心理科学进展, 2019, 27(11): 1929-1938. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01929

研究前沿

厌恶情绪与消费者行为

杜伟强,

天津师范大学管理学院, 天津 300387

Disgust and consumer behavior

DU Weiqiang,

Management School, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China

通讯作者: 杜伟强, Email: weiqiangdu@163.com

收稿日期: 2018-09-20   网络出版日期: 2019-10-31

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  71502128, 71472136
天津市哲学社会科学规划项目.  TJGL15-043

Received: 2018-09-20   Online: 2019-10-31

摘要

厌恶与其他消极情绪存在差异, 不同类型的厌恶也不完全相同。可以采用不同的方法来诱发消费者的不同类型的厌恶。产品与服务、宣传、组织行为等均可能导致消费者产生不同类型的厌恶。不同类型的厌恶又会影响消费者行为, 如产品评价、购买意向、支付意愿、延迟决策、口碑、产品消费等。未来可以对厌恶与其他消极情绪对消费者行为影响的差异、不同类型的厌恶对消费者行为影响的差异、厌恶的前因变量与结果变量进行更深入的探索。

关键词: 情绪 ; 厌恶 ; 病菌厌恶 ; 道德厌恶 ; 消费者

Abstract

There are differences between disgust and other negative emotions. There are also different types of disgust. This review explores the methods used to induce different types of consumer disgust. Products and services, propaganda, organizational behavior, and unfair distribution can lead to different types of consumer disgust, which can affect consumer behavior such as product evaluation, purchase intention, willingness to pay, delayed decision-making, word of mouth, and product consumption. Future research directions are also discussed.

Keywords: emotions ; disgust ; pathogen disgust ; moral disgust ; consumer

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本文引用格式

杜伟强. (2019). 厌恶情绪与消费者行为 . 心理科学进展, 27(11), 1929-1938

DU Weiqiang. (2019). Disgust and consumer behavior. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(11), 1929-1938

1 引言

在20世纪90年代之前, 心理学家很少关注厌恶的分类与测量, 厌恶的实证研究也受到限制。从20世纪90年代开始, 厌恶日益受到心理学家的重视, 厌恶的分类研究日益深入, 基于厌恶分类的测量量表也日益完善, 厌恶的实证研究在数量上快速增长。厌恶起源于人类识别和对抗环境中病菌的需要, 是人类行为免疫系统的动力成分(彭明, 张雷, 2016)。一些学者基于诱发物的类型, 对厌恶进行分类(Haidt, Mccauley, & Rozin, 1994); 一些学者采用传统的分类方法(Rozin, Haidt, & McCauley, 2016); 一些学者则基于进化心理学的视角, 对厌恶进行分类(Tybur, Lieberman, & Griskevicius, 2009; Tybur, Lieberman, Kurzban, & Descioli, 2013)。

变质的食品、他人触摸过的产品让一些消费者感到厌恶。消费者对服务中出现的问题感到厌恶。厌恶情绪又会影响消费者的产品评价、购买意向、花费、支付意愿、转化率、延迟决策、产品消费、满意度、口碑等。一些学者将厌恶理论应用于消费者行为领域, 拓展了其应用范围, 并丰富了厌恶理论。本文在对厌恶的特点、分类与不同类型的消费者厌恶的诱发等文献进行回顾的基础上, 对消费者的不同类型厌恶的影响因素及这些厌恶情绪对消费者行为影响的最新研究成果进行系统梳理, 最后总结这些研究的营销启示并提出一些未来研究方向。

2 厌恶的特点、分类与诱发

2.1 厌恶的特点

厌恶是一种由反感的、不愉快的刺激诱发的消极情绪(金熠, 张丹丹, 柳昀哲, 罗跃嘉, 2014)。与厌恶相比, 悲伤、愤怒、轻视的愉悦程度更低; 无聊这种情绪需要耗费的精力较少; 恐惧通常与情境中的不确定性密切相关; 羞愧、内疚通常与个体的责任感有关(Smith & Ellsworth, 1985)。Briñol等人(2018)认为, 虽然悲伤、愤怒与厌恶均为消极情绪, 但是悲伤导致个体怀疑其想法, 愤怒与厌恶则会提高个体的自信心。此外, 厌恶与恐惧均是具有较高回避动机的情绪, 感到厌恶与恐惧的个体的回避动机较强, 然而, 愤怒则是具有较高趋近动机的情绪, 感到愤怒的个体的趋近动机较强(Gable, Poole, & Harmon-Jones, 2015; Harmon-Jones, Harmon-Jones, & Summerell, 2017)。

损失厌恶(loss aversion)中的“厌恶” (aversion)与厌恶情绪中的“厌恶” (disgust)并不相同。损失厌恶是指人们认为同量的损失(如丢失100元)带来的负效用远远大于同量的收益(如拾到100元)带来的正效用, 认为损失更加令他们难以忍受。有学者认为二者之间也存在联系。Schnall (2016)认为厌恶情绪构成了广义的损失厌恶系统的基础, Breaban和Noussair (2017)则发现, 厌恶情绪与损失厌恶之间的相关关系并不显著。此外, 风险厌恶、不公平厌恶中的“厌恶”与厌恶情绪中的“厌恶”也不相同。

2.2 厌恶的分类

20世纪90年代以来, 对厌恶的分类及不同类型的厌恶之间关系的研究日益深入。Haidt等(1994)开发了一个包含32个条目的厌恶量表, 将厌恶分为食物厌恶、动物厌恶、身体产物厌恶、死亡厌恶、卫生厌恶、体表破坏厌恶、性厌恶和由奇幻思维(magical thinking)诱发的厌恶。Haidt等研究的主要是物质厌恶, 一些学者则主要关注道德厌恶(Chapman & Anderson, 2013; Chapman & Anderson, 2014)。Yoder, Widen和Russell (2015)发现这两种厌恶存在较大的差异。道德厌恶是指个体对一些不道德行为的厌恶。

Olatunji等人(2007)对Haidt等的量表进行了修订, 发现只有3类厌恶——核心厌恶、动物提醒厌恶和感染厌恶。Olatunji等人对核心厌恶与感染厌恶的概念界定不够清晰, 没有将二者进行严格的区分, 这两个概念可能存在一些重叠之处。此外, Tybur等(2013)与Olatunji等人对动物提醒厌恶这一概念的外延的看法存在分歧。Olatunji等人修订后的量表中不包含性厌恶。

基于进化心理学的视角, Tybur等(2009)对厌恶进行了分类。他们基于厌恶的3种功能——病菌避免、伴侣选择、社会互动, 将厌恶分为病菌厌恶、性厌恶与道德厌恶。Tybur等开发了一个包含21个条目的新厌恶量表。

