自我生成绘图策略在教育实践中更好的应用提供借鉴。

1 什么是自我生成绘图?

自我生成绘图(self-generated drawing)是一种要求学生在阅读无图片的文本时, 使用可视化的方法画一幅能反映每一段文字中重要观点的图画, 通过图的方式来表示文本中的主要观点和观点之间关系的目标性学习策略(van Meter & Garner, 2005), 即“学习内容的外部可视化”。在这一过程中学习者不再是信息被动的接受者, 而成为了一个积极主动加工的个体。自我生成绘图有两个主要特点:一是图画表征, 即所绘制的图画必须是学习内容在现实世界的真实属性(比如, 文本材料中提到闪电, 学习者需要画出闪电的形状)以及它们之间的空间关系(van Meter & Firetto, 2013); 二是自我生成, 即图片由学习者亲自绘制而成, 而非由他人提供(van Meter & Garner, 2005)。自我生成绘图不同于思维导图和流程图等, 因为自我生成绘图要求学生进行一些建构性的活动, 比如将文本信息转化为生动的图像信息, 这一过程涉及到促进图式构建积极的认知和元认知加工, 帮助学习者通过图文整合的方式促进对知识的掌握(van Meter & Garner, 2005), 这是思维导图和流程图等不具有的特征。

自我生成绘图策略效果的研究主要是对绘图组和对照组进行不同的方法操纵。其中对绘图组的操纵是要求学习者在阅读完文本材料后构建相应的图画(纯绘图组)。例如, Gobert和Clement (1999)要求学生学习板块构造的相关知识, 绘图组的学习者需要画出一幅图画来描述他们在文本材料中习得的内容。也有研究先给学生提供一个脚手架再让其进行绘图。例如, Lesgold, Levin, Shimron和Guttman (1975)给出背景图和剪贴画来辅助学生的绘图; Lee (2017)先让学习者找出文本材料中的关键词再进行绘图等。但对照组的操纵并非如此, 对照组的学习者需要学习专家绘制好的图画(Schwamborn, Thillmann, Opfermann, & Leutner, 2011)、或者对文本内容进行口头总结(Leopold & Leutner, 2012)、想象(Leutner et al., 2009)和重复阅读(Lin et al., 2017)等。

目前, 对自我生成绘图的概念界定和操纵方法仍然存在很多争议。比如, van Meter和Garner (2005)将自我生成绘图的概念界定为“在阅读无图片的文本时, 使用可视化的方法画一幅能反映每一段文字中重要观点的图画”。然而, 有部分研究使用动画作为学习材料, 让学习者根据动态的内容绘制图画, 从而扩展了自我生成绘图应用的范围(Mason, Lowe, & Tornatora, 2013; Ploetzner & Fillisch, 2017)。另外, 大量研究并没有对自我生成绘图进行严格的操纵, 比如, 绘图组的学习者只是根据学习材料绘制相应的图画(Leopold, Sumfleth, & Leutner, 2013; Scheiter, Schleinschok, & Ainsworth, 2017), 然而在绘图过程中所用的绘图时间、学习者的绘图技能、实验材料的难度等却没有考虑在内, 而这些因素在一定程度上可能会影响绘图的效果, 这也许是目前不同操纵条件下学习效果不一致的重要原因。因此, 在对自我生成绘图进行操纵时, 应尽量排除额外变量(如:学习时间、材料难度)的干扰, 这样才能更好地比较绘图组与非绘图组在学习效果和主观体验上的差异。

2 自我生成绘图的理论基础

针对自我生成绘图策略对学习效果的影响, 研究者们持有不同的观点, 那么其背后的理论机制是什么呢?本研究结合以往的理论和实践, 主要从自我生成绘图的促进说和阻碍说两大方面展开论述。

2.1 自我生成绘图促进说

绘图建构生成理论(generative theory of drawing construction, GTDC)强调学习者在建构与学习内容相对应图片的过程中, 会产生包含选择、组织和整合材料的认知活动, 也会激活自我监控和调节策略等元认知活动, 进而促进对文本内容更深入的理解(van Meter & Garner, 2005)。绘图建构的过程有助于更深层次的理解, 是因为相关概念被“整合到一个复杂的因果链中, 建立了一个丰富的心理模型” (Gobert & Clement, 1999)。这一过程主要包括积极的认知和元认知加工。其中, 最基本的是认知加工的三个过程:一是选择, 学习者要在被提供的文本中选择出相关的关键因素; 二是组织, 学习者把所选择的信息进行组织, 建构一个内部的言语表征和视觉(非言语)表征; 三是整合, 把言语表征和非言语表征以及先验知识整合在一起(Mayer, 1993)。元认知加工主要强调学习者的自我监控能力, 学习者在建构这样一个图画表征的过程中可能会遇到各种各样的问题, 因此, 他们不得不再检查已经描绘的表征, 甚至是原始的文本内容来获得更多额外信息, 不断地完善自己建构的图画。这个过程并非线性的, 而是反复的过程, 因此提高了学生的自我监控能力, 帮助他们发现理解上的错误, 提高绘图的准确性, 进而促进学习(见图1)。虽然目前没有研究对认知加工过程进行直接的测量, 但是部分实证表明自我生成绘图能提高学生的元认知加工进而促进学习(Lesgold et al., 1975; van Meter, 2001), 支持GTDC。

图1

图1   基于绘图建构生成理论、多媒体学习认知理论、认知负荷理论的自我生成绘图的学习加工过程


根据多媒体学习认知理论(cognitive theory of multimedia learning, CTML), 人类加工信息运用两种不同的通道, 一种是基于视觉表征的通道, 一种是基于言语表征的通道(Mayer, 2009)。有大量的研究已经表明, 学习设计良好的多媒体材料(包括文本和图片)要比学习仅仅呈现文本内容的效果更好, 如果图片中包含文本中所描述概念的空间关系, 那么学生就能够更好地理解文章所表达的意思(Carney & Levin, 2002; Imhof, Scheiter, Edelmann, & Gerjets, 2012)。所以, 当在学习说明性文章的时候, 如果没有提供相关的图片表征, 那么需要学习者自己生成和建构相应的图片, 通过图文结合的方式进行学习, 从而提高他们的学习兴趣, 激发学习动机, 促进对学习材料的理解。CTML也得到了部分研究的支持(Leopold & Leutner, 2012; Schmidgall, Eitel, & Scheiter, in press)。

综上两种自我生成绘图的促进观点来看, GTDC强调学习者的“自我生成”, 即学习者自身积极主动加工的过程, 而CTML的关注点是“绘图”, 即图文结合的学习方式, 两者相辅相成, 都有利于学习者对学习材料的识记和保持。这也是目前研究者同时采用两种理论来解释自我生成绘图的原因(Lin et al., 2017)。然而, 回顾以往的研究不难发现, 自我生成绘图的效果只得到了部分实证研究的支持, 对于那些自我生成绘图组和对照组在学习结果上没有差异, 甚至要低于非绘图组的研究结果, 均不符合GTDC和CTML的假设。未来的理论性研究应该把研究的重点放在绘图建构生成理论或多媒体学习认知理论对自我生成绘图策略的解释力上。

2.2 自我生成绘图阻碍说

在学习的过程中, 自我生成绘图在一定程度上可以提高学习者对文本的理解, 然而这一可视化策略也对学习者的认知负荷提出了更高的要求。根据认知负荷理论(cognitive load theory, CLT), 个体在信息加工的过程中承载着三种类型的认知负荷:内在认知负荷(intrinsic cognitive load, ICL)、外在认知负荷(extraneous cognitive load, ECL)和相关认知负荷(germane cognitive load, GCL) (Sweller, Ayres, & Kalyuga, 2011; Sweller, van Merriënboer, & Paas, 1998)。ICL与材料本身的复杂性有关; ECL针对的是额外的认知需求; GCL反应的是学习本身的认知加工。从认知负荷的角度来看, 在学习的过程中使用可视化的绘图策略在一定程度上会增加ECL, 因为学生需要将言语信息转化成图片信息, 还要通过机械的绘图来画出相应的内容, 这一过程需要消耗大量的认知资源, 减少用于加工关键信息和建构心理模型所必需的认知资源, 从而阻碍学习。不过基于CLT假设只得到了部分研究结果的支持。例如,Leutner等(2009)发现让学生进行绘图操作显著增加了ECL, 阻碍了学习。Schwamborn等(2011)发现绘图组学生的心理努力程度高于控制组, 学习效果也更差。

CLT理论对自我生成绘图阻碍作用的解释只得到了较少研究的支持, 可能存在的原因是:第一, 忽略了自我生成绘图对GCL的影响。自我生成绘图是在没有图片的文本情况下产生的, 它能促进学习者通过积极地加工把文本信息转化成图片表征, 可能会增加GCL, 促进更深的理解。所以, 到底是哪种认知负荷在自我生成绘图对学习效果的影响中起到更为关键的作用?是因为绘图操作而增加了ECL? 还是自我生成过程而增加GCL? 还是ECL、GCL的共同增加?GCL的增加对学习的有利作用能不能弥补ECL的增加对学习的阻碍作用?这些问题都有待于进一步的考察。需要注意的是, 目前关于对自我生成绘图与GCL之间关系的探讨还只是研究者们的推测(Leutner et al., 2009), 未来可以用更多的实证研究加以验证。第二, 认知负荷本身就是个动态变化的过程, 受很多因素的影响, 比如, 材料特征、学习者特征、环境因素等, 所以在绘图的过程中, 到底哪些因素导致了认知负荷的产生还没有定论。因此, 能不能确定是绘图操作导致认知负荷的增加?还需谨慎解释。第三, 认知负荷本身就存在较大的争议。目前研究者们通常使用心理努力和感知难度作为测量认知负荷的指标, 但是究竟心理努力是属于ECL还是GCL, 并没有明确的标准(Xie et al., 2017)。所以, 学生在自我生成绘图过程中产生的心理努力, 是有利于学习还是阻碍学习还没有定论。以上争议在一定程度上限制了对自我生成绘图、认知负荷与学习结果之间关系的探讨。

