心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 27-36 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00027

研究前沿

肢体识别的倒置效应

张珂烨1, 张明明1, 刘田田2, 罗文波1, 何蔚祺,1

1 辽宁师范大学脑与认知神经科学研究中心, 大连 116029

2 上海师范大学教育学院, 上海 200234

The inversion effect of body recognition

ZHANG Keye1, ZHANG Mingming1, LIU Tiantian2, LUO Wenbo1, HE Weiqi,1

1 Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China

2 College of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China

通讯作者: 何蔚祺, E-mail: weiqi79920686@sina.com

收稿日期: 2017-09-6   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金青年项目.  81601166
国家自然科学基金面上项目.  31371033
辽宁特聘教授课题项目(面孔表情加工情境效应的神经机制研究)支持.  

Received: 2017-09-6   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

肢体识别加工的研究常常以倒置肢体作为对象.肢体倒置效应是指, 与正立肢体相比, 人们识别倒置肢体的时间更长,正确率更低.该现象为探究肢体识别提供了新的思路.近些年, 研究者们使用多种技术考察了这一效应及肢体构形加工的特异机制与神经基础.其中, 头部信息在肢体倒置效应中的作用引起了一些研究者的争论.此外, 构形加工理论和构形加工连续量理论都肯定了构形加工在该效应产生中的作用, 但对于构形加工所包含的子成分还存在一些分歧.未来需要进一步拓展该领域的特殊群体研究, 揭示头部信息的具体作用, 完善相关理论解释以及探索更具有生态效度的肢体倒置效应.

关键词: 肢体倒置效应 ; 头部信息 ; 构形加工理论 ; 构形加工连续量理论

Abstract

The studies for body recognition processing often focus on inverted body. And the body inversion effect refers to the fact that the reaction time to identify the inverted body is longer and the correct rate is lower than that to the upright body. Recently, researchers have used a variety of techniques to examine the effect and its configural processing mechanism, in which there are still controversy about the role of head information. In addition, now available body inversion effect mainly concentrated on the configural processing theory and the configural processing continuum theory, however there are still some discrepancies between the two theories in terms of the subcomponents involved in the configural processing. Further researches, with more special populations involved, can focus on the improvements of relevant theories and the specific role of head information, through using materials of high ecological validity.

Keywords: body inversion effect ; head information ; configural processing theory ; configural processing continuum theory

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本文引用格式

张珂烨, 张明明, 刘田田, 罗文波, 何蔚祺. (2019). 肢体识别的倒置效应 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 27-36

ZHANG Keye, ZHANG Mingming, LIU Tiantian, LUO Wenbo, HE Weiqi. (2019). The inversion effect of body recognition. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 27-36

作为社会生活中的复杂知觉对象, 人类肢体能够像面孔一样, 为我们提供身份,年龄,性别,行为意图,吸引力和情绪等重要的社会信息(de Gelder, 2016).虽然在早期研究中, 面孔一直占据着物体识别研究领域的主导地位.但是, 新近研究逐渐发现, 肢体和面孔在社会交往中具有同等重要的作用(de Gelder, 2016; 陈丽, 李伟霞, 张烨, 张庆林, 2015; 范聪, 陈顺森, 张灵聪, 罗文波, 2014).甚至, 肢体在一些现实情境中能够扮演更为关键的角色.例如, 在远处,低光照或背后等条件下, 个体很难甚至不能观察识别到他人的面部特征, 此时肢体姿势形态的优势便会突显出来(Stein, Sterzer, & Peelen, 2012).

将倒置效应(inversion effect)应用于物体识别研究的初期, 研究者们关注的焦点大多集中于区分面孔刺激与其他物体类别刺激的识别加工方式(如, 房屋,工具) (Yin, 1969).大多研究者认为倒置效应是物体构形加工(configural processing)的一种标志, 即如果某类物体可以产生倒置效应, 那么可以判断人们识别这类物体时采用的是构形加工的方式.随着研究的深入和发展, 人们开始将在面孔刺激上取得的成果延伸到肢体刺激上, 并发现了相似的肢体倒置效应(body inversion effect), 即对倒置肢体的识别成绩显著低于对正立肢体的识别成绩.具体行为表现为:与识别正立肢体相比, 人们识别倒置肢体的时间更长,正确率更低(Reed, Stone, Bozova, & Tanaka, 2003; Reed, Stone, Grubb, Mcgoldrick, 2006), 这也表明了将肢体倒置会有损或阻碍个体对肢体的识别加工.近些年, 事件相关电位(event-related potential, ERP),功能性磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI)和经颅磁刺激(transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS)等技术的提高更是为研究者们探究肢体倒置效应以及正立肢体构形加工的特异机制与神经基础提供了可能.我们从梳理和回顾肢体倒置效应研究中主要的行为和脑机制证据出发并针对近期一些研究者们发现的完整肢体与无头肢体刺激在倒置效应中的不同表现及分歧, 着重探讨了有关头部信息在肢体倒置效应中的作用, 然后对肢体倒置效应的理论解释进行讨论; 通过对该领域尚待解决的问题以及可探究方向进行展望, 以期为今后相关研究提供一定的借鉴意义.

1 肢体倒置效应及其脑机制

1.1 经典的肢体倒置效应

肢体倒置效应最早由Reed等人(2003)发现, 他们向被试呈现相同或不同的黑白面孔刺激对,3D肢体刺激对(包括可能肢体和不可能肢体, biomechanically possible or impossible body postures)和房屋刺激对, 这些刺激对一半正立, 一半倒置.实验要求被试对这些刺激对的异同做出判断.研究结果显示, 与房屋相比, 人类面孔和可能肢体均产生了相似的倒置效应, 即倒置条件下的正确率显著低于其正立条件, 反应时间也更长; 但不符合人体构造的肢体图片并未诱发出类似的倒置效应.随后, Reed等人(2006)使用相同的实验设计, 进一步比较了部分肢体(part body)与完整肢体(whole body),乱序肢体(scrambled body)与完好肢体(intact body),一半肢体(half body) (包括上/下半肢体和左/右半肢体)与完整肢体(whole body)刺激对所引发的倒置效应.结果发现, 只有完整肢体和以垂直轴分割的左/右半肢体(左/右半肢体的头部姿势信息部分保留)产生了显著的倒置效应.

之后, 研究者们使用了不同类型的刺激材料, 如灰度真实人体图片(gray-scale figure, 其面部信息进行了模糊化处理) (Arizpe, Mckean, Tsao, & Chan, 2017; Brandman & Yovel, 2010; Minnebusch, Suchan, & Daum, 2009; Mohamed, Neumann, & Schweinberger, 2011),黑白化3D人体图片(black and white 3D figure, 面孔身份信息相同) (Tao, Zeng, & Sun, 2014), 光点序列(point-light sequence) (Chang & Troje, 2009)等, 其行为结果均支持了完整肢体的倒置效应.从该角度来看, 肢体倒置效应具有跨刺激类型的一致性和较强的稳定性.