Tybur等(2013)比较了传统的厌恶分类方法与基于进化心理学的厌恶分类方法。按照传统的分类方法, 他们将厌恶分为核心厌恶、人际厌恶、动物提醒厌恶与道德厌恶, 某些食物、动物、身体产物可以诱发核心厌恶, 与陌生人接触可以诱发人际厌恶, 死亡、不卫生的环境和行为、体表破坏、不当的性行为可以诱发动物提醒厌恶, 道德冒犯可以诱发道德厌恶; 按照基于进化心理学的分类方法, 他们将厌恶分为病菌厌恶、性厌恶与道德厌恶, 某些食物、动物、身体产物、与陌生人接触、死亡、不卫生的环境和行为、体表破坏可以诱发病菌厌恶, 不当的性行为与道德冒犯可以分别诱发性厌恶与道德厌恶。Haidt等(1994)没有涉及人际厌恶与道德厌恶。基于进化心理学的视角, 病菌厌恶包括核心厌恶、人际厌恶和部分动物提醒厌恶(Tybur et al., 2013)。动物提醒厌恶是指对那些提醒人类是由动物进化而来的事物的厌恶。

Rozin等(2016)对传统的分类方法进行了修订, 将厌恶分为核心厌恶、人际厌恶、动物提醒厌恶、性厌恶与道德厌恶。对于基于进化心理学的厌恶分类方法, Rozin等认为, 一些动物提醒厌恶, 如对尸体的厌恶中包含一些病菌厌恶的成分, 然而, 病菌厌恶不能完全涵盖动物提醒厌恶。他们认为, 性厌恶并非仅仅为了避免选择那些不利于繁衍后代的伴侣及避免从事那些不利于繁衍后代的行为, 性厌恶可能涉及病菌厌恶、动物提醒厌恶、道德厌恶。病菌厌恶也不能完全包含人际厌恶。Hodson等人(2013)开发了一个量表, 用于测量个体对非成员群体的厌恶程度。

2.3 不同类型的厌恶的诱发

一些学者通过视觉刺激来诱发厌恶情绪。Lerner, Small和Loewenstein (2004)让被试看电影《猜火车》的一个片段来诱发病菌厌恶。在该片段中, 电影的主角将手伸入肮脏的马桶中。Morales, Wu和Fsitzsimons (2012)Coleman, Williams, Morales和White (2017)让被试看几张照片来诱发病菌厌恶。

一些研究通过让被试写出令其感到厌恶的经历来诱发厌恶。Faraji-Rad和Pham (2017)要求被试花3~5分钟回忆并写出过去令其感到厌恶的一次经历。Chowdhry, Winterich, Mittal和Morales (2015)要求被试写一篇文章, 描述其生命中诱发厌恶情绪最多的一天。这些研究没有对病菌厌恶与道德厌恶进行区分。

道德厌恶与病菌厌恶的诱发方法存在差异。为了对道德厌恶进行操纵, 在Chan, van Boven, Andrade和Ariely (2014)的实验1中, 被试看了一个2分43秒的法国电影片段, 而且被告知这是一部关于乱伦的电影。需要指出的是, 一些学者认为个体对乱伦的厌恶是性厌恶(Haidt et al., 1994; Tybur et al., 2013), Rozin等(2016)则认为, 性厌恶有时也涉及道德厌恶。

3 厌恶的前因变量

3.1 产品与服务

变质的食品、他人触摸过的产品、对人的健康有害的产品、转基因食品、仿冒品、发生故障的产品等产品让一些消费者感到厌恶, 消费者对前3种产品的厌恶主要是病菌厌恶, 对转基因食品的厌恶可能既包含病菌厌恶, 也包含道德厌恶, 对后两种产品的厌恶主要是道德厌恶。消费者对变质的牛奶感到厌恶(Shook, Ford, & Boggs, 2017)。消费者对他人触摸过的产品感到厌恶(Argo, Dahl, & Morales, 2006)。此外, 与没有被令人厌恶的产品接触的产品相比, 被令人厌恶的产品接触的产品更令消费者感到厌恶(Morales & Fitzsimons, 2007)。Gopaldas (2014)对消费者情绪进行了定性研究。他发现, 对人的健康有害的产品令消费者厌恶。转基因食品也会令一些消费者感到厌恶。45%的被调查者坚决反对转基因食品; 与转基因食品的支持者和非坚决反对者相比, 转基因食品的坚决反对者对转基因食品感到更厌恶(Scott, Inbar, & Rozin, 2016)。当觉得某产品是仿冒品时, 消费者容易对其产生道德厌恶(Amar, Ariely, Carmon, & Yang, 2018)。发生故障的汽车让消费者感到道德厌恶(Westbrook, 1987)。在一些网络评论中, 消费者表达了其对一些产品的厌恶(Ullah, Amblee, Kim, & Lee, 2016)。对果皮、果核、食物残渣等食物垃圾处理的失误可能让一些消费者感到厌恶(Sintov, Geislar, & White, 2017), 这种厌恶是病菌厌恶。

消费者对服务中出现的问题感到厌恶, 这种厌恶主要是道德厌恶; 电影和旅游有时也让消费者感到厌恶, 这种厌恶有时是道德厌恶, 有时是病菌厌恶。对于有线电视, 服务中断、安装问题和计费中出现的错误让消费者感到厌恶(Westbrook, 1987)。消费者在看一些电影时会产生厌恶情绪(Nummenmaa, Glerean, Hari, & Hietanen, 2014)。在旅游过程中, 消费者有时也会产生厌恶情绪(Barnes, Mattsson, & Sørensen, 2016)。一些消费者对脱衣舞俱乐部感到厌恶(Hubbard & Colosi, 2015), 这种厌恶是道德厌恶。此外, 消费者还对他人触摸过的旧纸币感到厌恶(Galoni & Noseworthy, 2015; Muro & Noseworthy, 2013)。

3.2 宣传

以性感女性为特色的平面广告、快餐广告、香烟盒上警告人们吸烟有害健康的图片型标签有时让一些消费者感到厌恶。当想到死亡时, 与没有性感女性的平面广告相比, 以性感女性为特色的平面广告导致男性产生更多厌恶情绪(Lee et al., 2017)。因为性感女性与男性的动物本能相关联, 而且当想到死亡时, 人们尤其不愿意承认人与动物的相似之处, 所以广告中的性感女性容易导致男性产生动物提醒厌恶。对于女性来说, 性感女性与女性的动物本能不相关联, 所以该效应不显著。Shimp和Stuart (2004)研究了消费者对快餐广告的厌恶情绪。他们发现, 与不显示生肉或一只生鸡相比, 当快餐广告中显示这些物品时, 消费者会产生更多的病菌厌恶。此外, 香烟盒上警告人们吸烟有害健康的图片型标签, 如展示吸烟者的发黄发黑的牙齿的标签, 让消费者产生病菌厌恶(Tugrul, 2015)。这种标签通常是监管部门强制企业在香烟盒上做的公益宣传。