对于自我生成绘图的促进与阻碍说, 两者之间的不同就在于, 自我生成绘图到底是通过激励学习者积极主动地运用认知和元认知策略加工文本内容, 从而促进了对知识的理解?还是由于在绘图过程中把注意力转移到机械作图的过程中而导致外在认知负荷过重阻碍了对关键知识的获得?综合以往对自我生成绘图策略的研究, 这两种假说都得到了不同程度的支持。然而两者在自我生成绘图对学习效果没有差异的现象上, 都不能给出很好的解释。此外, 很多的研究既不能精确地指出自我生成绘图是如何影响认知和元认知过程, 也没有直接测量认知和元认知水平以及认知负荷与学习结果之间的关系, 而只是间接地推测自我生成绘图是通过增加学习者的认知和元认知加工来促进学习, 或者是通过增加ECL而阻碍学习(Schmidgall et al., in press)。因此, 未来的研究应该直接测验认知、元认知、认知负荷等与学习效果之间的关系, 来确定是否自我生成绘图是因为学习者的认知和元认知能力的提高或者ECL的降低来对学习效果起作用的。

3 自我生成绘图促进还是阻碍学习?——来自实证研究的证据

自我生成绘图的关键是将言语模型系统地转化为非言语模型, 这个转换的过程会提高学生对学习内容的理解和加工。然而自我生成绘图对学习效果影响的研究结果并不一致。综合以往的文献发现, 研究者们主要从三个方面来考察自我生成绘图对学习效果的影响, 分别是:保持测验、理解测验和迁移测验。为了在一定程度上定量的描述“自我生成绘图策略与学习效果的关系”, 本文尽可能地统计了相关实证研究的效应量Cohen’s d值(具体见表1), 并计算出效应量中值(median effect size)。汇总文献的标准如下:(1)研究须为实证; (2)文章主要是对比自我生成绘图组与非绘图组(阅读、想象、总结、解释等)的差异; (3)因变量应为学习效果或者主观体验(认知负荷、自我监控等)。

表1   自我生成绘图对学习效果和内在感知的影响(效应量Cohen’s d值)

研究 样本量 实验操纵 实验材料 内在感知 学习效果d
Alesandrini, 1981 383 绘图vs释义 电池中电化学的概念 / U*=0.279
Balemans et al., 2016 762 绘图vs阅读 人体组织结构 / R*(#)
Bock et al., 1998, Exp. 2 222 绘图vs提供图画vs阅读 数学单词问题 / R*(#)
Csíkos et al., 2011 244 绘图vs阅读 算术 B*(-) R (-0.049)
Dean & Kulhavey,
1981
, Exp. 1
40 绘图vs阅读 想象的非洲部落 / R*(1.08) T*(1.097)
Edens & Potter, 2003 184 绘图vs复制提供的图vs写作 能量守恒定律 / R (-) C*(-)
Gobert & Clement, 1999 58 绘图vs总结vs阅读 板块构造论 / R*(0.738)T*(0.714)
Hall et al., 1997 92 绘图vs提供图画vs阅读 手动气泵的工作 / C*(0.464)
Lin et al., 2017 60 绘图vs想象vs阅读 人类心血管系统 CL (-) C*(0.461)
Lee, 2017 339 阅读vs列关键词vs绘图vs (列关键词+绘图) 人体骨骼肌系统 / R*(0.066)
Leopold et al., 2013 71 绘图vs总结vs提供图画vs提供总结 水分子及其化学键 / C*(0.245) T(0.053)
Leopold & Leutner,
2012
, Exp. 1
90 绘图vs观点选择vs (绘图+观点选择)vs阅读 水分子 / C*(0.61) T*(0.808)
Leopold & Leutner,
2012
, Exp. 2
71 绘图vs总结vs (绘图+总结)vs阅读 水分子 / C (0.277) T*(0.817)
Lesgold et al., 1975,
Exp. 1
24 绘图vs阅读 散文 / R&(-0.98)
Lesgold et al., 1975,
Exp. 2
72 绘图(提供支持)vs阅读 同上 / R*(0.129)
Lesgold, De Good,
& Levin, 1977
32 绘图vs阅读 故事 / R*(#)
Leutner et al., 2009 111 绘图vs想象vs (绘图+想象)vs阅读 水分子的双极特性 CL*(0.72) C&(-0.37)
Mason et al., 2013 199 绘图vs复制图画vs观看 五球摆动的动画 / R*(0.418)
Ploetzner & Fillisch,
2017
52 绘图vs想象 四冲程引擎动画 / R&(-0.164)
Scheiter et al., 2017 74 绘图vs解释 介绍化学导论的
说明文
/ R (0.414) T(0.211)
Schleinschok et al.,
2017
, Exp. 1
73 绘图vs阅读 关于极光的天文
现象
CL (-0.35) JOL*(-) R (0.063)
Schleinschok et al.,
2017
, Exp. 2
69 绘图vs阅读 同上 CL (-0.066)
JOL*(-)
R (-0.143)
Schmeck et al., 2014,
Exp. 1
48 绘图vs阅读 流感的生物知识 ME*(0.766), PD
(-0.124)
C*(0.85)
Schmeck et al., 2014,
Exp. 2
168 绘图vs提供图画vs (绘图+提供图画)vs阅读 同上 ME (-0.584), PD
(-0.779)
C*(0.5)
Schwamborn et al.,
2011
102 绘图vs提供图画vs (绘图+提供图画)vs阅读 肥皂和水的化学反应 ME*(0.333) R&(-0.169) T&(0)
Schwamborn et al.,
2010
196 绘图vs (绘图+选择)vs(绘图+组织/整合)vs(绘图+选择+组织/整合)vs阅读 肥皂和水的化学反应 / R*(0.87) T*(0.91)
Schmidgall et al., in
press, Exp. 1
121 绘图vs总结vs提供图画vs阅读 人类游泳行为的生物力学研究 / R (0.002) T*(0.174)
研究 样本量 实验操纵 实验材料 内在感知 学习效果d
Schmidgall et al., in
press, Exp. 2
223 绘图vs想象vs观看 同上 PD*(0.643) R& (-0.458)
T (-0.081)
Snowman &
Cunningham, 1975
63 绘图vs问题vs (问题+绘图)vs阅读 描述一个虚构的部落 / R (-)
Stagg & Verde, 2018 41 绘图vs总结 植物物种 L* R (0.009)
van Essen & Hamaker,
1990
, Exp.1
53 绘图vs阅读 算术词问题 / R (-0.047)
T(-0.439)
van Essen & Hamaker,
1990
, Exp.2
50 绘图vs阅读 算术词问题 / R*(0.774) T*(0.67)
van Meter et al., 2006 135 绘图vs提供图画vs提供问题vs阅读 关于鸟的翅膀的文章 / R (0.043) T*(0.234)
van Meter, 2001 100 绘图vs提供图画vs提供问题vs阅读 中枢神经 S-M*(-) R*(0.337)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 1
55 绘图(仔细)vs写作(重复) 单词 / R*(1.23)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 2
49 绘图(重复)vs写作(仔细) 同上 / R*(1.3)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 3
47 绘图vs关键词vs写作 同上 / R*(0.86)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 4
28 绘图vs想象vs写作 同上 / R*(0.87)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 5
37 绘图vs提供图画vs写作 同上 / R*(0.67)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 6
28 绘图vs写作(更长的学习列表, 更短的编码时间) 同上 / R*(2.27)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 7
47 纯绘图vs纯写作 同上 / R*(1.63)
Zhang & Linn,
2013
, Exp. 1
110 绘图vs简单选择 化学反应 S-M*(-) R (-0.139)
T*(0.668)
Zhang & Linn,
2013
, Exp. 2
172 绘图vs复杂选择 化学反应 S-M (-) R (-0.107)
T(-0.256)
Zhang & Linn, 2011 133 绘图vs观看 电池汽车氢气燃烧的过程 / T*(0.516)
Zhang, 2010 73 绘图vs评论 氢气燃烧过程中分子的相互作用 / T(-)

注:R指保持测验; C指理解测验; T指迁移测验; U指联合测验(保持、理解、迁移总分); CL指认知负荷; ME指心理努力; PD指感知难度; L指偏爱程度; B指学习信念; S-M指自我监控; JOL指学习判断; #指该研究测量的是回答正确的百分比; -表示研究中数值未报告或缺失; /表示研究中未测量的值; *指自我生成绘图策略的效果要好于其他对照组; &表示自我生成绘图策略相比于其他学习策略阻碍了学习; ()中的数字表示自我生成绘图组和对照组相比效应量d值, d值表示自变量作用的大小, d值越大表示绘图组相较于非绘图组对学习效果的影响越大。