1.2 肢体倒置效应的脑机制

N170是能够反映面孔倒置效应的一个重要ERP指标(Bentin, Allison, Puce, Perez, & Mccarthy, 2009; Rossion & Jacques, 2008), 前期大量研究发现, 倒置面孔所诱发的N170波幅更大,潜伏期更长(Maurer, Le Grand, Mondloch, 2002; 汪海玲, 傅世敏, 2011).之后的许多研究又证实了N170成分在肢体倒置效应中的作用.例如, Stekelenburg和de Gelder (2004)向被试呈现正立与倒置的面孔,完整肢体和鞋子, 要求他们判断刺激材料的方向, 并记录其脑电数据.实验结果显示, 与正立面孔和肢体相比, 倒置面孔和肢体所诱发的N170波幅更大,潜伏期更长.即, 面孔倒置效应中特殊的N170变化也同样存在于肢体倒置效应中, 并且该结果还得到了其他研究的验证和支持(Minnebusch et al., 2009; Mohamed et al., 2011; Tao et al., 2014).因此, N170的功能意义不仅存在于面孔加工中, 还体现在肢体加工中.此外, 肢体倒置时也发现了其他ERP成分的变化.例如, Mohamed等人(2011)发现枕区P100成分(也称作P1成分)的波幅也增大了.这与Itier和Taylo对面孔倒置效应的研究结果相似(Itier & Taylor, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c).P1成分通常被认为与刺激的初级特征加工有关(Luck, 2014).然而还有一些研究并未报告正立肢体和倒置肢体在P1成分上的显著差异(Minnebusch et al., 2009; Stekelenburg & de Gelder, 2004; Tao et al., 2014), 这可能与电极点的选择有关.当然, 有关P1成分在肢体识别加工中的具体功能意义还有待未来进一步探究.

在脑成像研究中, 人类面孔和肢体的特异性加工脑区已经被发现和证实.其中, 面孔选择性区域主要包括枕叶面孔区(occipital face area),梭状回面孔区(fusiform face area, FFA)和颞上沟(superior temporal sulcus) (Shao, Weng, & He, 2017; Yovel & Kanwisher, 2005); 肢体选择性区域主要包括外侧纹状体肢体区(extrastriate body area, EBA)和梭状回肢体区(fusiform body area, FBA) (Peelen & Downing, 2007; Soria & Suchan, 2015).作为无创性刺激技术的代表, TMS为肢体倒置效应的研究提供了新的思路.其基本原理在于影响局部神经元的放电活动, 进而抑制或兴奋局部脑区, 并可以维持一段时间(Lefaucheur et al., 2014).Urgesi等人(2007)利用TMS的这些优势, 探究了大脑前运动区,视觉区域和顶叶区域在肢体构形加工中的因果作用.他们使用延迟匹配任务(delayed matching-to-sample task)向被试呈现正立和倒置的静态肢体图片(样本刺激, sample stimulus), 要求被试判断而后呈现的刺激对中哪一个与其相同, 并于样本刺激呈现之后的150 ms在左腹侧前运动皮层(left ventral premotor cortex, vPMc),右侧EBA,右侧顶上小叶(right superior parietal lobe, SPL)和右侧初级视觉皮层(right primary visual cortex, V1)施加一个双脉冲(dual-pulse, 间歇100 ms).结果发现, 抑制vPMc显著降低了对于正立肢体匹配判断的准确率; 相反, 抑制EBA显著降低了判断倒置肢体准确率, 对正立肢体则无影响.而研究者普遍认为, 人们对正立肢体的识别采用的是构形加工方式, 倒置肢体识别采用的是特征加工方式.结合上述实验结果, 研究者认为, 完整肢体的构形加工与vPMc密切相关, 而EBA主要参与肢体的局部特征加工.

然而, 由于FBA位于大脑较深处, 研究者无法使用TMS技术探究其在肢体倒置效应中的作用.因此在之后的研究中, Brandman和Yovel (2010)使用了fMRI进一步研究了肢体选择性脑区和面孔选择性脑区在肢体识别加工中的作用机制.结果发现, EBA和FBA对正立或倒置的完整肢体表现出了相似的激活程度, 而FFA对正立完整肢体刺激表现出了更大的适应效应(adaptation effect), 即与身份相同的配对正立肢体刺激相比, 当配对的正立肢体刺激身份不同时, FFA的激活程度更强.之后的研究也支持了这一结果(Brandman & Yovel, 2016).而且, 面孔选择性区域(尤其是FFA)在以完整倒置肢体,无头正立肢体,无头倒置肢体图片作为刺激材料时均未表现出上述模式.结合Yovel, Pelc和Lubetzky (2010)的行为学研究结果, Brandman和Yovel认为, 面孔选择性区域在完整正立肢体中表现出的适应效应说明:肢体倒置效应是由面孔(或头部)加工机制作用产生, 并非肢体加工机制, 而这在一定程度上说明了头部在人类完整肢体加工中的重要作用.

综上, 有三点值得我们深思:第一, 结合上述肢体倒置效应的脑机制研究可知, 与肢体构形加工相关的脑区可能涉及vPMc和FFA, 而与肢体局部特征加工相关的脑区可能涉及EBA.其中, Brandman和Yovel (2010)的fMRI研究结果证明, 在肢体识别加工过程中, 是面孔(或头部)加工机制在起作用, 而不是肢体加工机制.但这似乎与前人研究发现的肢体选择性区域(EBA, FBA)在肢体知觉任务中的选择性反应及其功能意义(Peelen & Downing, 2007, Taylor, Wiggett & Downing, 2007)不完全一致.如, 在Taylor等人(2007)的实验中, 研究者通过操纵不同层次水平的肢体刺激(从单一手指到完整肢体)发现, FBA可能与较大面积肢体或完整肢体的构形结构加工有密切相关; 第二, 在Brandman和Yovel (2010)的这篇fMRI研究中, 研究者没有深入探究其他肢体部分缺失对肢体倒置效应的影响, 只探讨了完整肢体和无头肢体两种刺激材料情况, 因此基于此实验结果而得出“头部在完整肢体加工中扮演核心角色”这一结论尚缺乏说服力; 第三, 头部姿势信息和头部轮廓信息是两个不同的方面, 该研究对完整肢体和无头肢体的探究属于对头部轮廓信息的操纵, 并没有进一步控制头部姿势信息, 对头部姿势固定的完整肢体进行实验论证.因此未来研究也可以从这几个角度入手, 全面探讨肢体各部分和完整肢体知觉加工的神经机制, 以及肢体选择性区域和面孔选择性区域在肢体识别加工中的功能意义.

2 头部信息在肢体倒置效应中的作用

如前所述, Brandman和Yovel (2010)的fMRI研究结果显示, FFA仅在完整正立肢体中表现出适应效应, 当肢体倒置或无头时均未表现出该模式, 因此推断肢体倒置效应是由面孔加工机制作用产生, 头部信息在人类肢体加工中其重要作用.然而最早对肢体刺激进行操纵, 探究头部信息在倒置效应中的作用的是Minnebusch等人(2009)的研究.