3.3 组织行为

企业的不负责任行为(corporate irresponsible behavior)是一种道德越轨行为, 可以将其分为伦理越轨行为(如一家企业虐待童工)与社会越轨行为(如一家跨国零售企业购买并拆除居民们喜欢的社区中心, 并对社区小零售店老板们的生活构成威胁)。企业的伦理越轨行为导致消费者产生轻蔑、愤怒、厌恶等道德情绪; 企业的社会越轨行为也导致消费者产生这些道德情绪, 而且消费者在利他性美德(other-regarding virtues)量表上得分越高, 这一效应越强(Grappi, Romani, & Bagozzi, 2013)。利他性美德包括正义、仁慈、和平、平等和合作。Grappi等将轻蔑、愤怒、厌恶这3种情绪作为一个变量——道德情绪, 没有单独研究企业的不负责任行为对厌恶的影响。Romani, Grappi和Bagozzi (2013)则对此进行了研究。他们发现, 企业的不负责任行为导致消费者产生厌恶情绪(Antonetti, 2016; Romani et al., 2013)。

企业的破坏生态环境行为导致消费者产生轻蔑、愤怒、厌恶等道德情绪, 而且消费者在社会正义价值观(social justice values)、同理心(empathy)、道德认同(moral identity)、关系自我概念(relational self-concept)和集体自我概念(collective self-concept)等量表上得分越高, 这一效应越强(Xie, Bagozzi, & Grønhaug, 2015)。与Grappi等类似, Xie等将轻蔑、愤怒、厌恶等道德情绪混在一起, 没有单独考察企业的破坏生态环境行为对厌恶的影响。

很多消费者本身也是组织的员工, 这些消费者在工作过程中, 会产生一些厌恶情绪。在工作单位, 看到员工的偷窃、拖沓、缺勤等反生产工作行为(counterproductive work behavior)导致人们产生道德厌恶(Meier & Spector, 2013)。企业在裁员时, 那些被授予较大权力但对管理层不信任的幸存者对企业的管理层感到道德厌恶(Mishra, Mishra, & Spreitzer, 2009)。一些女经理对怀孕的女员工感到厌恶(Gatrell, 2013)。员工对不得不忍受不称职的或不值得信赖的同事感到道德厌恶, 员工对在工作场合发生的违反法律和道德规范的行为感到道德厌恶(Boudens, 2005)。在工作中受到的不公正待遇导致员工产生道德厌恶(Skarlicki, Hoegg, Aquino, & Nadisic, 2013)。

此外, 一些导游、护士在工作过程中, 有时也会产生厌恶情绪。当面对一些难相处的游客时, 一些导游会产生道德厌恶, 但是他们要压抑、掩盖其厌恶情绪(Wong & Wang, 2009)。Goerdeler, Wegge, Schrod, Bilinska和Rudolf (2015)研究了护士的核心厌恶情绪的前因变量。他们发现, 情绪自我效能感(emotional self-efficacy)和工作自主性(job autonomy)负向影响护士的核心厌恶。

3.4 不公平的分配方案

Chapman, Kim, Susskind和Anderson (2009)认为, 在最后通牒博弈中, 对金钱的不公平分配方案导致个体产生道德厌恶。在该博弈中, 一方把一笔钱在其自身与另一方之间进行分配。如告诉被试对方为10元钱在他与你之间进行分配, 对方为其分了8元钱, 为你分了2元钱。你可以决定接受或拒绝该分配方案。如果你接受, 对方得到8元钱, 你得到2元钱, 如果你拒绝, 对方和你均得到0元钱。在一些博弈中, 当一方分配给自己的金额越多(即分配给对方的金额越少)时, 被试对这种自私的分配方案越感到厌恶(Böckler, Sharifi, Kanske, Dziobek, & Singer, 2017)。Dion和Borraz (2017)的定性研究发现, 财产来路不正的暴发户令消费者感到厌恶。这些文献虽然未研究不公平的消费交易是否导致消费者产生厌恶情绪, 但是这种影响可能是存在的。

4 厌恶对消费者行为的影响

4.1 产品评价、购买意向

对他人触摸过的产品的厌恶导致消费者对该产品的评价较差, 消费者对其的购买意向也较低(Argo et al., 2006)。与之类似, 被令人厌恶的产品接触过的产品让消费者感到厌恶, 这种厌恶降低了消费者对被接触产品的评价(Morales & Fitzsimons, 2007)。此外, 与悲伤相比, 厌恶导致消费者更抽象地处理信息, 进而导致消费者认为企业利用现有品牌名称推出的新产品与原有产品之间更相似(Chowdhry et al., 2015)。

病菌厌恶增强了恐惧诉求的说服效果, 降低了消费者对含有毒的化学物质的水杯的购买意向(Morales et al., 2012)。具体地说, 恐惧诉求对感到厌恶的消费者的说服效果强于其对不感到厌恶的消费者的说服效果。这是因为恐惧和厌恶均导致消费者想采取措施来避开迫在眉睫的威胁, 然而, 厌恶还导致消费者想采取措施来避开在较远的未来出现的威胁。如一个不含某种有毒的化学物质的水杯宣传长期使用含有毒的化学物质的水杯会威胁消费者的健康。这种威胁不会马上出现, 而是在较远的未来才会出现。

对广告中的生肉或生鸡的病菌厌恶负向影响消费者对广告中快餐的购买意向(Shimp & Stuart, 2004)。当想到死亡时, 男性看以性感女性为特色的平面广告后产生的厌恶情绪导致其对广告的态度较差, 并会减少其对广告中宣传产品的购买意向(Lee et al., 2017)。

此外, Scott等(2016)发现, 对转基因食品的厌恶正向影响消费者对于限制转基因食品的立法的支持。Clifford和Wendell (2016)则发现, 对于消费者对转基因食品和有机食品的支持程度, 厌恶情绪的影响是有限的。在研究一中, 厌恶情绪与消费者对转基因食品的支持程度负相关, 与消费者对有机食品的支持程度正相关。然而, 在研究三中, 厌恶情绪对二者的影响均不显著。

4.2 花费、支付意愿

与拿到新纸币的消费者相比, 拿到旧纸币的消费者倾向于花更多的钱, 这是因为对旧纸币的厌恶导致消费者花更多的钱(Muro & Noseworthy, 2013)。Muro和Noseworthy研究的消费行为是消费者购买食品和个人护理产品。Galoni和Noseworthy (2015)发现, Muro和Noseworthy的结论对于办公用品也是成立的; 然而, Muro和Noseworthy的结论对于清洁洗涤用品是不成立的, 即当让消费者购买清洁洗涤用品时, 消费者并不会花掉更多旧纸币。这是因为当允许消费者触摸清洁洗涤用品时, 消费者觉得这些产品有助于控制肮脏东西的污染, 所以与得到新纸币的消费者相比, 得到旧纸币消费者觉得其触摸过的清洁洗涤用品的价值更大。

当被“不确定(uncertainty)”启动时, 感到厌恶的消费者比没有感到厌恶的消费者愿意花更少的钱来购买一杯果汁(Faraji-Rad & Pham, 2017)。这是由两个原因造成的:第一, 当消费者被“不确定”启动时, 情绪对其判断与决策的影响较大; 第二, 感到厌恶的消费者倾向于减少食品消费。为了让消费者被“不确定”启动, 他们要求消费者思考并写出“不确定的(uncertain)”这个单词的5个同义词。为了对厌恶进行操纵, Faraji-Rad和Pham要求被试写出过去令其感到厌恶的一次经历, 他们没有区分物质厌恶与道德厌恶。