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保持测验通常是考察学习者对学习内容的识记效果(Mayer, 2009)。有部分研究表明自我生成绘图能促进学习者对学习材料的掌握(Bock et al., 1998; Balemans et al., 2016; Liao, Lee, & Chan, 2013; Wammes et al., 2016)。例如, Mason等人(2013)在动画环境下检验自我生成绘图的效果, 发现相比于复制图片组和阅读组, 绘图组的学习者能更多地描述出动画中的内容。但是, 另外一些研究结果没有支持自我生成绘图在保持测验上的积极效果(Zhang & Linn, 2013; Stull & Mayer, 2007)。例如, van Meter等人(2006)发现, 自我生成绘图组和控制组在再认测验成绩上没有显著差异。Ploetzner和Fillisch (2017)的研究发现对动画内容进行想象的学生在保持测验上成绩要好于自我生成绘图组, 学生绘图的活动阻碍了他们对学习内容的识记。从表1汇总的45项实验来看, 在包含保持测验的34项实验结果中, 有18项研究结果显示自我生成绘图能提高学生在保持测验上的成绩, 有12项研究并没有发现其在保持测验上积极的促进作用, 有4项发现自我生成绘图干扰了学生在保持测验上的学习效果。本文计算得出, 自我生成绘图策略在保持测验上产生的效应量中值(median effect size)为d = 0.13。

理解测验主要是检验学习者对学习材料中重要概念的理解效果(Schmeck et al., 2014)。一些研究发现, 自我生成绘图能使学生对学习内容产生深层次理解(Hall et al., 1997; Lin et al., 2017)。例如, Gan (2008)的研究发现, 绘图在帮助四年级的学生理解“光”及其相关现象上发挥了重要的作用。但也有研究未发现自我生成绘图对理解测验成绩的促进作用。例如, Leopold和Leutner (2012)在实验二中的研究结果证明, 自我生成绘图组和总结组以及控制组在理解测验上没有差异。Leutner等人(2009)发现绘图策略与想象策略相比, 对学习者理解测验有显著的负效应。表1的汇总结果显示, 在9项包含理解测验的实验中, 7项研究的结果证明自我生成绘图能提高学生的理解成绩, 1项研究没有发现自我生成绘图与其他学习策略的差异, 有1项研究发现自我生成绘图阻碍了学生对材料的理解。通过计算自我生成绘图策略在理解测验上的效应量, 发现产生的效应量中值为d = 0.46。

迁移测验一般考察学生将所学知识运用到新情景中的能力(Mayer, 2009)。研究者们假设认为, 迁移问题可能要求学习者在更大程度上理解学习内容的空间表征, 而自我生成绘图组的学习者在绘图的过程中对学习内容的空间关系有更清晰的了解, 能够实现知识的迁移。部分研究结果发现绘图组学生的问题解决能力要好于控制组(Hall et al., 1997; van Meter, Meade, & Fernandes, 2006; Schmidgall et al., in press)。然而, 也有研究发现自我生成绘图与其他学习策略(想象策略、总结策略)相比, 在迁移测验上并没有表现出优势。例如, Scheiter等人(2017)的研究发现, 学习者在自我生成绘图组和自我解释组的迁移测验成绩上没有差异。除此之外, Schwamborn等人(2011)的研究表明自我生成绘图不但没有提高学习者的知识迁移能力, 与提供图片组相比, 在一定程度上还起到了阻碍学习的作用。从表1的汇总结果可知, 17项包含迁移测验的结果中, 有10项发现自我生成绘图提高了学习者的问题解决能力, 而6项研究没有发现自我生成绘图策略与其他学习策略在迁移测验上存在差异, 有1项研究结果显示自我生成绘图对迁移测验有负效应。通过计算得到自我生成绘图策略在迁移测验上产生的效应量中值为d = 0.38。

从以上的分析结果不难看出, 无论是保持测验、理解测验还是迁移测验, 自我生成绘图策略的应用均产生了不一致的结果, 一方面学习者可以通过积极主动的建构与学习内容相关的心理模型, 在这一过程中学习者需对学习材料进行选择、组织和整合, 并对自己建构的心理模型不断的监察和修正, 最后通过图的方式展现出来, 进而辅助自己的学习, 得到了绘图建构生成理论和多媒体学习认知理论的支持; 但是另一方面, 学习者在进行绘图的过程中, 由于要把相应的认知资源分配到机械的绘图操作上, 导致用于学习相关知识的认知资源减少, 进而阻碍了学习, 得到了认知负荷理论的支持。但是在两者没有差异的结果上, 无论是自我生成绘图的促进说或是阻碍说, 均不能给出合理的解释, 还需要未来的研究者们继续探索。

自我生成绘图策略的稳健性受到很多研究者的质疑, 之所以出现这种不一致的结果, 原因可能是:第一, 是否为绘图提供支持条件可能会产生不同的学习结果。部分研究结果显示, 给出绘图的背景(Lesgold et al., 1975)、提供现成的图片进行比较(van Meter, 2001)、先列出关键词再进行绘图(Lee, 2017)的学习者在后测成绩上要好于没有提供支持的学习者。第二, 多媒体学习是一个复杂的过程, 学习者生成绘图并不是影响这一过程的唯一因素。学习者的先验知识水平(Slominski, Momsen, & Montplaisir, 2017)、绘图质量(即绘图的准确性) (Rellensmann, Schukajlow, & Leopold, 2016)、绘图的时间等(Schwamborn et al., 2011)均可能影响学习效果。比如, Leutner等(2009)发现学习者生成绘图阻碍了对学习领域具有高知识经验学生的理解, 对于低知识经验者, 外部的绘图活动为他们的学习提供了支架, 从而提高了学习成绩(Zhang & Linn, 2013); Greene (1989)发现在绘图过程中产生高质量图画的学生, 其后测中的得分往往比在阅读过程中制作低质量图画的学生要高; Schmeck等(2014)的研究结果显示当把学习时间作为一个协变量时, 绘图组和控制组在理解力后测分数上将不再显著。甚至有研究者认为, 用于评估学习结果措施的差异都有可能是导致过去研究不一致的原因之一, 绘图建构的优点更有可能在评估与学习内容有关的高级知识测验中得到体现, 例如迁移测验和问题解决测验(Alesandrini, 1981; van Essen & Hamaker, 1990), 而不是在文本信息的识别再认等简单的测验上(van Meter et al., 2006)。van Meter等人认为这些论断的理论依据是知识表征理论, 这个理论强调自我生成绘图是一个精心建构心理表征的过程, 在这个过程中需要学习者把当前知识和先验经验进行整合, 然后进行精细的推理和灵活的加工, 而不是对文本简单的存储, 所以不同程度的知识测验形式可能会影响学习结果。通过计算保持测验和迁移测验的效应量中值也可发现, d迁移 = 0.38大于d保持 = 0.13。最后, 实验材料的性质也会影响绘图的效果。目前自我生成绘图策略的相关研究大多数采用的是不包含图片的文本材料(Schleinschok et al., 2017), 并且结果倾向于支持自我生成绘图的效果。然而, 有研究采用比较复杂的四冲程引擎动画作为实验材料, 结果却发现自我生成绘图干扰了学生的成绩(Ploetzner & Fillisch, 2017)。另外, 采用不同难度的动画作为实验材料也发现不同的结果, 比如, Mason等(2013)使用了相对较简单的五球摆动的动画材料, 结果支持了绘图对学习的促进作用。关注这些潜在的边界条件(Mayer, 2010), 可能会为探究自我生成绘图策略与学习结果之间的不稳健性提供帮助。

4 自我生成绘图是否影响主观体验?

自我生成绘图, 作为一种艺术化的学习方式, 需要学生自己积极主动地对知识进行外部的建构, 在一定程度上对学习效果产生了促进作用。但是当学生运用这一策略时会产生怎样的主观体验(认知负荷、情感状态、动机水平、自我监控)?这也是以往研究的一个关注点。

自我生成绘图策略的目的就是通过让学习者自己绘制表示文本内容的图画, 进行积极主动的加工, 从而提高学习成绩。然而有研究表明自我生成绘图可能会通过增加认知负荷而阻碍学习(Leutner et al., 2009)。因为学习者在根据文本内容进行绘图时, 需要在文本和图片之间来回切换, 以便于搜索可以在图片中进行可视化的关键信息。然而, 这种在文本和图片之间的反复转换需要消耗额外的认知资源, 导致用于知识加工的认知资源减少, 从而产生阻碍学习的负面效果。综合以往的研究可以发现, 在涉及自我生成绘图对认知负荷测量的7项研究中, 有4项发现自我生成绘图增加了学习者的认知负荷(Schmidgall et al., in press; Schmeck et al., 2014) (见表1), 但是由于目前对认知负荷测量的研究数量较少, 所以, 自我生成绘图在认知负荷上产生效果的稳定性还需要不断检验。

学生的情感状态对学生学习成功是至关重要的, 当学生处于一种积极的情感状态时, 就能激发他们的学习动机, 使他们在学习中投入更多的时间和精力(Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000)。但是, 目前仅有2篇实证研究对自我生成绘图过程中学生产生的情感状态进行测量, 1项研究发现自我生成绘图能提高学生的学习信念, 使学习者更喜欢使用绘图策略并相信绘图能帮助他们更好的解决问题(Csíkos et al., 2011); 另1项研究发现, 绘图组的学习者更愿意对所学习的内容进行绘图, 而不是书面总结, 这可能是因为在绘图的过程中学生会产生愉快的心情, 进而提高学生的学习兴趣以及进一步学习的热情, 从而在学习的过程中投入更多的认知资源(Stagg & Verde, 2018)。许多研究者提议自我生成绘图应该得到重视, 因为它能积极地影响学习者的情感过程, 提高学习动机(Ainsworth, Prain, & Tytler, 2011), 增加学习参与度(Quillin & Thomas, 2015)。值得提醒的是, 学习动机在学生的学习过程中起着十分重要的作用, 然而关于自我生成绘图与学习动机之间的关系, 还仅仅停留在理论探讨的阶段, 更多的实证研究需要加强对自我生成绘图如何影响学习动机进而影响学习效果的关注。