Minnebusch等人(2009)将肢体图片的整个头部去除, 并且采用了与Reed等人(2003)相似的实验流程, 直接比较了被试对正立和倒置的无头肢体(headless body)与完整有头肢体(whole body)刺激对的识别成绩和脑电变化.结果发现, 完整肢体识别的行为数据表现出了显著的倒置效应, 并且倒置完整肢体诱发了更大波幅,更长潜伏期的N170.然而, 无头肢体刺激却产生了“倒置效应的反转”, 即倒置无头肢体的识别成绩显著优于正立无头肢体, 正立无头肢体诱发了更大波幅的N170成分.这说明, 肢体似乎和面孔一样, 是一类特殊刺激物, 拥有特异的加工机制并由专门的神经元区域负责加工处理, 而这些区域至少部分地与面孔或物体加工区域相分离.同时, 该倒置效应的反转现象可能与两点原因有关:第一, 构形加工可能对于有头肢体识别比较重要; 第二, 就无头肢体而言, 其最显著的识别线索是它们脚的位置或形状, 而这对于倒置的无头肢体刺激来说可能更加突出, 因此倒置无头肢体的识别成绩更好.

随后, Yovel等人(2010)进一步探究了无头肢体刺激为什么会引起不同结果的原因.他们提出了两个假设:第一, 任何类型的不完整肢体均会导致倒置效应的消失; 第二, 头部信息在肢体识别中起着特殊作用.其实验2比较了正立和倒置的完整肢体与无头肢体刺激对的识别成绩, 仅 发现了显著的完整肢体倒置效应, 并未发现与Minnebusch等人(2009)报告中类似的无头肢体倒置效应的反转现象.实验3对无两条胳膊肢体(armless body)和无一条腿肢体(legless body)刺激对进行了比较, 均发现了倒置效应, 因此否定了假设一.在实验5中比较了头部变化肢体(varied- head body)和头部固定肢体(fixed-head body)刺激对, 前者保持胳膊和腿部不变, 更换头部, 后者反之.结果发现, 两种类型肢体刺激均产生了显著的倒置效应, 但是头部固定肢体的倒置效应没有头部变化肢体大.结合前面的实验结果, Yovel等人(2010)认为, 头部信息对于肢体识别有着重要作用, 当人们不能利用这一线索时, 其识别成绩将会显著下降.同样, Mohamed等人(2011)使用无头肢体刺激进行的实验研究发现了相似结果.综合以上实验和Reed等人(2006)的研究结果(发现完整肢体和左/右半肢体倒置效应), 我们可以发现, 虽然研究者对肢体刺激进行了不同程度的操纵, 但是其研究结果都有一个共同点, 即倒置效应仅存在于头部信息完整保留或部分保留的肢体刺激中.这可能是由于被试在进行肢体姿势辨别任务时主要关注头部区域,依赖头部姿势信息.因此, 相对于胳膊或腿部缺失, 头部缺失对肢体辨别的影响更大.这一推测也得到了眼动技术的支持(Arizpe et al., 2017; Tao & Sun, 2013).

然而, 也有一些研究者得出了不同结果.例如, Soria Bauser和Suchan (2013)使用无头肢体图片作为实验材料时, 在行为和脑电数据上均发现了显著的倒置效应.Robbins和Coltheart (2012)也发现了无头肢体的倒置效应.Tao等人(2014)则比较了正立和倒置的完整肢体,无头无躯干肢体和乱序肢体的识别成绩和脑电变化, 结果发现完整肢体和无头无躯干肢体均表现出了显著的倒置效应.因此, 他们认为肢体的一阶信息决定了其倒置效应, 而不是头部或躯干的作用.关于该实验结果与前人结论的不一致, Tao等人(2014)将其归结为文化差异和实验材料的差异, 具体来说, Tao等人研究的是中国(亚洲)被试, 并且他们采用的是3D肢体模型图片, 与大多数前人采用的面孔信息模糊化处理的灰度级真实肢体图片有所区别.

综合前人研究, 我们认为关于头部信息有两点需要明确:第一, 前人通过比较完整肢体和无头肢体进而探讨头部信息的作用, 这些都是对头部轮廓信息存在与否的操纵.但是除了头部轮廓信息, 完整肢体刺激的头部信息还应包括头部姿势信息.当头部姿势不一致时, 人们也能分辨出两个肢体间的差异.对此, 仅有Yovel等人(2010)的行为实验进行了操纵研究; 第二, 无头肢体刺激与Yovel等人(2010)实验3中的无胳膊肢体或无腿肢体刺激并不能简单地划分到“不完整刺激”的范围内.因为, 在现实生活中, 存在个体失去胳膊或腿的情况, 然而失去头部的个体却是不可能存在的, 或者说是非现实的.因此, 研究者将这种非现实刺激(无头肢体)与可能现实刺激(无胳膊或无腿肢体)同作为“不完整刺激”放在一起比较是不合适的, 这容易使人忽略无头肢体之所以导致不同倒置效应的真实原因.综上所述, 有关头部信息在肢体倒置效应中的作用仍存在一定的分歧和争议, 而有关问题的解决还有待未来的进一步研究.

3 肢体倒置效应的理论解释

大多研究者比较一致地认为, 倒置效应是构形加工的一种标志.构形加工是指对构形信息的加工, 其主要想表达出“结构”与“形状”的综合含义(汪亚珉, 黄雅梅, 2011).Gauthier等人(1997; 1998)认为, 构形加工方式可能最适合于人们经常遇到的对象, 它们共享高度的结构相似性, 即在同类对象之间具有很小的区别, 并且需要快速准确的专家识别.因此, 这就可以说明为什么构形加工对面孔和肢体姿势要比对其他物体重要.简而言之, 之所以会产生面孔和肢体姿势倒置效应, 是因为人们在识别正立面孔和肢体采用的是构形加工方式, 而倒置破坏了这一过程, 最终导致了识别成绩的下降.目前为止, 肢体倒置效应比较常用的解释是Maurer等人提出的构形加工理论(Maurer et al., 2002)和Reed等人提出的构形加工连续量理论(configural processing continuum theory) (Reed et al., 2006), 这两种理论都肯定了构形加工在倒置效应产生中的作用, 但对于构形加工所包含的子成分, 这两种理论还存在一些分歧.

3.1 构形加工理论

Maurer等人(2002) 基于面孔倒置效应, 提出了构形加工理论.他们认为个体是识别面孔的专家, 而这种能力归因于对面孔的构形加工方式上.构形加工过程不仅包括对个体特征形状的加工, 还包括对各种特征之间关系的加工.因此, 构形加工可以划分为三种类型:一阶信息加工(first- order relation processing),整体加工(holistic processing)和二阶信息加工(second-order relation processing), 并且倒置可以影响构形加工的每一种类型.其中, 一阶信息加工和二阶信息加工都属于构形加工中“对各种特征之间关系的加工”.

一阶信息是指刺激各组成部分之间的相对位置关系.例如, 就肢体而言, 胳膊和躯干相对于双腿是在其上面, 两只胳膊分别位于躯干两侧.研究者一般选择打乱肢体各组成部分之间的正常相对位置关系, 以此来操纵肢体刺激的一阶信息, 并且发现:当被试在识别一阶信息遭到破坏的乱序肢体时, 其识别正立肢体的成绩明显下降, 并且不产生显著的倒置效应(Reed et al., 2006; Soria Bauser & Suchan, 2013).这说明一阶信息加工对正立肢体识别而言非常重要, 该观点在一些使用仅保留一阶信息肢体刺激作为实验材料的研究(Tao et al., 2014)中得到了支持.此外, Brandman和Yovel (2016)提供了有关肢体构形神经机制的第一个证据, 他们通过实验分析比较一阶信息完善的完整肢体和无一阶信息的乱序肢体的脑激活情况.结果发现, 无论头部信息存在与否, 与乱序肢体相比, EBA和FBA都对完整肢体表现出更大的反应.