4.3 转化率、延迟决策

图书网站的转换率是指浏览某图书的消费者中购买该图书的比例。图书网站中评论的情绪会影响转化率。当评论中的消极情绪增加时, 转化率会下降; 当评论中的积极情绪增加时, 转化率会提高; 而且消极情绪对转化率的影响大于积极情绪对转化率的影响(Ludwig et al., 2013)。其中的消极情绪包含恐惧、愤怒、厌恶、悲伤, 积极情绪指快乐。Ludwig等人没有单独考察厌恶对转换率的影响。

相对于病菌厌恶而言, 恐惧增加了消费者从选择集中选择一个产品的可能性, 减少了消费者的延期决策(Coleman et al., 2017)。基于进化心理学的视角, 他们分析了这一效应的内在机制。他们发现, 恐惧导致个体对当前事物的注意力更集中, 这会强化个体对选择集中产品的态度, 进而导致个体减少了延期决策。在他们的一个实验中, 被试看到8个选择集, 每个选择集中均有5个产品, 被试只能看到一家权威机构对前3个产品的几个属性的评价信息, 看不到该机构对后两个产品的几个属性的评价信息。这里的延期决策指消费者不从选择集中的前3个产品中选择一个, 而是等待收集了后两个产品的信息后再进行决策或去其他商店看看是否有更好的选择。

4.4 产品消费

(1) 饮食

消费者对变质牛奶的厌恶导致其不消费该牛奶(Shook et al., 2017)。与控制组被试相比, 感到道德厌恶的被试喝更少的水和牛奶(Chan et al., 2014)。在工作中受到的不公正待遇令个体感到厌恶, 这种道德厌恶导致消费者对刺激物有更强的味觉和嗅觉反应(Skarlicki et al., 2013)。Skarlicki等只测量了道德厌恶, 而没有对其进行操纵。消费者不愿意吃或触摸令其感到厌恶的食品(Clifford & Piston, 2017)。厌恶情绪使消费者倾向于避免、拒绝一些产品, 如被做成狗的粪便形状的巧克力(Chan et al., 2014)。此外, 细菌厌恶导致消费者在未来想要减少饮酒量(Collymore & McDermott, 2015)。在他们的研究中, Collymore和McDermott告诉被试一位年轻女性由于过量饮酒而导致其脸上长满痤疮, 并让被试看了该女性的照片。厌恶情绪的抑制作用可能导致人们拒绝消费完全安全的商品, 如再生饮用水(Kecinskia, Keisner, Messer, & Schulze, 2016)。Wester, Timpano, Cek和Broad (2016)发现, 预期的厌恶情绪负向影响人们消费再生饮用水的意愿。当对环保主义者的社会身份(social identity)及病菌厌恶进行操纵时, 即被试觉得其是一个环保主义者并感到厌恶时, 如果被试看到广告中说被试面前的茶可以增强情绪, 被试喝的茶水较多; 如果广告中说这种茶可以削弱情绪, 被试喝的茶水较少(Coleman & Williams, 2013)。这是因为被试想到环保主义者, 更容易想到环保主义者厌恶环境污染, 而且, 消费者倾向于多消费可以加强这种情绪体验的产品, 倾向于少消费可以削弱这种情绪体验的产品。Coleman和Williams认为, 社会身份中不仅包含与其相关的态度、行为和信念, 也包括与其相关的情绪。厌恶情绪在环保主义者的社会身份中扮演了一个重要角色。

Polman和Kim (2013)研究了厌恶情绪如何影响消费者与他人分享产品的意向。请被试想象其是一个由4个人组成的小组中的一员, 该小组的每位成员均得到了300片薯片, 每位小组成员可以将一些薯片捐给小组, 这4位成员捐给小组的所有薯片将被双倍返还给小组, 小组将双倍返还的薯片平均分配给这4位小组成员, 没有捐任何薯片的成员也会得到平均分配的薯片。与控制组被试相比, 感到厌恶的被试愿意捐更多薯片给小组。Polman和Kim要求被试回忆并写出过去令其感到厌恶的一次经历, 该研究没有区分病菌厌恶与道德厌恶。

(2) 其他产品消费

消费者对香烟盒上图片的病菌厌恶会减少其吸烟的可能性(Tugrul, 2015)。厌恶情绪导致人们避免接触可能会传播细菌的产品, 厌恶情绪还会提高人们在未来使用避孕套的可能性(Reynolds, Lin, Zhou, & Consedine, 2015)。令消费者产生病菌厌恶的广告会增加消费者使用肥皂洗手的可能性(Dolan et al., 2012)。与之类似, 研究发现厌恶情绪正向影响消费者的清洗行为, 如洗手(Clifford & Piston, 2017)。此外, 对脱衣舞俱乐部的厌恶导致消费者排斥这类俱乐部(Hubbard & Colosi, 2015)。

Amar等(2018)发现, 消费者对仿冒品的道德厌恶会导致其花更多时间为该产品消毒; 在使用该产品时, 这种道德厌恶则导致消费者减少与该仿冒品的接触时间, 还导致消费者在使用该产品时的表现较差。当消费者觉得一只鼠标是某品牌鼠标的仿冒品时, 消费者对仿冒品的道德厌恶导致其在使用该鼠标玩游戏时表现较差, 而且即使让消费者使用真正的该品牌鼠标, 消费者在玩游戏时表现仍较差。当消费者觉得一支钢笔是仿冒品时, 消费者对仿冒品的道德厌恶导致其在使用与该仿冒品外观相似的正品钢笔抄写文字时也会出现很多错误。对产品故障的愤怒、厌恶和轻视等情绪可能让消费者想要企业免费修理或更换产品(Westbrook, 1987)。

4.5 满意度、口碑

Westbrook (1987)发现, 对产品的厌恶、愤怒和轻视等消极情绪负向影响消费者满意度, 正向影响消费者抱怨和口碑。Westbrook将这几种消极情绪混在一起, 没有单独研究厌恶对消费者满意度、抱怨和口碑的影响, 也没有将口碑分为正面口碑与负面口碑。对服务失败的厌恶、轻视、怨恨、鄙视等消极情绪导致消费者减少与服务人员的物理接触, 对服务人员摇头、怒目而视(McColl- Kennedy, Patterson, Smith, & Brady, 2009)。

消费者对企业的不负责任行为的轻蔑、愤怒、厌恶等道德情绪正向影响消费者的负面口碑与抵制公司的行为(Grappi et al., 2013)。对企业破坏生态环境行为的轻蔑、愤怒、厌恶等道德情绪正向影响消费者的负面口碑及抵制公司、向公司抱怨等行为(Xie et al., 2015)。Grappi等和Xie等也没有单独研究厌恶对这些行为的影响。

4.6 价值观、禀赋效应

通过对暴发户的厌恶, 消费者强化了其社会阶层和价值系统, 即文化先进、良好的品味和举止、以令人可以接受的手段来获取财富(Dion & Borraz, 2017)。