元认知监控是指学习者在认知加工的过程中根据学习目标评估自己学习状态的能力(Bjork, Dunlosky, & Kornell, 2013)。学习者在生成绘图的过程中, 通过积极的选择、组织和整合信息, 提高自我监控能力, 发现内部表征与外部描述之间的不一致, 从而增加错误检测与修复的次数, 促进对学习内容更加全面准确的理解(van Meter, 2001; van Meter & Firetto, 2013)。目前的研究中仅有5项报告了自我生成绘图和自我监控能力之间的关系, 4项发现自我生成绘图提高了学习者的监控能力。例如, Zhang和Linn (2013)的研究表明学生在进行绘图的过程中会产生更多的自我监控事件, 比如, 自我提问和回顾前文。Schleinschok等人(2017)使用学习判断(judgment of learning, JOL)对学生监控的准确性进行测量, 发现自我生成绘图组与控制组相比有更高的监控准确性。

操纵自我生成绘图的一个重要目的是考察进行绘图和非绘图的学生在内部感知上是否存在差异。这种主观评定的测量方法直接了解到学习者的感受, 从而间接地推断出学习效果, 具有简便性, 高效率等优点, 但是也存在一些不足。比如, 无论是认知负荷的测量还是对学习者情感状态的评定, 都是基于学习者的主观感受。学习者在报告自己的心理努力、感知难度和喜爱程度时, 可能与真实的体验存在偏差。所以, 未来的研究可以加入一些生理性的指标, 把主观评定与客观测量结合起来更好地了解学习者的内在感受。另外, 综述发现, 45项实证研究中仅仅13 (29%)篇对学习者在学习过程中的心理活动进行了测量, 而且测量指标也比较单一, 未来的研究可以加入对心智游移(mind wandering, MW) (Wilson et al., 2018)、延迟JOL (delayed JOL) (谢和平, 王福兴, 王玉鑫, 安婧, 2016)等的测量, 更加深入地了解学习者在自我生成绘图过程中的投入程度及元认知加工等。

5 总结与展望

5.1 总结

通过整理研究者们对自我生成绘图策略的研究, 结果发现自我生成绘图对学习者外部的学习效果和内部的主观感知都有一定的影响。在学习效果上, 绘图建构理论和多媒体学习认知理论认为学习者在绘图的过程中能够积极主动地对文本信息进行选择、组织和整合, 并进行生成性加工, 从而提高学习成绩。然而, 也有研究不支持自我生成绘图策略, 这与认知负荷理论的预期相一致(见图1), 即学生在根据文本内容进行绘图的过程中增加了外在认知负荷, 降低了学习效果。但整体而言, 自我生成绘图策略对学习是有益的(d保持 = 0.13, d理解 = 0.46, d迁移 = 0.38)。在保持测验上的效应量小于0.2, 属于较小的效应量; 但是在理解和迁移测试上的效应量在0.5左右, 属于中等的效应量。所以, 文章开头提到的例子中, 使用了自我生成绘图策略的学生A在后测成绩上应该要优于学生B。研究中存在不一致的结论, 可能是存在许多潜在的边界条件。例如, 是否提供支持、学习时间的长短、学习者的知识经验等。在主观感知上, 学习者进行绘图时, 必须关注绘图这一机械的操作过程, 可能会增加外部认知负荷, 减少用于加工关键信息的认知资源, 导致学习效果降低。另一方面, 自我生成绘图可以增强学习者的自我监控能力, 提高学习者的情感状态, 增加学习的投入度, 帮助学习者对学习内容的结构和关系形成更清晰的认识, 积极影响学习者的主观感受, 从而促进学习。

5.2 展望

自我生成绘图无论是对个体的学习还是对于教育教学方式的改进都有很大的借鉴作用, 但是也面临着很多问题, 比如潜在变量、材料操纵、实验方法等, 还需要不断的完善。目前对自我生成绘图策略的研究还存在很大的探究空间, 未来的研究可以从以下几个方面展开:

第一, 关注影响自我生成绘图的边界条件, 优化自我生成绘图策略。前文提出了自我生成绘图的效果受到很多潜在变量的影响, 比如, 提供支持(Lee, 2017)、测验形式(van Meter et al., 2006)、先验知识(Leutner et al., 2009)等, 但是除此之外, 目前为止还有很多没有涉及到的变量, 学生的学习动机、兴趣、认知方式、绘图技能、学习材料的难度、元认知提示等潜在的影响因素也需要不断的探究分析。需要特别注意的是, 许多对绘图策略的研究只集中在纸笔的绘图过程上, 目前只有少量的研究让学生采用平板等电子设备进行绘图来检验自我生成绘图的效果(Lehtinen & Viiri, 2014)。但是随着触屏媒体、电脑等设备在生活和教育中的不断应用, 未来的研究也可以比较平板绘图与纸质绘图、电脑绘图等不同的绘图媒介之间的差别。一项研究结果已经表明, 与那些不需要自己制作图片的学生相比, 在电脑上生成图片的学生需要付出更多的努力和学习时间(Schwamborn et al., 2011), 这表明自我生成绘图策略起作用似乎和媒体的使用是有关的, 在电脑上进行绘图, 学生需要更多的动手操作, 造成了额外的认知负荷。所以, 未来的研究可以通过增加培训或者优化绘图工具来降低电脑绘图的认知负荷, 在多媒体学习的教学环境下, 更好地应用自我生成绘图策略。

第二, 把自我生成绘图策略与计算机与网络学习相结合。随着多媒体教学的普及, 学生不仅要学习课本上静止的内容, 还要学习反应视觉空间关系的动态内容。然而, 在学习动态内容时, 学习者很容易只是提取显著的信息, 而忽视一些虽然微弱但是相关的信息, 那么, 绘图是不是就有可能帮助学习者提取概念上相关的信息, 从而提高对动画学习的效果呢?已经有研究表明加入绘图策略能够使学习者系统全面地感知和处理动态的内容(Mason et al., 2013), 然而, 也有研究结果显示在动画中采用自我生成绘图策略并没有达到在文本材料中应用的效果(Slominski et al., 2017)。那么, 是不是动画呈现的步调(王福兴, 谢和平, 李卉, 2016)、播放速度(钱莹莹, 王福兴, 段朝辉, 周宗奎, 2016)、动画内容等因素会影响绘图效果呢?是否在动画学习中加入线索(提示条件) (王福兴, 段朝辉, 周宗奎, 2013)能帮助学生进行绘图?还需要不断的检验。

第三, 用更加生态化的方式对自我生成绘图的效果进行测量。目前的研究主要是对主观体验、学习效果的即时测量, 这不符合正常的教学环境。在真实的学校教学中, 一般是在学生对相关内容学习结束后的几天或者几周进行测验, 所以, 以后的研究不仅要测量绘图产生的即时效果, 还要加强对延迟测验成绩的关注(Mason et al., 2013)。另外, 在对绘图质量进行测量时, van Meter (2001)根据学生自我生成绘图中所包含的系统性和结构性知识的数量和复杂性对绘图的质量进行分类。然而有研究使用了与绘图成绩相同的评分指标(Schleinschok et al., 2017), 这就导致绘图质量与学习成绩混淆不清, 选择更客观的评价标准对绘图质量进行测量是后续研究的潜在关注点。通过梳理以往的研究发现, 大多数研究者的关注点放在了自我生成绘图对学习效果(保持测验、理解和迁移测验)的研究上, 而忽略了学习者在绘图过程的心理体验, 未来的研究中可以整合外部的学习效果与内部的主观感知, 以更加全面地了解自我生成绘图的价值。

第四, 分析自我生成绘图策略对特殊学生群体学习的影响。目前很多研究主要关注自我生成绘图对正常学生的影响, 结果倾向于支持绘图策略对学习效果的促进作用。然而, 很少有研究者对自我生成绘图如何影响阅读障碍学生的学习进行考察。那么是否自我生成绘图对阅读障碍儿童的学习也能产生影响?目前仅有1项研究证明了自我生成绘图对正字法障碍的儿童是有效的, 但是对于双向障碍(发音困难和正字法障碍)的儿童效果则很微弱(Wang, Yang, Tasi, & Chan, 2013)。该结果是否稳定还需要不断检验。未来的研究不仅要研究自我生成绘图对不同类型阅读障碍学生的影响, 还要考虑在其他孩子(自闭症儿童, 学习困难儿童, 注意力缺陷多动症儿童等)中应用自我生成绘图策略是否能够帮助他们更好地学习。

第五, 考察自我生成绘图策略的行为规律和神经基础。眼动跟踪是一种通过记录学生的眼球运动来追踪他们学习过程的方法, 这种方法假设眼睛所专注的是大脑正在处理的信息(王福兴, 段朝辉, 周宗奎, 陈珺, 2015; van Gog & Scheiter, 2010)。采用眼动过程中的指标如注视点、注视时间等, 可以了解学习者进行认知加工瞬时的信息。另外, 教育心理学领域也大量应用近红外光谱脑成像(functional near-infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS)等技术来研究各种教育心理学的现象(Brucker, Ehlis, Häußinger, Fallgatter, & Gerjets, 2015), 为教育神经科学的发展提供了契机。学生在绘图过程中产生的认知负荷、自我监控事件等, 都有可能通过眼动数据或者大脑皮层的变化表现出来。为了深入了解自我生成绘图过程的认知机制, 仅仅通过传统的测验形式还存在一定的缺陷, 目前已有一篇研究把眼动技术应用到了自我生成绘图的研究中(Lin et al., 2017), 未来的研究应该借鉴此研究的方法, 用新的技术来探讨自我生成绘图策略对学习效果的影响机制。

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Educational Studies in Mathematics, 81, (1), 47-65.