整体加工是指人们倾向于将肢体当作一个整体加工, 这也使得人们对肢体局部特征的加工变得比较困难.该观点的直接证据主要来自于“合成效应(composite effect)”和“部分-整体识别效应(part-whole recognition effect)”.前者是指当合成肢体的上下或左右部分来自不同个体时, 人们对上下或左右部分有所分开的合成刺激的识别成绩要显著优于紧密融合在一起的(Willems, Vrancken, Germeys, & Verfaillie, 2014).这显示, 当合成肢体紧密融合时, 它们的内部特征信息便紧密结合在了一起, 因此被试对局部特征的加工将受到整体信息加工的影响; 后者是指肢体的局部特征在整体情境中的识别好于单独呈现(Harris, Vyas, & Reed, 2016; Rezlescu, Susilo, Wilmer, & Caramazza, 2017; Tanaka & Farah, 1993), 这也表明在肢体识别中存在着与局部特征加工相对应的整体信息加工.

二阶信息是指刺激各组成部分之间的精确空间距离, 例如, 双眼之间或两只胳膊之间的距离.一些研究证明(Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001; Haig, 2013), 当改变面孔内部特征之间的距离时, 人们可以很快地觉察出这些变化甚至是接近视敏度的细微改变, 但是当面孔倒置时, 人们则很难做到这一点.同时, 二阶信息在肢体知觉中的作用还未得到考察, 这可能是由于与面孔相比, 肢体各组成部分之间可能的距离变化幅度和变化空间都要更大, 因此在实验研究中不好控制.基于这个问题, 我们认为在未来研究中, 研究者可以在控制两个胳膊与躯干之间的角度,两条腿与垂直中线之间角度的基础上, 试着操纵肢体刺激的肩宽,脖子与头部之间的长度比例等等来考察二阶信息在肢体识别加工过程中的作用.具体可探究问题有:当肢体倒置时, 个体能否识别出二阶信息的变化?当倒置肢体二阶信息的变化在什么范围内时, 个体就不能识别出其变化?这些问题都需要在未来研究中寻找答案.

3.2 构形加工连续量理论

Reed等人(2006)在研究肢体倒置效应时对Maurer等人的构形加工理论进行了发展, 并提出了“构形加工连续量”的概念.在这一概念中, 特征加工(featural processing)和构形加工并不是完全对立的.特征加工(或局部加工)与构形加工分别位于一个连续量上的两端, 中间分别存在一阶信息加工,结构信息加工(structural information processing)和二阶信息加工三个点.

首先, 位于构形加工连续量一端的“特征加工”也被称为部分加工(part processing),成分加工(componential processing),零碎加工(piecemeal processing)或分析加工(analytic processing).人们对很多物体的识别并不依赖于对物体各组成成分之间空间关系的加工, 而是取决于对其各部分特征及形状的加工(Cave & Kosslyn, 1993), 并且这些特征需具有凸显性和可辨别性.例如, 房屋被认为是基于部分和特征识别的一类物体.Cabeza 与 Kato的研究(2000)表明, 构形加工与特征加工在面孔识别中都很重要, 是面孔识别的两种基本加工方式.基于面孔和肢体在很多物理属性和社会属性上的相似性(de Gelder et al., 2010), 我们可以延伸认为, 构形加工与特征加工在肢体识别中也都重要.

其次, 一阶信息加工虽然涉及刺激各组成部分之间相对位置关系的加工, 但其对于定义整个刺激的结构层次来说还不够充分.除“一阶信息”之外, 物体特定成分在物体整个结构层次中的相对位置信息也非常重要, Reed等人(2006)将这种信息称之为“结构信息”.例如, 对于肢体刺激来说, 躯干不仅位于下肢的上面, 也位于整个肢体的中间, 此类信息就决定了肢体的整体层次结构.可以说, “结构信息”概念是对“一阶信息”概念的进一步深化, 它的提出拓展了我们对构形加工过程中 “对个体各特征之间关系的加工”这部分内容的了解.在未来研究中, 我们可以通过操纵肢体刺激的结构信息来探究其在肢体倒置效应及肢体识别过程中的作用.其中, 对刺激材料的操作可以是:保留胳膊与躯干,躯干与下肢之间的相对位置关系(即保留一阶信息), 改变上半身与下半身之间的长度比例, 如操控上半身, 使其只占整个肢体的四分之一, 此时躯干就不再位于整个肢体的中间.Reed等人(2006)认为, “结构信息加工”要比“一阶信息加工”在构形加工连续量上的位置更远, 再远一点就是“二阶信息加工”.

最后, 位于构形加工连续量另一端的是“整体模板加工”.整体模板加工是指人们基于一致化模板来识别物体, 类似于通过将物体与单一心理表征进行比较从而识别对象(所有部分和细节需匹配).例如, 肢体各部分特征,各特征之间的空间关系,特征之间的相对距离,特征与整个肢体情景的关系等信息都被嵌入在一致化模板中, 肢体识别加工涉及个体接受到的刺激信息与这一模板之间的比较.针对肢体识别是否需要完整模板信息输入, Reed等人(2006)在其实验3中进行了研究.其中, 他们比较了一半肢体(包括以水平轴分割的上/下半肢体和以垂直轴分割的左/右半肢体)与完整肢体的倒置效应.其中, 上/下半肢体,和左/右半肢体均保留了适当的一阶信息和二阶信息.不同的是, 由于肢体是左右半对称的, 所以左右半肢体还保留了部分模板信息.实验结果发现, 不仅完整肢体产生了倒置效应, 以垂直轴分割的左/右半肢体也产生了显著的倒置效应.这说明, 基于完整模板信息的整体加工对于肢体识别来说不是必需的.因此, Reed等人(2006)认为肢体识别的整体加工过程不要求完整的模板信息, 部分模板信息(如, 保留头部姿势信息的不完整肢体)也能激活人们对肢体刺激的整体加工.

综上我们可以发现, 这两种理论在有关构形加工的子成分方面, 均肯定了一阶信息和二阶信息的作用.不同的是, Reed等人(2006) 基于这两种子成分, 在构形加工连续量理论中进一步提出了“结构信息”的概念.另外, 在构形加工理论中, Maurer等人(2002)并未对“部分加工”进行论述, 而在构形加工连续量理论中, Reed等人(2006)则明确说明了依赖部分信息的识别加工过程与构形加工过程相互独立, 但同时也肯定了两者在面孔识别和肢体识别(如, 身份识别)的作用.然而值得思考的是, “整体加工”的直接证据并非源于倒置效应, 因此在这两个理论中, 研究者将“整体加工”的概念放在“构形加工”的概念之下似乎缺乏一定的说服力.并且在近期一项研究中, Rezlescu等人(2017)通过使用剑桥面孔识别测验, 探讨了面孔倒置效应,合成脸效应,部分-整体效应这三种现象所反映的面孔知觉机制——整体加工.结果发现这三者之间不存在联系, 并且仅只有面孔倒置效应有效预测了被试的面孔识别.因此, 研究者认为这三者分别反映了不同的面孔知觉机制.这似乎可以说明构形加工与整体加工之间没有直接关系.但是, 由于没有更多的证据支持, 并且肢体识别与面孔识别过程并不完全相同, 因此这些问题都有待未来研究的进一步探讨.