Lerner等(2004)考察了病菌厌恶对禀赋效应(endowment effect)的影响。禀赋效应是指当一个人拥有某一产品后, 他对该产品价值的评价要比他未拥有之前大大增加。根据禀赋效应, 把一套荧光笔发给一名被试后, 该被试想以较高的价格销售这套荧光笔, 该售价大大高于他人想要支付的价格。然而, Lerner等发现, 感到厌恶的被试想以较低的价格销售这套荧光笔, 进而导致售价与他人想要支付的价格之间没有显著差异, 即厌恶会消除禀赋效应。这是因为感到厌恶的被试倾向于将距离自己较近的产品易手。

图1显示了消费者行为中厌恶的前因变量与结果变量。

图1

图1   消费者行为中厌恶的前因变量与结果变量


5 总结与展望

在厌恶情绪的分类、测量与诱发研究的基础上, 学者们考察了消费者厌恶的前因变量及厌恶对消费者行为的影响。这些研究对组织的营销有一些启发。因为厌恶情绪通常导致消费者对产品的评价较差、购买意向较低, 所以企业应该减少消费者厌恶, 公益宣传则可以利用消费者厌恶。具体来说, 首先, 企业要避免食品变质, 不生产对人的健康有害的产品, 还要提高产品质量, 减少产品故障; 其次, 企业要加大打假力度, 避免由假冒品所导致的消费者厌恶情绪; 第三, 企业应该避免在服务中出现问题, 旅行社也应该防止消费者在旅游时感到厌恶; 第四, 企业在进行广告宣传时, 应该避免消费者对广告的厌恶情绪; 第五, 企业应该杜绝伦理越轨行为、社会越轨行为及破坏生态环境行为; 最后, 公益宣传则可以利用消费者厌恶, 如监管部门强制企业在香烟盒上展示吸烟者的发黄发黑的牙齿等令消费者感到厌恶的照片。

该领域仍存在一些问题与不足, 给我们留下了很多研究空间。未来可以对厌恶与其他消极情绪对消费者行为影响的差异、不同类型的厌恶对消费者行为影响的差异、厌恶的前因变量与结果变量进行更深入系统的探索。

首先, 一些学者比较了厌恶与恐惧、悲伤对消费者行为影响的差异(Coleman et al., 2017; Chowdhry et al., 2015), 但是学者们忽视了厌恶与愤怒、轻视、无聊、羞愧、内疚等消极情绪对消费者行为影响的差异。与厌恶相比, 愤怒是具有较高趋近动机的情绪, 愤怒、轻视的愉悦程度更低, 无聊需要耗费更少的精力, 羞愧、内疚通常与个体的责任感有关(Gable et al., 2015; Harmon-Jones et al., 2017; Smith & Ellsworth, 1985)。可以从这些差异入手, 探索厌恶与这些情绪对消费者行为影响的差异。此外, Xie等(2015)将轻蔑、愤怒和厌恶等道德情绪混在一起进行分析, Ludwig等人(2013)没有单独考察厌恶对转换率的影响, 可以将厌恶与其他情绪对消费者行为的影响分开, 考察厌恶本身对一些消费者行为的影响是否显著。

其次, 以往文献较少涉及不同类型的厌恶对消费者行为影响的差异, 可以对此进行研究。Faraji-Rad和Pham (2017)Chowdhry等(2015)考察了厌恶对消费者行为的影响, 然而他们没有区分道德厌恶与物质厌恶, 也没有考察这两种厌恶对消费者行为的影响是否存在差异。以往文献主要考察了病菌厌恶、道德厌恶对消费者行为的影响, 较少涉及性厌恶对消费者行为的影响。考察病菌厌恶对消费者行为影响的文献, 通常只研究一种病菌厌恶对消费者行为的影响, 而没有考察不同种类的病菌厌恶对消费者行为影响的差异。如Coleman和Williams (2013)只研究了体表破坏厌恶对消费者行为的影响, Lerner等(2004)只考察了卫生厌恶对消费者行为的影响, 没有涉及食物厌恶、动物厌恶、身体产物厌恶、死亡厌恶、人际厌恶对消费者行为的影响。与Tybur等(2013)提到的几种厌恶相比, 消费者对非成员群体的厌恶及消费者在工作场合产生的厌恶有其自身的特点, 可以研究这些类型的厌恶对消费者行为的影响。此外, 可以研究消费者对自身的厌恶对消费者行为的影响。以往文献主要考察了消费者对他人或某些事物的厌恶对消费者行为的影响。一些生病的消费者可能会对自己的伤口、脓、身体中的病菌感到厌恶。消费者对自身的厌恶与对他人或某些事物的厌恶对消费者行为的影响可能存在差异。

第三, 拓展厌恶的前因变量研究。一些定性研究发现, 对人的健康有害的产品、环境污染及财产来路不正的暴发户令消费者感到厌恶(Gopaldas, 2014; Dion & Borraz, 2017)。可以在这些定性研究的基础上, 做一些实证研究, 探索这些变量对厌恶的影响是否显著。Böckler等(2017)Chapman等(2009)没有研究不公平的消费交易是否会导致消费者产生厌恶情绪, 可以对此进行研究。此外, Hackela, Coppinb, Wohlc和van Bavel (2018)指出, 对内群体的认同可能导致消费者对外群体经常吃的一些食物感到厌恶。但是他们只是提出了该研究构想, 并没有对其进行验证。对于消费者不喜欢的外群体, 如规避群体, 这一效应可能存在; 对于消费者喜欢的外群体, 如渴望群体, 这一效应可能不存在。未来可以对此进行研究。

最后, 可以探索厌恶对其他消费者行为的影响, 如不同类型的厌恶对绿色消费的影响。研究发现, 动物厌恶有助于个体避免具有传染性的病菌对其造成的伤害(Tybur et al., 2013; Tybur et al., 2009)。当某绿色食品宣传其在生产过程中不使用农药而采用人工捉虫时, 动物厌恶可能导致消费者担心该绿色食品含有病菌, 从而降低其对该绿色食品的态度与购买意向。此外, 因为个体会对他人的遭遇感到同情(Condon & Barrett, 2013; Koopmann-Holm & Tsai, 2014), 所以个体对他人的体表破坏厌恶中可能夹杂着同情。同情这一情绪会促进个体的亲社会行为(Swencionis & Fiske, 2016)。因为绿色消费是一种亲社会行为(Griskevicius, Tybur, & van den Bergh, 2010), 所以与动物厌恶相比, 体表破坏厌恶中夹杂着的同情可能会促进绿色消费。

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Journal of Consumer Psychology, 28( 2), 329-343.

[本文引用: 2]

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Consumer anger: A label in search of meaning

European Journal of Marketing, 50( 9/10), 1602-1628.

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Argo J. J., Dahl D. W., & Morales A. C . ( 2006).

Consumer contamination: How consumers react to products touched by others

Journal of Marketing, 70( 2), 81-94.

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Organization Studies, 26( 9), 1285-1306.

[本文引用: 1]

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Review of Finance, 22( 1), 279-309.

[本文引用: 1]

Briñol P., Petty R. E., Stavraki M., Lamprinakos G., Wagner B., & Díaz D . ( 2018).