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Abstract65=65106 and 138, respectively) of third-grade students. The experiment comprised 20 lessons with 73 word problems, providing a systematic overview of the basic word problem types. Teachers of the experimental classes received a booklet containing lesson plans and overhead transparencies with different types of visual representations attached to the word problems. Students themselves were invited to make drawings for each task, and group work and teacher-led discussion shaped their beliefs about the role of visual representations in word problem solving. The effect sizes of the experiment were calculated from the results of two tests: an arithmetic skill and a word problem test, and the unbiased estimates for Cohen’s proved to be 0.20 and 0.62. There were significant changes also in experimental group students’ beliefs about mathematics. The experiment pointed to the possibility, feasibility, and importance of learning about visual representations in mathematical word problem solving as early as in grade023 (around age 9–10).

Dean R.S., &Kulhavey R.W . ( 1981).

Influence of spatial organization in prose learning

Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, (1), 57-64.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT In Exp I, 40 undergraduates either did or did not create a map-like representation while learning a passage. Learners who generated a map exhibited significantly greater retention than did control Ss. In Exp II, 120 undergraduates were either forced to study the map, instructed to study, or given no map prior to reading. Learners who were forced to process performed significantly better than other groups on retention measures. Ss not forced to study performed no better than the control group who received no map. Free-recall data showed that forced map study benefited learners with low vocabulary scores more than Ss with higher vocabulary scores. This was not true for multiple-choice or constructed response measures. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Edens K.M., &Potter E. ( 2003).

Using descriptive drawings as a conceptual change strategy in elementary science

School Science and Mathematics, 103, (3), 135-144.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This research was conducted to examine the conditions under which learner-generated illustrations serve as an instructional strategy promoting conceptual change. Specifically, the nature of students' misconceptions and the effects of student-generated descriptive drawings on conceptual understanding of scientific principles associated with the law of conservation of energy were studied. Students were randomly assigned to groups in which they copied an illustration, generated a drawing, or wrote a description about the principles. A statistically significant difference on a posttest conceptual understanding measure was found between students who generated descriptive drawings and those who wrote in a science log. Students who copied an illustration also scored higher than the writing group, but not at a significant level. Also, the quality and number of concept units present in the drawing/writing log were significantly correlated with posttest and delay test scores. Findings suggest that under certain conditions, descriptive drawing is a viable way for students to learn scientific concepts, a finding which supports the use of generative drawings as a conceptual change strategy.

Gan Y .( 2008).

Drawing out ideas: Student-generated drawings' roles in supporting understanding of "light" (Unpublished doctorial dissertation).

University of Toronto.

[本文引用: 1]

Gobert J.D., &Clement J.J . ( 1999).

Effects of student- generated diagrams versus student-generated summaries on conceptual understanding of causaland dynamic knowledge in plate tectonics

Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, (1), 39-53.

[本文引用: 3]

Greene T.R . ( 1989).

Children's understanding of class inclusion hierarchies: The relationship between external representation and task performance

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48, (1), 62-89.

URL     PMID:2754389      [本文引用: 1]

Three experiments were designed to investigate children's understanding of class inclusion hierarchies and to determine whether such understanding may be related to children's ability to construct external representations for information that was hierarchical in nature. Understanding of hierarchies was studied through tasks designed to demonstrate children's ability with subset/superset classification and knowledge of asymmetric and transitive relations. Children were asked to construct their own external representations for passages containing information that could be represented hierarchically. It was hypothesized that the quality of children's external representations would be related to their ability to respond to questions related to the passages. Children's responses to questions, as well as their external representations, suggested that children as young as second grade have substantial understanding of hierarchical relations. Although the external representations were constructed in drawing, written, or structured modes, the data revealed a strong relationship between the quality of children's external representations and their performance on question tasks requiring both recognition and reasoning. Finally, children understood the relationships expressed in tree diagrams and could construct such diagrams to respond to questions. Implications of the findings, particularly as related to notetaking skills, and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Hall V. C., Bailey J., & Tillman C . ( 1997).

Can student- generated illustrations be worth ten thousand words

Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, (4), 677-681.

[本文引用: 3]

ABSTRACT The major purpose of the present study was to determine if reader-generated illustrations are as effective as experimenter-provided illustrations in providing students with the ability to understand scientific explanations. In addition, the authors were interested in replicating work by R. E. Mayer and colleagues (e.g., R. E. Mayer & R. B. Anderson, 1991; R. E. Mayer & J. K. Gallini, 1990) using different texts. The authors found that students with text and illustrations and students who generated their own illustrations performed better on a problem-solving test than students with text only and that there were no significant differences in performance between the former 2 groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Imhof B., Scheiter K., Edelmann J., & Gerjets P . ( 2012).

How temporal and spatial aspects of presenting visualizations affect learning about locomotion patterns

Learning and Instruction, 22, (3), 193-205.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Two studies investigated the effectiveness of dynamic and static visualizations for a perceptual learning task (locomotion pattern classification). In Study 1, seventy-five students viewed either dynamic, static-sequential, or static-simultaneous visualizations. For tasks of intermediate difficulty, dynamic visualizations led to better classification performance than static-sequential visualizations, but not than static-simultaneous visualizations. To test whether the temporal aspects of presenting static-simultaneous visualizations (i.e., their permanent visibility) or their spatial aspects (i.e., their arrangement in rows) accounted for this effect, Study 2 investigated three additional static-simultaneous conditions. Seventy-five students viewed static-simultaneous visualizations presented either in columns, matrices, or circles. For tasks of intermediate difficulty dynamic visualizations outperformed pictures presented in columns, matrices, and circles, but not the rows format. Accordingly, for learning about locomotion patterns, dynamic visualizations are better suited than most, but not all static visualization formats. From a practical point of view, effort should be invested into the design of static-simultaneous visualizations to further optimize instructional materials.

Lee D.L . ( 2017).

Effectiveness of learner-gennerated drawing in biology comprehension

( Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Pennsylvania State University.

[本文引用: 4]

Lehtinen A., & Viiri J. ( 2014).

Using tablets as tools for learner-generated drawings in the context of teaching the kinetic theory of gases

Physics Education, 49, (3), 344-348.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Even though research suggests that the use of drawings could be an important part of learning science, learner-generated drawings have not received much attention in physics classrooms. This paper presents a method for recording students drawings and group discussions using tablets. Compared to pen and paper, tablets offer unique benefits, which include the recording of the whole drawing process and of the discussion associated with the drawing. A study, which investigated the use of drawings and the need for guidance among Finnish upper secondary school students, is presented alongside ideas for teachers on how to see drawing in a new light.

Leopold C., &Leutner D. ( 2012).

Science text comprehension: Drawing, main idea selection, and summarizing as learning strategies

Learning and Instruction, 22, (1), 16-26.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959475211000429

Leopold C., Sumfleth E., & Leutner D . ( 2013).

Learning with summaries: Effects of representation mode and type of learning activity on comprehension and transfer

Learning and Instruction, 27, 40-49.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The purpose of the experiment was to examine whether students better understand a science text when they are asked to self-generate summaries or to study predefined summaries. Furthermore, we tested the effects of verbal and pictorial summaries. The experiment followed a 2 x 2 design with representation mode (verbal vs. pictorial) and learning activity (self-generating vs. studying) as experimental factors. The main dependent variables were learning performance, measured by a comprehension and a transfer test, and strategy use, measured by self-report scales. Seventy-one students (Grade 10) participated in the study. The results showed that studying predefined summaries in a pictorial representation mode facilitated deep understanding. Furthermore, mediation analysis showed that the effect of representational mode was mediated by students' spatial representations of learning content. The effect of spatial representations was in turn facilitated by mental imagery activities. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lesgold A. M., De Good H., & Levin J. R . ( 1977).

Pictures and young children's prose learning: A supplementary report

Journal of Reading Behavior. 9 (4), 353-360.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study shows that illustration is effective in learning of both simple and complex stories of both long and short length thus arguing against the hypothesis that illustration adds to cognitive load. (HOD)

Lesgold A. M., Levin G. R., Shimron J., & Guttman J . ( 1975).

Pictures and young children's learning from oral prose

Journal of Educational Psychology. 67 (5), 636-642.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

ABSTRACT Reports 4 experiments examining the effects of overt illustration on 1st graders' learning from oral prose. A total of 132 Ss participated. In all experiments, Ss heard prose selections after (or during) which they illustrated selection content with plasticized figure cutouts and background scenes. Control Ss copied or colored geometric forms during the illustration period. After hearing 3 or 5 passages, Ss orally recalled passage content and answered simple factual questions about each passage. Illustration facilitated prose learning only when the S was given the correct pieces for his illustration or had the illustration done for him. When Ss selected the pieces for each illustration out of a common pool of 20-30 cutouts, illustration activity had either negative or no effect. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Leutner D., Leopold C., & Sumfleth E . ( 2009).