4 总结与展望

肢体倒置效应的发现不仅拓展了物体识别这一领域, 而且有益于人们从新的角度来看待人类如何加工肢体.近十五年来, 研究者们使用不同类别的刺激材料, 对经典的肢体倒置效应进行了验证, 并且运用各类新近技术从脑的角度出发, 不断探究其认知神经机制, 丰富了人们对于一些特异性脑区的理解和认识(如, EBA, FBA, FFA).同时, 部分研究者开始更加细致地探索头部信息在这一效应中的作用, 但此类实验结果仍存在争议.其中, 有关头部姿势信息与头部轮廓信息的概念与意义需要在未来研究中进行更深入的探究.而其理论解释主要从面孔加工引申而来, 这也从某种程度上说明了与面孔类似, 人类同样具有对肢体这一特殊物体的专家识别能力(陶维东, 孙弘进, 张旭东, 郑剑虹, 2011).但是其理论解释尚不完善, 有关肢体识别构形加工的概念及其子成分仍存在分歧.总之, 关于肢体倒置效应还存在一些尚待解决的问题以及未来可研究的方向:

(1)拓展肢体倒置效应在特殊人群中的研究.如前文所述, 肢体倒置效应具有一定的跨刺激类型一致性和较强的稳定性, 而这为其在特殊群体中的应用提供了基础.有研究者应用肢体倒置效应去探讨特殊群体的肢体加工是否存在缺陷或者存在哪些缺陷, 这为我们考察肢体加工的内在机制提供了更为独特的思路.如:ASD患者对正常肢体能够表现出完整的构形加工(Cleary, Looney, Brady, & Fitzgerald, 2014; Reed et al., 2007), 这为改善ASD患者的肢体知觉和人际交流提供了具体依据; 获得性面孔失认症患者(acquired prosopagnosics, AP)表现出了显著的肢体倒置效应, 能保持正常的肢体知觉(Susilo, Yovel, Barton, & Duchaine, 2013), 但在发展性面孔失认症群体(developmental prosopagnosia, DP)中却未发现该现象(Righart & de Gelder, 2007; Rivolta, Lawson, & Palermo, 2016).而这可能是由于, FFA和FBA存在着一定的功能定位重叠(overlap) (Kanwisher, 2010).换言之, 无论对于AP患者还是DP患者, 当梭状回受损时, 这种功能重叠将带来肢体加工损伤的不确定性.当然, 未来研究还需要加大此类实验的样本量.此外, 基于肢体倒置效应, 一些研究表明, 当个体对自身的内省知觉(introspective perception)发生紊乱时, 也会导致一定的肢体加工损伤.如, 神经性厌食症患者(anorexia nervosa)对自己肢体外形的强迫性担忧和对肢体细节的过分关心诱发了一定的肢体构形加工障碍(Urgesi et al., 2014); 最近, 一项使用ERP技术的实验也发现, 肢体图片诱发女性进食障碍者产生了更早的P1和N1, 即更快的视觉编码(Groves, Kennett, & Gillmeister, 2017).总之, 这些研究提示我们, 肢体倒置效应或许可以作为一种潜在的,更为客观的诊断指标和参考.

(2)继续考察头部信息在肢体倒置效应中的作用.首先, 我们需要明确无头肢体刺激是否确实会引起肢体倒置效应的反转或者消失?如果无头肢体刺激确实表现出肢体倒置效应的反转或者消失, 这是否与无头肢体刺激属于非现实刺激有关?如果没有出现上述现象, 那么这是由于刺激材料的不一致, 还是文化差异所致?另外, 头部信息包括头部轮廓信息和头部姿势信息两个方面.这两个方面信息的改变对肢体倒置效应及肢体识别是否都产生影响?这一系列的问题都需要在未来研究中得到回答和验证.

(3)明确肢体构形加工的子成分及其脑机制.如前所述, 整体加工与整体模板加工的直接证据都不是来自肢体倒置效应, 并且Rezlescu等人(2017)的研究结果也从另一角度证明了倒置效应所反映的构形加工过程与合成脸效应或部分-整体效应所反映的整体加工过程不存在直接关系.因此, 我们认为两者之间是否属于包含关系还有待证实.此外, 现有研究中仅有Brandman和Yovel (2016)对构形加工子成分(一阶信息)的脑机制进行了初步探索.然而, 构形加工理论和构形加工连续量理论所涉及到的子成分还有很多, 未来有必要将该领域的理论解释和其脑机制研究更加地紧密联系起来, 促进人们对于肢体识别加工的理解.

(4)应用更具生态效度的刺激类型探讨单人及多人肢体倒置效应.现有肢体倒置效应的研究大多使用单个肢体刺激, 然而在现实生活中, 人们往往需要同时接受多个对象的信息输入, 彼此之间可能存在着互动场景, 并且这一过程是动态的.在该方面, Papeo, Stein和Soto-Faraco (2017)开展了相关实验, 其研究结果发现了“双人肢体倒置效应”, 即倒置的面对面(互动)双肢体的识别成绩显著低于其正立状态, 而正立和倒置的背对背(非互动)双肢体的识别成绩无显著差异.其认为, 此现象说明了人们对互动双肢体的加工方式类似于单人肢体加工中的构形加工, 即将之知觉为一个功能整体, 而对非互动双肢体的加工方式类似于部分加工.然而, 值得注意的是, Papeo等人(2017)的实验设计中目标刺激仅呈现30 ms, 属于阈下加工过程, 但是以往大多数倒置效应研究中的刺激呈现时间为250 ms (Minnebusch et al., 2009; Reed et al., 2003; Reed et al., 2006; Tao et al., 2014), 涉及的是阈上加工.因此, Papeo等人(2017)用基于阈上加工过程提出的构形加工理论去解释其结果可能存在着一些不足, 未来研究可以使用经典倒置效应范式去研究双人或多人互动肢体加工.另外, 相较于静态图片, 动态刺激材料更具有生态效度.综上, 我们可以应用生态效度更好的刺激材料去探究单人及多人肢体倒置效应及其理论解释.

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08 2016 Elsevier B.V. Growing evidence suggests that the brain processes bodies distinctively from other stimuli, but little research has addressed whether visual body perception is modulated by the observer's thoughts and feelings about their own body. The present study thus investigated the relationship between body image and electrophysiological signatures of body perception, with the aim of identifying potential biomarkers of body image disturbances. Occipito-parietal (P1 and N1) and fronto-central (VPP) processing of body and non-body stimuli were assessed in 29 weight-restored eating disordered (ED) women and compared to 27 healthy controls. Rapid early visual processing was seen in the ED group, as the entire P1-N1 complex unfolded significantly earlier compared to controls. ED women also showed a gender-sensitive response to other women's bodies over N1 and VPP components. Such gender-sensitivity was not evident in controls. Moreover, ERP effects correlated with scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory-II (EDI-2), indicating a close link between the observers’ ED symptomatology, including body image, and the visual analysis of human bodies during very early stages of cortical processing. The temporal dynamics of visual body perception may therefore serve as potential neural markers for the identification of ED symptomatology in ‘at risk’ populations.