Affective and cognitive validation of thoughts: An appraisal perspective on anger, disgust, surprise, and awe

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114( 5), 693-718.

Chan C., van Boven L., Andrade E. B., & Ariely D . ( 2014).

Moral violations reduce oral consumption

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24( 3), 381-386.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. (C) 2013 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapman,H. A., &Anderson,A. K . ( 2013).

Things rank and gross in nature: A review and synthesis of moral disgust

Psychological bulletin, 139( 2), 300-327.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Much like unpalatable foods, filthy restrooms, and bloody wounds, moral transgressions are often described as "disgusting." This linguistic similarity suggests that there is a link between moral disgust and more rudimentary forms of disgust associated with toxicity and disease. Critics have argued, however, that such references are purely metaphorical, or that moral disgust may be limited to transgressions that remind us of more basic disgust stimuli. Here we review the evidence that moral transgressions do genuinely evoke disgust, even when they do not reference physical disgust stimuli such as unusual sexual behaviors or the violation of purity norms. Moral transgressions presented verbally or visually and those presented as social transactions reliably elicit disgust, as assessed by implicit measures, explicit self-report, and facial behavior. Evoking physical disgust experimentally renders moral judgments more severe, and physical cleansing renders them more permissive or more stringent, depending on the object of the cleansing. Last, individual differences in the tendency to experience disgust toward physical stimuli are associated with variation in moral judgments and morally relevant sociopolitical attitudes. Taken together, these findings converge to support the conclusion that moral transgressions can in fact elicit disgust, suggesting that moral cognition may draw upon a primitive rejection response. We highlight a number of outstanding issues and conclude by describing 3 models of moral disgust, each of which aims to provide an account of the relationship between moral and physical disgust.

Chapman,H. A., &Anderson,A. K . ( 2014).

Trait physical disgust is related to moral judgments outside of the purity domain

Emotion, 14( 2), 341-348.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Although there is an emerging consensus that disgust plays a role in human morality, it remains unclear whether this role is limited to transgressions that contain elements of physical disgust (e. g., gory murders, sexual crimes), or whether disgust is also involved in "pure" forms of morality. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between individual differences in the tendency to experience disgust toward physical stimuli (i.e., trait physical disgust) and reactions to pure moral transgressions. Across two studies, individuals higher in trait physical disgust judged moral transgressions to be more wrong than did their low-disgust counterparts, and were also more likely to moralize violations of social convention. Controlling for gender, trait anxiety, trait anger, and social conservatism did not eliminate trait disgust effects. These results suggest that disgust's role in morality is not limited to issues of purity or bodily norms, and that disgust may play a role in setting the boundaries of the moral domain.

Chapman H. A., Kim D. A., Susskind J. M., & Anderson A. K . ( 2009).

In bad taste: Evidence for the oral origins of moral disgust

Science, 323( 5918), 1222-1226.

[本文引用: 1]

Chowdhry N., Winterich K. P., Mittal V., & Morales A. C . ( 2015).

Not all negative emotions lead to concrete construal

International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32( 4), 428-430.

[本文引用: 4]

Clifford, S., &Piston S. 2017).

Explaining public support for counterproductive homelessness policy: The role of disgust

Political Behavior, 39( 2), 503-525.

[本文引用: 2]

Clifford, S., &Wendell,D. G . ( 2016).

How disgust influences health purity attitudes

Political Behavior, 38( 1), 155-178.

[本文引用: 1]

Coleman,N. V., &Williams P. 2013).

Feeling like my self: Emotion profiles and social identity

Journal of Consumer Research, 40( 2), 203-222.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Individuals possess social identities that contain unique, identity-relevant attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs providing "what-to-do" information when enacting that identity. We suggest that social identities are also associated with specific discrete emotion profiles providing "what-to-feel" information during identity enactment. We show that consumers prefer emotional stimuli consistent with their salient social identity, make product choices and emotion regulating consumption decisions to enhance (reduce) their experience of identity-consistent (inconsistent) emotions, and that experiencing identity-consistent emotions aids in the performance of identity-relevant tasks.

Coleman N. V., Williams P., Morales A. C., & White A. E . ( 2017).

Attention, attitudes, and action: When and why incidental fear increases consumer choice

Journal of Consumer Research, 44( 2), 283-312.

[本文引用: 3]

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Evaluating the effects of six alcohol-related message frames on emotions and intentions: The neglected role of disgust

Journal of Health Psychology, 21( 9), 1907-1917.

[本文引用: 1]

Condon, P., &Barrett L. 2013).

Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion

Emotion, 13( 5), 817-821.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? Westerners tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another's suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). After laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. After exposure to others' suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. After neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed.

Dion, D., &Borraz S. 2017).

Managing status: How luxury brands shape class subjectivities in the service encounter

Journal of Marketing, 81( 5), 67-85.

[本文引用: 2]

Dolan P., Hallsworth M., Halpern D., King D., Metcalfe R., & Vlaev I . ( 2012).

Influencing behaviour: The mindspace way

Journal of Economic Psychology, 33( 1), 264-277.

[本文引用: 1]

Faraji-Rad, A., &Pham,M. T . ( 2017).

Uncertainty increases the reliance on affect in decisions

Journal of Consumer Research, 44( 1), 1-21.

[本文引用: 2]

Gable P. A., Poole B. D., & Harmon-Jones E . ( 2015).

Anger perceptually and conceptually narrows cognitive scope

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109( 1), 163-174.

[本文引用: 1]

Galoni, C., &Noseworthy,T. J . ( 2015).

Does dirty money influence product valuations?

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25( 2), 304-310.

[本文引用: 2]

Gatrell,C. J . ( 2013).

Maternal body work: How women managers and professionals negotiate pregnancy and new motherhood at work

Human Relations, 66( 5), 621-644.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

This article builds on the theorizing of body work through introducing a new concept: 'maternal body work'. In so doing, it shows how progress towards a feminist politics of motherhood within organizations remains limited. Despite decades of feminist scholarship, dissonances remain between the private worlds of reproduction and public worlds of organization. With regard to this limited progress, the article reveals how, among a sample of 27 mothers (all professionally and managerially employed in the UK), 22 felt marginalized and undervalued at work, experiencing the borders between maternity and organization as unmalleable. By contrast, five women treated borders between reproduction and organization as more fluid than anticipated. Setting a high value on their skills, they developed strategies for parrying unfavourable revisions of their status. The article concludes by considering the potential development of resources for enhancing maternal coping strategies.

Goerdeler K. J., Wegge J., Schrod N., Bilinska P., & Rudolf M . ( 2015).

“Yuck, that’s disgusting!”—“No, not to me!”: Antecedents of disgust in geriatric care and its relation to emotional exhaustion and intention to leave

Motivation and Emotion, 39( 2), 247-259.

[本文引用: 1]

Gopaldas, A. . ( 2014).