Cognitive load and science text comprehension: Effects of drawing and mentally imagining text content

Computers in Human Behavior, 25, (2), 284-289.

URL     [本文引用: 9]

One hundred and eleven 10th graders read an expository science text on the dipole character of water molecules (ca. 1600 words). Reading instruction was varied according to a 202×022 experimental design with factors ‘drawing pictures of text content on paper’ (yes, no) and ‘mentally imagining text content while reading’ (yes, no). The results indicate that drawing pictures, mediated through increased cognitive load, decreased text comprehension and, thus, learning (02=02610.37), whereas mental imagery, although decreasing cognitive load, increased comprehension only when students did not have to draw pictures simultaneously (02=020.72). No evidence was found that the effects were moderated by domain-specific prior knowledge, verbal ability, or spatial ability. The results are in line with cognitive theories of multimedia learning, self-regulated learning, and mental imagery as well as conceptions of science learning that focus on promoting mental model construction by actively visualizing the content to be learned. Constructing mental images seems to reduce cognitive load and to increase comprehension and learning outcome when the mental visualization processes are not disturbed by externally drawing pictures on paper, whereas drawing pictures seems to increase cognitive load resulting in reduced comprehension and learning outcome.

Leutner D., &Schmeck A. ( 2014).

The generative drawing principle in multimedia learning

In R. E. Mayer (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning(pp. 433- 463). New York: Cambridge University.

[本文引用: 1]

Liao C. C. Y., Lee Y. C., & Chan T. W . ( 2013).

Buliding a self-generated drawing enviornment to improve children's performance in writing and storyleaning

Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 8, (3), 449-464.

[本文引用: 1]

Lin L. J., Lee C. H., Kalyuga S., Wang Y., Guan S. C., & Wu H . ( 2017).

The effect of learner-generated drawing and imagination in comprehending a science text

The Journal of Experimental Education, 85, (1), 142-154.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of imagination and learner-generated drawing on comprehension, reading time, cognitive load, and eye movements, and whether prior knowledge moderated the effects of these two strategies. Sixty-three undergraduate students participated in a pretest-posttest between-subjects study with the independent variable being the instructional strategies with three levels (learner-generated drawing vs. imagination vs. repeated reading). The results revealed that, compared to repeated reading, learner-generated drawing fostered learners' comprehension when their prior knowledge was relatively low. Moreover, when asked to read the science text after the intervention, learners who were previously engaged with imagination spent significantly more time reading the text, and fixated longer and more frequently than those in the repeated reading condition.

Mason L., Lowe R., & Tornatora M. C . ( 2013).

Self- generated drawings for supporting comprehension of a complex animation

Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, (3), 211-224.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

The perceptual and cognitive processing demands involved in comprehending complex animations can pose considerable challenges to learners. There is a tendency for learners to extract information that is highly perceptually salient but neglect less conspicuous information of crucial relevance to the building of a quality mental model. This study investigated the effectiveness of self-generated drawing for learning from an animation illustrating a scientific phenomenon, the so-called "Newton's Cradle." Participants were 199 students in grade seven, randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: self-generated drawing, traced/copied drawing, and no drawing. All participants were asked to produce an explanation of the animation for both immediate and delayed posttests. The results revealed the superiority of self-generated drawing in supporting animation comprehension at both testing times compared to the other two conditions, which did not differ from each other. In addition, comprehension of the animation was related to the quality of self-generated drawings. Specifically, the depiction of information characterized by low perceptual salience but high conceptual relevance to the phenomenon predicted comprehension and retention over time. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Mayer R.E . ( 1993).

Illustrations that instruct

Advances in instructional psychology, 4, 253-284.

[本文引用: 1]

Mayer R. E. ( 2009). Multimedia learning (2nd ed). New York: Cambridge University Press.

[本文引用: 3]

Mayer R.E . ( 2010).

Unique contributions of eye-tracking research to the study of learning with graphics

Learning and Instruction, 20, (2), 167-171.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959475209000206

Ploetzner R., &Fillisch B. ( 2017).

Not the silver bullet: Learner-generated drawings make it difficult to understand broader spatiotemporal structures in complex animations

Learning and Instruction, 47, 13-24.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

61An event unit analysis was applied to a complex animation.61The analysis served to identify increasingly broad spatiotemporal structures.61Drawing made it difficult to understand extensive spatiotemporal structures.61Drawing might let the learners focus on visuospatial aspects of an animation.61Demonstrating a physical model might be more effective than drawing.

Quillin K., &Thomas S. ( 2015).

Drawing-to-learn: A framework for using drawings to promote model-based reasoning in biology

CBE- Life Sciences Education, 14, (1), 1-16.

URL     PMID:4353088      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The drawing of visual representations is important for learners and scientists alike, such as the drawing of models to enable visual model-based reasoning. Yet few biology instructors recognize drawing as a teachable science process skill, as reflected by its absence in the Vision and Change report's Modeling and Simulation core competency. Further, the diffuse research on drawing can be difficult to access, synthesize, and apply to classroom practice. We have created a framework of drawing-to-learn that defines drawing, categorizes the reasons for using drawing in the biology classroom, and outlines a number of interventions that can help instructors create an environment conducive to student drawing in general and visual model-based reasoning in particular. The suggested interventions are organized to address elements of affect, visual literacy, and visual model-based reasoning, with specific examples cited for each. Further, a Blooming tool for drawing exercises is provided, as are suggestions to help instructors address possible barriers to implementing and assessing drawing-to-learn in the classroom. Overall, the goal of the framework is to increase the visibility of drawing as a skill in biology and to promote the research and implementation of best practices. 08 2015 K. Quillin and S. Thomas. CBE—Life Sciences Education 08 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

Rellensmann J., Schukajlow S., & Leopold C . ( 2016).

Make a drawing. Effects of strategic knowledge, drawing accuracy, and type of drawing on students’ mathematical modelling performance

Educational Studies in Mathematics, 95, (1), 53-78.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Drawing strategies are widely used as a powerful tool for promoting students' learning and problem solving. In this article, we report the results of an inferential mediation analysis that was applied to investigate the roles that strategic knowledge about drawing and the accuracy of different types of drawings play in mathematical modelling performance. Sixty-one students were asked to create a drawing of the situation described in a task (situational drawing) and a drawing of the mathematical model described in the task (mathematical drawing) before solving modelling problems. A path analysis showed that strategic knowledge about drawing was positively related to students' modelling performance. This relation was mediated by the type and accuracy of the drawings that were generated. The accuracy of situational drawing was related only indirectly to performance. The accuracy of mathematical drawings, however, was strongly related to students' performance. We complemented the

Scheiter K., Schleinschok k., & Ainsworth S . ( 2017).

Why sketching may aid learning from science texts: Contrasting sketching with written explanations

Topics in Cognitive Science, 9, (4), 866-882.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The goal of this study was to explore two accounts for why sketching during learning from text is helpful: (1) sketching acts like other constructive strategies such as self-explanation because it helps learners to identify relevant information and generate inferences; or (2) that in addition to these general effects, sketching has more specific benefits due to the pictorial representation that is constructed. Seventy-three seventh-graders (32 girls, M = 12.82 years) were first taught how to either create sketches or self-explain while studying science texts. During a subsequent learning phase, all students were asked to read an expository text about the greenhouse effect. Finally, they were asked to write down everything they remembered and then answer transfer questions. Strategy quality during learning was assessed as the number of key concepts that had either been sketched or mentioned in the self-explanations. The results showed that at an overall performance level there were only marginal group differences. However, a more in-depth analysis revealed that whereas no group differences emerged for students implementing either strategy poorly, the sketching group clearly outperformed the self-explanation group for students who applied the strategies with higher quality. Furthermore, higher sketching quality was strongly related to better learning outcomes. Thus, the study's results are more in line with the second account: Sketching can have a beneficial effect on learning above and beyond generating written explanations; at least, if well deployed.

Schleinschok K., Eitel A., & Scheiter K . ( 2017).

Do drawing tasks improve monitoring and control during learning from text?

Learning and Instruction, 51, 10-25.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Schmeck A., Mayer R. E., Opfermann M., Pfeiffer V., & Leutner D . ( 2014).

Drawing pictures during learning from scientific text: Testing the generative drawing effect and the prognostic drawing effect

Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, (4), 275-286.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Does using a learner-generated drawing strategy (i.e., drawing pictures during reading) foster students' engagement in generative learning during reading? In two experiments, 8th-grade students (Exp. 1: N = 48; Exp. 2: N = 164) read a scientific text explaining the biological process of influenza and then took two learning outcome tests. In Experiment 1, students who were asked to draw pictures during reading (learnergenerated drawing group), scored higher than students who only read (control group) on a multiple-choice comprehension test (d = 0.85) and on a drawing test (d = 1.15). In Experiment 2, students in the learner-generated drawing group scored significantly higher than the control group on both a multiple-choice comprehension test (d = 0.52) and on a drawing test (d = 1.89), but students who received author-generated pictures in addition to drawing or author-generated pictures only did not. Additionally, the drawing-accuracy scores during reading correlated with comprehension test scores (r = .623, r = .470) and drawing scores (r = .620, r = .615) in each experiment, respectively. These results provide further evidence for the generative drawing effect and the prognostic drawing effect, thereby confirming the benefits of the learner-generated drawing strategy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Schmidgall S. P., Eitel A., & Scheiter K. (in press).