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URL     PMID:27001251     

Although holistic processing has been documented extensively for upright faces, it is unclear whether it occurs for other visual categories with more extensive substructure, such as body postures. Like faces, body postures have high social relevance, but they differ in having fine-grain organization not only of basic parts (e.g., arm) but also subparts (e.g., elbow, wrist, hand). To compare holistic processing for whole bodies and body parts, we employed a novel stereoscopic depth manipulation that creates either the percept of a whole body occluded by a set of bars, or of segments of a body floating in front of a background. Despite sharing low-level visual properties, only the stimulus perceived as being behind bars should be holistically “filled in” via amodal completion. In two experiments, we tested for better identification of individual body parts within the context of a body versus in isolation. Consistent with previous findings, recognition of body parts was better in the context of a whole body when the body was amodally completed behind occluders. However, when the same bodies were perceived as floating in strips, performance was significantly worse, and not significantly different, from that for amodally completed parts, supporting holistic processing of body postures. Intriguingly, performance was worst for parts in the frontal depth condition, suggesting that these effects may extend from gross body organization to a more local level. These results provide suggestive evidence that holistic representations may not be “all-or-none,” but rather also operate on body regions of more limited spatial extent.

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a). Effects of repetition learning on upright, inverted and contrast-reversed face processing using ERPs.

NeuroImage, 21(4), 1518-1532.

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The effects of short-term learning on memory for inverted, contrast-reversed and upright faces were investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a target/nontarget discrimination task following a learning phase of the target. Subjects were equally accurate for all three face types although responding more slowly to inverted and negative faces compared to upright faces. Face type affected both early ERP components P1 and N170, and long-latency components at frontal and parietal sites, reflecting the difficulty of processing inverted faces. Different effects of face type were found for P1 and N170 latencies and amplitudes, suggesting face processing could start around 100–120 ms and is sensitive to facial configuration. Repetition effects were also found on both early and long-latency components. Reduced N170 latency and amplitude for repeated targets are likely due to perceptual priming. Repetition effects on the N250 were delayed for inverted and negative faces, suggesting delayed access to stored facial representations for these formats. Increased frontopolar positivity at 250–300 ms and parietal positivity from 300 to 500 ms reflected familiarity ‘old–new’ repetition effects that were of similar magnitude for all three face types, indexing the accurate recognition of all faces. Thus, while structural encoding was disrupted by inversion and contrast-reversal, the learning phase was sufficient to abolish the effects of these configural manipulations behaviourally; all three face types were equally well recognised and this was reflected as equally large parietal old–new effects.

Itier R.J., &Taylor M.J . (2004

b). Face recognition memory and configural processing: A developmental ERP study using upright, inverted, and contrast-reversed faces.

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Itier R.J., &Taylor M.J . (2004 c).

N170 or N1? Spatiotemporal differences between object and face processing using ERPs.

Cerebral Cortex, 14(2), 132-142.

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Abstract The ERP component N170 is face-sensitive, yet its specificity for faces is controversial. We recorded ERPs while subjects viewed upright and inverted faces and seven object categories. Peak, topography and segmentation analyses were performed. N170 was earlier and larger to faces than to all objects. The classic increase in amplitude and latency was found for inverted faces on N170 but also on P1. Segmentation analyses revealed an extra map found only for faces, reflecting an extra cluster of activity compared to objects. While the N1 for objects seems to reflect the return to baseline from the P1, the N170 for faces reflects a supplement activity. The electrophysiological 'specificity' of faces could lie in the involvement of extra generators for face processing compared to objects and the N170 for faces seems qualitatively different from the N1 for objects. Object and face processing also differed as early as 120 ms.

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Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(11), 2150-2206.

URL     PMID:25034472      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the pain and the antidepressant effect of HF-rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A Level B recommendation (probable efficacy) is proposed for the antidepressant effect of low-frequency (LF) rTMS of the right DLPFC, HF-rTMS of the left DLPFC for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and LF-rTMS of contralesional M1 in chronic motor stroke. The effects of rTMS in a number of indications reach level C (possible efficacy), including LF-rTMS of the left temporoparietal cortex in tinnitus and auditory hallucinations. It remains to determine how to optimize rTMS protocols and techniques to give them relevance in routine clinical practice. In addition, professionals carrying out rTMS protocols should undergo rigorous training to ensure the quality of the technical realization, guarantee the proper care of patients, and maximize the chances of success. Under these conditions, the therapeutic use of rTMS should be able to develop in the coming years. Copyright 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Luck S.J . (2014).

Overview of common ERP components.

In S. J. Luck (Eds.), An introduction to the event-related potential technique(2 ed., pp. 71-117). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT press.

[本文引用: 1]

Maurer D., Le Grand R., & Mondloch C. J . (2002).

The many faces of configural processing.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(6), 255-260.

URL     PMID:12039607      [本文引用: 4]

Adults' expert face recognition has been attributed to configural processing. Based on behavioural and neural marker tasks and developmental studies, we argue that configural processing encompasses three distinct processes

Minnebusch D. A., Suchan B., & Daum I . (2009).

Losing your head: Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of body inversion.

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(5), 865-874.

URL     PMID:1870258142      [本文引用: 6]

The present study aimed to further explore the mechanisms underlying the perception of human body shapes. Behavioral and electrophysiological inversion effects were studied for human bodies with and without heads and for animal bodies (cats, dogs, and birds). Recognition of human bodies (with heads) was adversely affected by stimulus inversion, and the N170 had longer latencies and higher amplitudes for inverted compared to upright human bodies. Human body shapes presented without heads yielded the opposite result pattern. The data for animal bodies did not yield consistent effects. Taken together, the present findings suggest that human bodies might be processed by specialized cortical mechanisms which are at least partly dissociable from mechanisms involved in object or face processing.

Mohamed T. N., Neumann M. F., & Schweinberger S. R . (2011).

Combined effects of attention and inversion on event-related potentials to human bodies and faces.

Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(3-4), 138-146.

URL     PMID:24168528      Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

We investigated effects of attentional load and inversion on event-related potentials to body or face distractors. Participants performed demanding (high load) or less demanding (low load) unrelated letter-search tasks. Bodies and faces were intact (Experiment 1) or without heads or eyes (Experiment 2). We measured prominent P100, N170, and late occipito-temporal negative (LNC) components. N170 to bodies had smaller and more anterior maxima than faces. N170 to intact bodies and faces was increased by inversion, relatively independently of load. Inversion effects were dramatically reduced for headless bodies, and even reversed for eyeless faces. Load effects were most prominent in LNC, with enhanced negativity under low load. We suggest that N170 reflects mandatory, category-specific initial distractor encoding in body- or face-sensitive cortical areas, a process which may depend on interactive encoding of hierarchical cues (bodies, heads, eyes). By contrast, LNC mainly reflects residual capacity allocated to extended processing of task-irrelevant distractors.

Papeo L., Stein T., & Soto-Faraco S . (2017).

The two-body inversion effect.