Marketplace sentiments

Journal of Consumer Research, 41( 4), 995-1014.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

From outrage at corporations to excitement about innovations, marketplace sentiments are powerful forces in consumer culture that transform markets. This article develops a preliminary theory of marketplace sentiments. Defined as collectively shared emotional dispositions, sentiments can be grouped into three function-based categories: contempt for villains, concern for victims, and celebration of heroes. Marketplace actors such as activists, brands, and consumers have a variety of motives and methods for producing and reproducing sentiments. Activists plant, amplify, and hyper-perform sentiments to recruit consumers and discipline institutions. Brands carefully select, calibrate, and broadcast sentiments to entertain consumers and promote products. Consumers learn, experience, and communicate sentiments to commune and individuate in society. The emergent theory of marketplace sentiments (1) advances a sociocultural perspective on consumer emotion, (2) elevates the theoretical significance of emotional observations in cultural studies, (3) offers a sentiment-based understanding of the power of ideology, (4) indicates how activist sentiments can paradoxically benefit from brand co-optation, and (5) calls for human input in big data sentiment analysis. More broadly, the article proposes that cultures are systems of discourses, sentiments, and practices wherein discourses legitimize sentiments and practices, sentiments energize discourses and practices, and practices materialize discourses and sentiments.

Grappi S., Romani S., & Bagozzi R. P . ( 2013).

Consumer response to corporate irresponsible behavior: Moral emotions and virtues

Journal of Business Research, 66( 10), 1814-1821.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

A unique theoretical framework for explaining consumer word of mouth and protest behaviors against corporate irresponsibility is developed and tested. Through field surveys with adult consumers, this study demonstrates how consumers' negative moral emotional responses to corporate infractions instigate, in combination with other-regarding virtues, negative word of mouth and protest toward the corporation. Negative moral emotions include contempt, anger, and disgust; whereas other-regarding virtues entail justice, beneficence, equality, and communal cooperation. The results provide scholars and managers with means of improving their understanding and handling of consumers' reactions to corporate irresponsibility. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Griskevicius V., Tybur J. M., &van den Bergh, B. . ( 2010).

Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98( 3), 392-404.

[本文引用: 1]

Hackel L. M., Coppin G., Wohl M. J., &van Bavel, J. J. . ( 2018).

From groups to grits: Social identity shapes evaluations of food pleasantness

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 74, 270-280.

Haidt J., Mccauley C., & Rozin P . ( 1994).

Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors

Personality and Individual Differences, 16( 5), 701-713.

[本文引用: 5]

Harmon-Jones E., Harmon-Jones C., & Summerell E . ( 2017).

On the importance of both dimensional and discrete models of emotion

Behavioral Sciences, 7( 4), 66-71.

[本文引用: 2]

Hodson G., Choma B. L., Boisvert J., Hafer C. L., Macinnis C. C., & Costello K . ( 2013).

The role of intergroup disgust in predicting negative outgroup evaluations

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49( 2), 195-205.

[本文引用: 1]

Hubbard, P., &Colosi R. 2015).

Respectability, morality and disgust in the night-time economy: Exploring reactions to ‘lap dance’clubs in England and Wales

The Sociological Review, 63( 4), 782-800.

[本文引用: 2]

Kecinski M., Keisner D. K., Messer K. D., & Schulze W. D . ( 2016).

Stigma mitigation and the importance of redundant treatments

Journal of Economic Psychology, 54, 44-52.

[本文引用: 1]

Koopmann-Holm, B., &Tsai,J. L . ( 2014).

Focusing on the negative: Cultural differences in expressions of sympathy

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107( 6), 1092-1115.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted 4 studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contain less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in "avoided negative affect" mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans feel focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) to "push negative images away" (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect) from or (b) to "pull negative images closer" (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect) to themselves. Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the "push negative away" condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the "pull negative closer" condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs. positive). We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of sympathy, compassion, and helping.

Lee S. M., Heflick N. A., Park J. W., Kim H., Koo J., & Chun S . ( 2017).

When sex doesn’t sell to men: Mortality salience, disgust and the appeal of products and advertisements featuring sexualized women

Motivation and emotion, 41( 4), 478-491.

[本文引用: 2]

Lerner J. S., Small D. A., & Loewenstein G . ( 2004).

Heart strings and purse strings: carryover effects of emotions on economic decisions

Psychological Science, 15( 5), 337-341.

[本文引用: 2]

Ludwig S., de Ruyter K., Friedman M., Brüggen E. C., Wetzels M., & Pfann G . ( 2013).

More than words: The influence of affective content and linguistic style matches in online reviews on conversion rates

Journal of Marketing, 77( 1), 87-103.

[本文引用: 2]

McColl-Kennedy J. R., Patterson P. G., Smith A. K., & Brady M. K . ( 2009).

Customer rage episodes: Emotions, expressions and behaviors

Journal of Retailing, 85( 2), 222-237.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">In this research, we examine customer rage-associated emotions, expressions, and behaviors following service failure. Three independent studies involving 656 respondents and multiple methods are employed to investigate customer rage. Scales for each form of rage emotion, expression, and behavior were developed and used to assess their interrelationships. Results suggest that different forms of customer rage emotions tend to be linked to different types of expressions and behaviors. For example, both Rancorous Rage and Retaliatory Rage emotions tend to increase Verbal expressions (such as raising one's voice, yelling, and making insulting remarks). In contrast, Retaliatory Rage emotion increases Physical expressions (tried to physically harm a service employee, tried to cause damage to property, and threatened to damage property) and Displaced expressions (took anger out on other people nearby, yelled at other people, and took their anger out on other people later on) whereas Rancorous Rage emotion decreases Physical and Displaced expressions. Interestingly, Verbal expressions are linked to passive-aggressive behaviors, such as switching service providers and spreading negative word of mouth while Physical expressions are linked to relatively aggressive behavior, such as a desire for revenge. Implications for scholarly research and retailers are discussed.</p>

Meier,L. L., &Spector,P. E . ( 2013).

Reciprocal effects of work stressors and counterproductive work behavior: A five-wave longitudinal study

Journal of Applied Psychology, 98( 3), 529-539.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Previous research has clearly shown that work stressors are positively related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Most of these studies, however, used cross-sectional designs, which limits insight into the direction of effects. Nevertheless, it has been assumed that work stressors have a causal effect on CWB, but the role of CWB as an antecedent of work stressors has been neglected. The present study examined lagged reciprocal relationships between work stressors and CWB. We assumed that work stressors (organizational constraints and experienced incivility) are prospectively and positively related to CWB (interpersonal and organizational CWB) and that conversely CWB is prospectively and positively related to work stressors. We tested our hypotheses with a longitudinal study of 663 individuals who were assessed 5 times over an 8-month period. The results supported the possibility of a reciprocal relationship. Organizational constraints (but not experienced incivility) predicted subsequent CWB, and CWB predicted subsequent organizational constraints and experienced incivility. Because reciprocal effects point to a vicious cycle with detrimental effects of CWB to both actors and targets, the findings are not only of theoretical but also of practical importance.

Mishra A. K., Mishra K. E., & Spreitzer G. M . ( 2009).

Downsizing the company without downsizing morale

MIT Sloan Management Review, 50( 3), 39-44.

[本文引用: 1]

Morales,A. C., &Fitzsimons,G. J . ( 2007).