Why do learners who draw perform well? Investigating the role of visualization, generation and externalization in learner- generated drawing

.Learning and Instruction.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

In two experiments, we investigated which of the factors generation, visualization, and externalization mainly contribute to the benefits of learner-generated drawing. We also examined whether benefits of drawing were more pronounced in delayed rather than in immediate testing. To this end, Experiment 1 ( N 62=62121) focused on the comparison of the factors visualization and generation, whereas Experiment 2 ( N 62=62204) focused on the role of externalization in generative learning activities. In both experiments, participants were asked to read an expository text about biomechanics in human swimming behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to construct drawings, to write summaries, to learn with multimedia material, or to only read. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed either to construct drawings, to mentally imagine the content, or to observe a multimedia presentation evolving gradually. Learning outcomes were measured with a recognition, transfer, and drawing test. In Experiment 1, the tests were administered immediately and after one week (within-subjects), whereas in Experiment 2 time of testing was manipulated between subjects. The results of both experiments revealed effects of experimental conditions for transfer and drawing performance, but not for recognition performance. Taken together, the findings indicate that visualization and externalization are the main contributing factors: The drawing and multimedia conditions outperformed the summary and text-only conditions (Exp. 1), thereby supporting the role of visualization, whereas the drawing and observation conditions outperformed the imagery conditions on the drawing test (Exp. 2), thereby emphasizing the role of externalization. There is little evidence that drawing constitutes a desirable difficulty.

Schwamborn A., Mayer R. E., Thillmann H., Leopold C., & Leutner D . ( 2010).

Drawing as a generative activity and drawing as a prognostic activity

Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, (4), 872-879.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Investigated the effects of learner-generated drawing on learning outcome. 196 9th-grade students with a mean age of 14 years were asked to read a science text about the chemistry of doing laundry for comprehension with either no additional support (control group) or under 1 of 4 experimental conditions (drawing groups). In the drawing groups, students were instructed to generate drawings representing the content of the text using a tool bar showing all relevant elements for drawing a picture. In 3 of the drawing groups, students were additionally instructed to either highlight information in the text relevant to the drawing, use a mental imagery strategy, or both. Subjects then completed 3 posttests on transfer, retention, and drawing. Results showed that subjects in the drawing groups displayed higher comprehension of the scientific text than subjects in the control condition. This is attributed to a generative effect of drawing, in which additional generative processing is fostered. Furthermore, students who produced high-quality drawings performed better on the posttests than students who produced low-quality drawings. This result is attributed to a prognostic effect of drawing, in which quality of drawing reflects quality of generative processing. It is concluded that drawing can serve as a generative and prognostic activity.

Schwamborn A., Thillmann H., Opfermann M., & Leutner D . ( 2011).

Cognitive load and instructionally supported learning with provided and learner-generated visualizations

Computers in Human Behavior, 27, (1), 89-93.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

This study investigated, whether learning from science texts can be enhanced by providing learners with different forms of visualizations (pictures) in addition to text. One-hundred-two 9th and 10th graders read a computer-based text on chemical processes of washing and answered questions on cognitive load (mental effort, perceived difficulty) and comprehension (retention, transfer, drawing). Instruction varied according to a 202×022-factorial design with ‘learner-generated pictures’ (yes, no) and ‘provided pictures’ (yes, no) as factors. Results indicate positive main effects of provided pictures on all three comprehension measures and negative main effects on both cognitive load measures. Additional analyses revealed a mediation effect of perceived difficulty on retention and transfer, that is learning with provided pictures decreased cognitive load and enhanced comprehension. Furthermore, results show a positive main effect of learner-generated pictures on drawing and mental effort, but no mediation effect. Taken together, computer-based learning with provided pictures enhances comprehension as it seems to promote active processing while reducing extraneous cognitive processing. Learners, generating pictures, however, seem to have less cognitive resources available for essential and generative processing, resulting in reduced comprehension. These results are in line with cognitive load theory, cognitive theories of multimedia learning, and generative theories of learning.

Slominski T. N., Momsen J. L., & Montplaisir L. M . ( 2017).

Drawing on student knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology

Advances in Physiology Education, 41, (2), 212-221.

URL     PMID:28377435      [本文引用: 2]

Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between neurons, an abstract concept in HA&P. Using two preinstruction drawing tasks, students were asked to depict synaptic transmission and summation. In response to the first drawing task, 20% of students ( n = 352) created accurate representations of neuron anatomy. The remaining students created drawings suggesting an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of synaptic transmission. Of the 208 inaccurate student-generated drawings, 21% depicted the neurons as touching. When asked to illustrate summation, only 10 students (roughly 4%) were able to produce an accurate drawing. Overall, students were more successful at drawing anatomy (synapse) than physiology (summation) before formal instruction. The common errors observed in student-generated drawings indicate students do not enter the classroom as blank slates. The error of ouching neurons in a chemical synapse suggests that students may be using intuitive or experiential knowledge when reasoning about physiological concepts. These results 1 ) support the utility of drawing tasks as a tool to reveal student content knowledge about neuroanatomy and neurophysiology; and 2 ) suggest students enter the classroom with better knowledge of anatomy than physiology. Collectively, the findings from this study inform both practitioners and researchers about the prevalence and nature of student difficulties in HA&P, while also demonstrating the utility of drawing in revealing student knowledge.

Snowman J., &Cunningham D,J. ( 1975).

A comparison of pictorial and written adjunct aids in learning from text

Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, (2), 307-311.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Compared the effects of pictorial and written (questions) adjunct aids interspersed through text on factual recall. 63 undergraduates read 1 of the following forms of text: questions before relevant passage, questions after, pictures before, pictures after, questions and pictures before, questions and pictures after, no adjunct aids. Results show that reader-generated pictures and experimenter-provided questions were equally facilitative and resulted in increased retention over the control group. Question position effects characteristic of mathemagenic studies were replicated. Identical position effects were demonstrated for reader-generated pictures used as adjunct aids. Implications for mathemagenics and prose learning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Stagg B.C., &Verde M.F . ( 2018 ).

A comparison of descriptive writing and drawing of plants for the development of adult novices’ botanical knowledge

Journal of Biological Education, 52, 1-16.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

2018 Royal Society of Biology Scientific drawing and writing are critical to the development of observational and recording skills in biology. However, it is unclear how the process of drawing and writing contribute to the learning of plant taxonomy. In the present study, 41 adult botanical novices studied a suite of UK native plant species using two methods: labelled drawing and descriptive writing. Tests of species identification and recognition of morphological characteristics indicated that both methods were equally effective at improving species identification. However, drawing captured significantly more morphological information about all study species than writing and was preferred by participants. The quality of drawn and written work was also evaluated and educational implications arising from these are discussed.

Stull A.T., &Mayer R.E . ( 2007).

Learning by doing versus learning by viewing: Three experimental comparisons of learner-generated versus author-provided graphic organizers

Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, (4), 808-820.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Do students learn more deeply from a passage when they attempt to construct their own graphic organizers (i.e., learning by doing) than when graphic organizers are provided (i.e., learning by viewing)? In 3 experiments, learners were tested on retention and transfer after reading a passage with author-provided graphic organizers or when asked to construct graphic organizers. In Experiment 1 (highest complexity), there were 27 author-provided graphic organizers or margin space for constructing graphic organizers. In Experiment 2 (intermediate complexity), there were 18 author-provided graphic organizers or 18 corresponding graphic organizer templates. In Experiment 3 (lowest complexity), there were 10 author-provided graphic organizers or 10 corresponding graphic organizer templates. On transfer, the effect size favored the author-provided group (Experiment 1: d = 0.24, ns; Experiment 2: d = 0.43, p less than 0.05; Experiment 3: d = 0.84, p less than 0.01). On retention, there were no

Sweller J., Ayres P., & Kalyuga S . ( 2011).

Cognitive load theory.

New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

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Sweller J., van Merriënboer J. J. G., & Paas F. G. W. C .( 1998).

Cognitive architecture and instructional design

Educational Psychology Review, 10, (3), 251-296.

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van Essen G., &Hamaker C. ( 1990).

Using self-generated drawings to solve arithmetic word problem

The Journal of Educational Reasearch, 83, (6), 301-312.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

In this article, two intervention studies are described that were set up to investigate whether encouraging elementary students to generate drawings of arithmetic word problems facilitates problem-solving performance. The interventions consisted of 60 to 90 min of practice and showed the usefulness of self-generated drawings for solving word problems. The subjects in the first study were first and second graders, and in the second study, fifth graders. The results indicated that the fifth graders improved problem solutions after the intervention, whereas the first and second graders did not. Unlike the first and second graders, the fifth graders generated lots of drawings of word problems. The findings suggest that the nature of the difficulties children experience when solving arithmetic word problems influences their decision to generate drawings.

van Gog T., &Scheiter K. ( 2010).

Eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning

Learning and Instruction, 20, (2), 95-99.