Psychological Science, 28(3), 369-379.

URL     PMID:28140764     

How does one perceive groups of people? It is known that functionally interacting objects (e.g., a glass and a pitcher tilted as if pouring water into it) are perceptually grouped. Here, we showed that processing of multiple human bodies is also influenced by their relative positioning. In a series of categorization experiments, bodies facing each other (seemingly interacting) were recognized more accurately than bodies facing away from each other (noninteracting). Moreover, recognition of facing body dyads (but not nonfacing body dyads) was strongly impaired when those stimuli were inverted, similar to what has been found for individual bodies. This inversion effect demonstrates sensitivity of the visual system to facing body dyads in their common upright configuration and might imply recruitment of configural processing (i.e., processing of the overall body configuration without prior part-by-part analysis). These findings suggest that facing dyads are represented as one structured unit, which may be the intermediate level of representation between multiple-object (body) perception and representation of social actions.

Peelen M.V., &Downing P.E . (2007).

The neural basis of visual body perception.

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(8), 636-648.

URL     PMID:17643089      [本文引用: 2]

The human body, like the human face, is a rich source of socially relevant information about other individuals. Evidence from studies of both humans and non-human primates points to focal regions of the higher-level visual cortex that are specialized for the visual perception of the body. These body-selective regions, which can be dissociated from regions involved in face perception, have been implicated in the perception of the self and the 'body schema', the perception of others' emotions and the understanding of actions.

Reed C. L., Beall P. M., Stone V. E., Kopelioff L., Pulham D. J., & Hepburn S. L . (2007).

Brief report: Perception of body posture-What individuals with autism spectrum disorder might be missing.

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1576-1584.

URL     PMID:17029019      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Autism has been associated with atypical face and configural processing, as indicated by the lack of a face inversion effect (better recognition of upright than inverted faces). We investigated whether such atypical processing was restricted to the face or extended to social information found in body postures. An inversion paradigm compared recognition of upright and inverted faces, body postures, and houses. Typical adults demonstrated inversion effects for both faces and body postures, but adults with autism demonstrated only a face inversion effect. Adults with autism may not have a configural processing deficit per se, but instead may have strategies for recognizing faces not used for body postures. Results have implications for therapies employing training in imitation and body posture perception.

Reed C. L., Stone V. E., Bozova S., & Tanaka J . (2003).

The body-inversion effect.

Psychological Science, 14(4), 302-308.

[本文引用: 4]

Reed C. L., Stone V. E., Grubb J. D., & Mcgoldrick J. E . (2006).

Turning configural processing upside down: Part and whole body postures.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(1), 73-87.

URL     PMID:16478327      [本文引用: 12]

Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of inversion effects were compared for body parts, scrambled bodies, and body halves relative to whole bodies and to corresponding conditions for faces and houses. Results suggest that configural body posture recognition relies on the structural hierarchy of body parts, not the parts themselves or a complete template match. Configural recognition of body postures based on information about the structural hierarchy of parts defines an important point on the configural processing continuum, between recognition based on first-order spatial relations and recognition based on holistic undifferentiated template matching.

Rezlescu C., Susilo T., Wilmer J. B., & Caramazza A . (2017).

The inversion, part-whole, and composite effects reflect distinct perceptual mechanisms with varied relationships to face recognition.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance,43(12), 1961-1973.

URL     PMID:28406690      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract Face recognition is thought to rely on specific mechanisms underlying a perceptual bias toward processing faces as undecomposable wholes. This face-specific "holistic processing" is commonly quantified using 3 measures: the inversion, part-whole, and composite effects. Consequently, many researchers assume that these 3 effects measure the same cognitive mechanism(s) and these mechanisms contribute to the wide range of individual differences seen in face recognition ability. We test these assumptions in a large sample (N = 282), with individual face recognition abilities measured by the well-validated Cambridge Face Perception Test. Our results provide little support for either assumption. The small to nonexistent correlations among inversion, part-whole, and composite effects (correlations between -.03 and .28) fail to support the first assumption. As for the second assumption, only the inversion effect moderately predicts face recognition (r = .42); face recognition was weakly correlated with the part-whole effect (r = .25) and not correlated with the composite effect (r = .04). We rule out multiple artifactual explanations for our results by using valid tasks that produce standard effects at the group level, demonstrating that our tasks exhibit psychometric properties suitable for individual differences studies, and demonstrating that other predicted correlations (e.g., between face perception measures) are robust. Our results show that inversion, part-whole, and composite effects reflect distinct perceptual mechanisms, and we argue against the use of the single, generic term holistic processing when referring to these effects. Our results also question the contribution of these mechanisms to individual differences in face recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

Righart R., & de Gelder B. (2007).

Impaired face and body perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(43), 17234-17238.

URL     PMID:17942679      [本文引用: 1]

Prosopagnosia is a deficit in face recognition in the presence of relatively normal object recognition. Together with older lesion studies, recent brain-imaging results provide evidence for the closely related representations of faces and objects and, more recently, for brain areas sensitive to faces and bodies. This evidence raises the issue of whether developmental prosopagnosics may also have an impairment in encoding bodies. We investigated the first stages of face, body, and object perception in four developmental prosopagnosics by comparing event-related potentials to canonically and upside-down presented stimuli. Normal configural encoding was absent in three of four developmental prosopagnosics for faces at the P1 and for both faces and bodies at the N170 component. Our results demonstrate that prosopagnosics do not have this normal processing routine readily available for faces or bodies. A profound face recognition deficit characteristic of developmental prosopagnosia may not necessarily originate in a category-specific face recognition deficit in the initial stages of development. It may also have its roots in anomalous processing of the configuration, a visual routine that is important for other stimuli besides faces. Faces and bodies trigger configuration-based visual strategies that are crucial in initial stages of stimulus encoding but also serve to bootstrap the acquisition of more feature-based visual skills that progressively build up in the course of development.

Rivolta D., Lawson R. P., & Palermo R . (2016).

More than just a problem with faces: Altered body perception in a group of congenital prosopagnosics.

The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(2), 276-286.

URL     PMID:27049475      [本文引用: 1]

It has been estimated that one out of forty people in the general population suffer from congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty identifying people by their faces. CP involves impairment in recognising faces, although the perception of non-face stimuli may also be impaired. Given that social interaction does not only depend on face processing, but also the processing of bodies, it is of theoretical importance to ascertain whether CP is also characterised by body perception impairments. Here, we tested eleven CPs and eleven matched control participants on the Body Identity Recognition Task (BIRT), a forced-choice match-to-sample task, using stimuli that require processing of body, not clothing, specific features. Results indicated that the group of CPs was as accurate as controls on the BIRT, which is in line with the lack of body perception complaints by CPs. However the CPs were slower than controls, and when accuracy and response times were combined into inverse efficiency scores (IES), the group of CPs were impaired, suggesting that the CPs could be using more effortful cognitive mechanisms to be as accurate as controls. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate CP may not generally be limited to face processing difficulties, but may also extend to body perception

Robbins R.A., & Coltheart M. (2012).

The effects of inversion and familiarity on face versus body cues to person recognition.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(5), 1098-1104.