Product contagion: Changing consumer evaluations through physical contact with "disgusting" products

Journal of Marketing Research, 44( 2), 272-283.

[本文引用: 2]

Morales A. C., Wu E. C., & Fitzsimons G. J . ( 2012).

How disgust enhances the effectiveness of fear appeals

Journal of Marketing Research, 49( 3), 383-393.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

The current research explores the role of disgust in enhancing compliance with fear appeals. Despite its frequent use in advertising and prevalence in consumer settings, little is known about the specific role that disgust plays in persuasion. This article explores the unique characteristics of disgust and examines its distinctive effect on persuasion. The results across a series of four studies demonstrate that adding disgust to a fear appeal appreciably enhances message persuasion and compliance beyond that of appeals that elicit only fear. Importantly, the results trace the persuasive effects of disgust to its strong and immediate avoidance reaction.

Muro,F. D., &Noseworthy,T. J . ( 2013).

Money isn’t everything, but it helps if it doesn’t look used: How the physical appearance of money influences spending

Journal of Consumer Research, 39( 6), 1330-1342.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Despite evidence that currency denomination can influence spending, researchers have yet to examine whether the physical appearance of money can do the same. This is important because smaller denomination bills tend to suffer greater wear than larger denomination bills. Using real money in the context of real purchases, this article demonstrates that the physical appearance of money can override the influence of denomination. The reason being, people want to rid themselves of worn bills because they are disgusted by the contamination from others, whereas people put a premium on crisp currency because they take pride in owning bills that can be spent around others. This suggests that the physical appearance of money matters more than traditionally thought, and like most things in life, it too is inextricably linked to the social context. The results suggest that money may be less fungible than people think.

Nummenmaa L., Glerean E., Hari R., & Hietanen J. K . ( 2014).

Bodily maps of emotions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111( 2), 646-651.

[本文引用: 1]

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The disgust scale: Item analysis, factor structure, and suggestions for refinement

Psychological Assessment, 19( 3), 281-297.

[本文引用: 1]

Polman, E., &Kim,S. H . ( 2013).

Effects of anger, disgust, and sadness on sharing with others

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39( 12), 1683-1692.

[本文引用: 1]

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Does a brief state mindfulness induction moderate disgust-driven social avoidance and decision-making? An experimental investigation

Journal of behavioral medicine, 38( 1), 98-109.

[本文引用: 1]

Romani S., Grappi S., & Bagozzi R. P . ( 2013).

My anger is your gain, my contempt your loss: Explaining consumer responses to corporate wrongdoing

Psychology and Marketing, 30( 12), 1029-1042.

[本文引用: 1]

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[本文引用: 2]

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European Review of Social Psychology, 28( 1), 50-94.

[本文引用: 2]

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Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11( 3), 315-324.

[本文引用: 2]

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Journal of Advertising, 33( 1), 43-53.

[本文引用: 1]

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[本文引用: 2]

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[本文引用: 1]

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Does injustice affect your sense of taste and smell? the mediating role of moral disgust

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49( 5), 852-859.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Unfair treatment can activate strong negative emotions among victims and third parties. Less is known about other innate and evolutionary-based reactions to unfairness, such as those that manifest themselves through our senses. In three experiments, we found that interpersonally unfair treatment at work, defined as treatment that violates an individual's sense of dignity and respect, triggered disgust emotions over and above anger which subsequently related to stronger taste and smell reactions to gustatory and olfactory stimuli. This effect was observed for pleasant and unpleasant tasting products, for agreeable and malodorous scents, and among both mistreatment victims and third parties. Our findings suggest that violations of dignity and respect can trigger an evolutionary based reaction that activates a human alarm system, warning individuals of impending threats even when no oral threat is imminent. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48( 4), 813-838.

[本文引用: 3]

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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 64, 27-34.

[本文引用: 1]

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The impacts of fear and disgust on the perceived effectiveness of smoking warning labels: A study on Turkish university students

Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 27( 2), 506-512.

[本文引用: 2]

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Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97( 1), 103-122.

[本文引用: 3]

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Disgust: Evolved function and structure

Psychological Review, 120( 1), 65-84.

Magsci     [本文引用: 7]

Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and that of information processing. Although there is widespread agreement that disgust evolved to motivate the avoidance of contact with disease-causing organisms, there is no consensus about the functions disgust serves when evoked by acts unrelated to pathogen avoidance. Here we suggest that in addition to motivating pathogen avoidance, disgust evolved to regulate decisions in the domains of mate choice and morality. For each proposed evolved function, we posit distinct information processing systems that integrate function-relevant information and account for the trade-offs required of each disgust system. By refocusing the discussion of disgust on computational mechanisms, we recast prior theorizing on disgust into a framework that can generate new lines of empirical and theoretical inquiry.

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From valence to emotions: Exploring the distribution of emotions in online product reviews

Decision Support Systems, 81, 41-53.

[本文引用: 1]

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Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes

Journal of Marketing Research, 24( 3), 258-270.

[本文引用: 4]

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The psychology of recycled water: Factors predicting disgust and willingness to use

Water Resources Research, 52( 4), 3212-3226.

Wong,J. Y., &Wang,C. H . ( 2009).

Emotional labor of the tour leaders: An exploratory study

Tourism Management, 30( 2), 249-259.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">The concept of emotional labor was introduced by Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. <em>American Journal of Sociology</em>, <em>85</em>(3), 551&ndash;575, Hochschild, A. R. (1983). <em>The managed heart: The commercialization of human feeling</em>. Berkeley: University of California Press and is defined as &ldquo;the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display.&rdquo; Some recent studies have discovered the emotional labor of front-line service staff in the tourism context (e.g., Constanti, P., &amp; Gibbs, P. (2005). Emotional labour and surplus value: the case of holiday &lsquo;reps.&rsquo; <em>Service Industries Journal</em>, <em>25</em>(1), 103&ndash;116; Guerrier, Y., &amp; Adib, A. (2003). Work at leisure and leisure at work: a study of the emotional labour of tour reps. <em>Human Relations</em>, <em>56</em>(11), 1399&ndash;1417) and have developed an exclusive hospitality emotional labor scale (HELS) for the hospitality industry (Chu, K. H.-L., &amp; Murrmann, S. K. (2006). Development and validation of the hospitality emotional labor scale. <em>Tourism Management</em>, <em>27</em>(6), 1181&ndash;1191). A thorough understanding about emotional labor of the tour leader, however, is still wanting. The purpose of this study is to add to what is known. Qualitative research approach was used to identify significant issues and draw out important managerial implications. Findings concluded that the&nbsp;job of tour leader requires the performance of significant emotional labor. Issues about emotional display rules, emotional labor strategies, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor for the tour&nbsp;leader are discussed. Managerial implications and future research directions are also provided in this study.</p>

Xie C., Bagozzi R. P., & Grønhaug K . ( 2015).

The role of moral emotions and individual differences in consumer responses to corporate green and non-green actions

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43( 3), 333-356.

[本文引用: 3]

Yoder A. M., Widen S. C., & Russell J. A . ( 2015).

The word disgust may refer to more than one emotion

Emotion, 16( 3), 301-308.

[本文引用: 1]

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