[本文引用: 1]

This special issue comprises a set of six papers, in which studies are presented that use eye tracking to analyse multimedia learning processes in detail. Most of the papers focus on the effects on visual attention of animations with different design features such as spoken vs. written text, different kinds of cues, or different presentation speeds. Two contributions concern effects of learner characteristics (prior knowledge) on visual attention when learning with video and complex graphics. In addition, in some papers eye tracking is not only used as a process measure in itself, but also as input for verbal reports (i.e., cued retrospective reporting). In the two commentaries, the contributions are discussed from a multimedia learning perspective and an eye tracking perspective, by prominent researchers in those fields. Together, the contributions to this issue give an overview of the various possibilities eye tracking opens up for research on multimedia learning and instruction.

van Meter P. ( 2001).

Drawing construction as a strategy for learning from text

Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, (1), 129-140.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Examines the use of drawing as a learning strategy for 5th- and 6th-grade students reading science text. Three experimental drawing conditions and a reading control tested the hypothesis that drawing is effective only when students are supported during the construction process. Results were generally consistent with the proposed hypotheses. (Contains 45 references, 5 tables, and 2 appendixes.) (GCP)

van Meter P., & Firetto C. M .( 2013). Cognitive model of drawing construction. Learning through the construction of drawings. In G. J. Schraw, M. T. McCrudden, & D. R. Robinson (Eds.). Learning through visual displays (pp. 247-380) . Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Publishing.

[本文引用: 3]

van Meter P., Aleksic M., Schwartz A., & Garner J . ( 2006).

Learner-generated drawing as a strategy for learning from content area text

Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, (2), 142-166.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Learner-generated drawing is a strategy that can improve learning from expository text. In this paper, a model of drawing construction is proposed and the experimental design tests hypotheses derived from this model. Fourth and sixth grade participants used drawing under three experimental conditions with two conditions including varying degrees of support. On a problem solving posttest, both supported drawing groups scored higher than the non-drawing Control group. Although the grade by condition interaction was not significant, there was a strong trend in this direction. When sixth grade participants were considered independently, participants in the most supported drawing condition also obtained higher problem solving scores than those who drew without support. There were no significant condition effects for fourth grade nor were there any significant effects on a multiple-choice recognition posttest. Results were consistent with hypotheses and are discussed in light of the proposed theoretical framework.

van Meter P., &Garner J. ( 2005).

The Promise and practice of learner-generated drawing: Literature review and synthesis

Educational Psychology Review, 17, (4), 285-325.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

This article explores learner-generated drawing, a strategy in which learners construct representative illustrations in support of learning goals. Both applied and empirical literature is reviewed with the purpose of stimulating research on this strategy. Clear from this review is the gap that exists between prescriptive readings on learner-generated drawing and research-based understandings. To make sense of inconsistent empirical evidence, the research review is organized around a series of hypotheses grounded in current understandings of cognitive and strategic processing. A theoretical framework for understanding the drawing strategy is proposed by extending R. E. Mayer's (1993) theoretical processes of selection, organization, and integration. The framework is intended to guide and organize future research efforts and, to that end, earlier proposed hypotheses are incorporated into the explanatory constructs of this theoretical perspective. The article concludes with a discussion of how strategy instruction might play a role in the effectiveness of the drawing strategy.

Wammes J. D., Meade M. E., & Fernandes M. A . ( 2016).

The drawing effect: Evidence for reliable and robust memory benefits in free recall

The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, (9), 1752-1776.

[本文引用: 8]

Wang L. C., Yang H. M., Tasi H. J., & Chan S. Y . ( 2013).

Learner-generated drawing for phonological and orthographic dyslexic readers

Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, (1), 228-233.

URL     PMID:22982467      [本文引用: 1]

This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included word recognition task, orthographic task, phonological awareness task, and scenery texts and questions. Comparisons of the four groups of students showed differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control groups in pre- and posttest performance of scenery texts. Differences also existed in relevant questions and the effect of the learner-generated drawing method. The pretest performance showed problems in the dyslexic samples in reading the scenery texts and answering relevant questions. The posttest performance revealed certain differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control group. Finally, all dyslexic groups obtained a great effect from using the learner-generated drawing, particularly orthographic dyslexia. These results suggest that the learner-generated drawing was also useful for dyslexic students, with the potential for use in the classroom for teaching text reading to dyslexic students. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wilson K. E., Martinez M., Mills C., D'Mello S., Smilek D., & Risko E. F . ( 2018).

Instructor presence effect: Liking does not always lead to learning

Computers & Education, 122, 205-220.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Online education provides the opportunity to present lecture material to students in different formats or modalities, however there is debate about which lecture formats are best. Here, we conducted four experiments with 19–68 year old online participants to address the question of whether visuals of the instructor in online video lectures benefit learning. In Experiments 1 (N = 168) and 2 (N = 206) participants were presented with a lecture in one of three modalities (audio, audio with text, or audio with visuals of the instructor). Participants reported on their attentiveness – mind wandering (MW) – throughout the lecture and then completed a comprehension test. We found no evidence of an advantage for video lectures with visuals of the instructor in terms of a reduction in MW or increase in comprehension. In fact, we found evidence of a comprehension cost, suggesting that visuals of instructors in video lectures may act as a distractor. In Experiments 3 (N = 88) and 4 (N = 109) we explored learners' subjective evaluations of lecture formats across 4 different lecture formats (audio, text, audio + text, audio + instructor, audio + text + instructor). The results revealed learners not only find online lectures with visuals of the instructor more enjoyable and interesting, they believe this format most facilitates their learning. Taken together, these results suggest visuals of the instructor potentially impairs comprehension, but learners prefer and believe they learn most effectively with this format. We refer to as the Instructor Presence Effect and discuss implications for multimedia learning and instructional design.

Xie H. P., Wang F. X., Hao Y. B., Chen J. X., An J., Wang Y., & Liu H. S . ( 2017).

The more cognitive load is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning: A meta-analysis and two meta- regression analyses

PLoS ONE, 12, (8), e0183884.

URL     PMID:5576760      [本文引用: 1]

Cueing facilitates retention and transfer of multimedia learning. From the perspective of cognitive load theory (CLT), cueing has a positive effect on learning outcomes because of the reduction in total cognitive load and avoidance of cognitive overload. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, what remains ambiguous is the direct relationship between the cue-related cognitive load and learning outcomes. A meta-analysis and two subsequent meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore these issues. Subjective total cognitive load (SCL) and scores on a retention test and transfer test were selected as dependent variables. Through a systematic literature search, 32 eligible articles encompassing 3,597 participants were included in the SCL-related meta-analysis. Among them, 25 articles containing 2,910 participants were included in the retention-related meta-analysis and the following retention-related meta-regression, while there were 29 articles containing 3,204 participants included in the transfer-related meta-analysis and the transfer-related meta-regression. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant cueing effect on subjective ratings of cognitive load (d = 610.11, 95% CI = [610.19, 610.02], p < 0.05), retention performance (d = 0.27, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.46], p < 0.01), and transfer performance (d = 0.34, 95% CI = [0.12, 0.56], p < 0.01). The subsequent meta-regression analyses showed that dSCL for cueing significantly predicted dretention for cueing (β = 610.70, 95% CI = [611.02, 610.38], p < 0.001), as well as dtransfer for cueing (β = 610.60, 95% CI = [610.92, 610.28], p < 0.001). Thus in line with CLT, adding cues in multimedia materials can indeed reduce SCL and promote learning outcomes, and the more SCL is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning.

Zhang H.Z . ( 2010, June).

Exploring drawing and critique to enhance learning from visualizations.

Presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Chicago, Illinois.

[本文引用: 1]

Zhang H.Z., &Linn M.C . ( 2011).

Can generating representations enhance learning with dynamic visualizations?

Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48, (10), 1177-1198.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study explores the impact of asking middle school students to generate drawings of their ideas about chemical reactions on integrated understanding. Students explored atomic interactions during hydrogen combustion using a dynamic visualization. The generation group drew their ideas about how the reaction takes place at the molecular level. The interaction group conducted multiple experiments with the visualization by varying the amount of energy provided to ignite the reaction. The generation group integrated more ideas about chemical reactions and made more precise interpretations of the visualization than the interaction group. Embedded assessments show that generation motivated students to interpret the visualization carefully and led to more productive explanations about ideas represented in the dynamic visualization. In contrast, the interaction group was less successful in linking the visualization to underlying concepts and observable phenomena and wrote less detailed explanations. The study suggests that drawing is a promising way to help students interpret complex visualizations and integrate information. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 48: 1177 1198, 2011

Zhang H.Z., &Linn M.C . ( 2013).

Learning from chemical visualizations: Comparing generation and selection

International Journal of Science Education, 35, (13), 2174-2197.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Dynamic visualizations can make unseen phenomena such as chemical reactions visible but students need guidance to benefit from them. This study explores the value of generating drawings versus selecting among alternatives to guide students to learn chemical reactions from a dynamic visualization of hydrogen combustion as part of an online inquiry unit. In prior research, generation has been more successful than selection in helping students distinguish among ideas to learn complex topics. However, selecting among perplexing alternatives may motivate learners to distinguish among ideas they might otherwise neglect. To test the value of selection for helping students distinguish ideas, this study contrasted complex selection (involving normative as well as non-normative ideas identified in prior research) from typical selection (involving images from the visualization). Results showed that all conditions improved student understanding and that typical selection was less effective than generation while complex selection was as successful as generation. In both generation and complex selection students revisited the visualization while learning, whereas revisiting was rare in typical selection. These results support the idea that distinguishing among common non-normative ideas is more valuable than distinguishing among images from the visualization. In addition, for students with low prior knowledge, both generation and complex selection had some advantages. Overall, the results suggest that students learning from complex visualizations could benefit from a combination of complex selection and generation.