URL     PMID:22642217     

Extensive research has focused on face recognition, and much is known about this topic. However, much of this work seems to be based on an assumption that faces are the most important aspect of person recognition. Here we test this assumption in two experiments. We show that when viewers are forced to choose, they do use the face more than the body, both for familiar (trained) person recognition and for unfamiliar person matching. However, we also show that headless bodies are recognized and matched with very high accuracy. We further show that processing style may be similar for faces and bodies, with inversion effects found in all cases (bodies with heads, faces alone and bodies alone), and evidence that mismatching bodies and heads causes interference. We suggest that recent findings of no inversion effect when stimuli are headless bodies may have been obtained because the stimuli led viewers to focus on nonbody aspects (e.g., clothes) or because pose and identity tasks led to somewhat different processing. Our results are consistent with holistic processing for bodies as well as faces.

Rossion B., & Jacques C. (2008).

Does physical interstimulus variance account for early electrophysiological face sensitive responses in the human brain? Ten lessons on the N170.

NeuroImage, 39(4), 1959-1979.

URL     PMID:18055223      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

A recent event-related potential (ERP) study (Thierry G., Martin, C.D., Downing, P., Pegna, A.J. 2007. Controlling for interstimulus perceptual variance abolishes N170 face selectivity. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 505–11) claimed that the larger occipito-temporal N170 response to pictures of faces than other categories – the N170 effect – is due to a methodological artifact in stimulus selection, specifically, a greater interstimulus physical variance between pictures of objects than faces in previous ERP studies which, when controlled, eliminates this N170 effect. This statement casts doubts on the validity of the conclusions reached by a whole tradition of electrophysiological experiments published over the past 15 years and questions the very interest of using the N170 to probe the time course of face processes in the human brain. Here we claim that this physical variance factor is ill-defined by Thierry et al. and cannot account for previous observations of a smaller N170 amplitude to nonface objects than faces without latency increase and component “smearing”. Most importantly, this factor was controlled in previous studies that reported robust N170 effects. We demonstrate that the absence of N170 effect in the study of Thierry et al. is due to methodological flaws in the reported experiments, most notably measuring the N170 at the wrong electrode sites. Moreover, the authors attributed a modulation of N170 amplitude in their study to a differential interstimulus physical variance while it probably reflects a biased comparison of different quality sets of individual images. Here, by taking Thierry et al.’s study as an exemplar case of what should be done in ERP research of visual categorization processes, we provide clarifications on a number of methodological and theoretical issues about the N170 and its largest amplitude to faces. More generally, we discuss the potential role of differential visual homogeneity of object categories as well as low-level visual properties versus high-level visual processes in accounting for early face-preferential responses and the question of the speed at which visual stimuli are categorized as faces. This survey of the literature points to the N170 as a critical event in the time course of face processes in the human brain.

Shao H. Y., Weng X. C., & He S . (2017).

Functional organization of the face-sensitive areas in human occipital-temporal cortex.

NeuroImage, 157, 129-143.

URL     PMID:28572061      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Human occipital-temporal cortex features several areas sensitive to faces, presumably forming the biological substrate for face perception. To date, there are piecemeal insights regarding the functional organization of these regions. They have come, however, from studies that are far from homogeneous with regard to the regions involved, the experimental design, and the data analysis approach. In order to provide an overall view of the functional organization of the face-sensitive areas, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study that taps into the pivotal functional properties of all the face-sensitive areas, within the context of the same experimental design, and uses multiple data analysis approaches. In this study, we identified the most robustly activated face-sensitive areas in bilateral occipital-temporal cortices (i.e., AFP, aFFA, pFFA, OFA, pcSTS, pSTS) and systemically compared their regionally averaged activation and multivoxel activation patterns to 96 images from 16 object categories, including faces and non-faces. This condition-rich and single-image analysis approach critically samples the functional properties of a brain region, allowing us to test how two basic functional properties, namely face-category selectivity and face-exemplar sensitivity are distributed among these regions. Moreover, by examining the correlational structure of neural responses to the 96 images, we characterize their interactions in the greater face-processing network. We found that (1) r-pFFA showed the highest face-category selectivity, followed by l-pFFA, bilateral aFFA and OFA, and then bilateral pcSTS. In contrast, bilateral AFP and pSTS showed low face-category selectivity; (2) l-aFFA, l-pcSTS and bilateral AFP showed evidence of face-exemplar sensitivity; (3) r-OFA showed high overall response similarities with bilateral LOC and r-pFFA, suggesting it might be a transitional stage between general and face-selective information processing; (4) r-aFFA showed high face-selective response similarity with r-pFFA and r-OFA, indicating it was specifically involved in processing face information. Results also reveal two properties of these face sensitive regions across the two hemispheres: (1) the averaged left intra-hemispheric response similarity for the images was lower than the averaged right intra-hemispheric and the inter-hemispheric response similarity, implying convergence of face processing towards the right hemisphere, and (2) the response similarities between homologous regions in the two hemispheres decreased as information processing proceeded from the early, more posterior, processing stage (OFA), indicating an increasing degree of hemispheric specialization and right hemisphere bias for face information processing. This study contributes to an emerging picture of how faces are processed within the occipital and temporal cortex.

Soria Bauser, D., & Suchan B. (2013).

Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of intact and scrambled body perception.

Clinical Neurophysiology, 124(4), 686-696.

URL     PMID:23375380      Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Objective: Intact faces and bodies elicit two prominent electrophysiological components (P100 and N170). The N170 is thought to be related to the structural encoding and configural processing of faces and bodies. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether intact faces and bodies as well as scrambled faces and bodies elicit the same component. This would imply that similar as faces, bodies are encoded as a whole.Methods: We used a matching to sample task and two manipulations validated as an assessment of configural processing in previous studies: the inversion effect and intact versus scrambled stimulus presentation.Results: For both categories, performance was better for intact compared to scrambled stimuli. Additionally, stimulus distortion seems to abolish the body but not the face inversion effect. On the electrophysiological level, we found enhanced N170 amplitudes for intact faces and bodies compared to scrambled stimuli. The opposite pattern engaged in the time-window of the P100. Furthermore, for the N170 we observed an inversion effect for intact but not scrambled bodies.Conclusions: First-order relational information are important for the perception of bodies and might be processed in the N170 time-window. Disrupting this information interacts with the inversion effect.Significance: The current data suggest that faces and bodies might be processed by distinct mechanisms as the experimental manipulation affected faces in a different way than bodies. (C) 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Soria B.D., & Suchan B. (2015).

Is the whole the sum of its parts? Configural processing of headless bodies in the right fusiform gyrus.

Behavioural Brain Research, 281, 102-110.

URL     PMID:25510195      [本文引用: 1]

The current study aimed to explore the functional magnetic resonance (fMR)-adaption effect by presenting intact and scrambled headless bodies and faces. This fMR-adaption paradigm allows investigating processing specificity in distinct brain areas by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal related to the presentation of same or different pairs of bodies. There is clear evidence that we prefer whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. This effect refers to a subtype of configural processing termed first-order relational information. The preference for whole bodies seems to be associated with activation pattern in body-sensitive brain regions. However, it remains unclear until now, which cortical area exactly mediates this preference. In the present study, we investigated whether there are neuronal populations that show a selective adaption to whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. The right fusiform body area (FBA) showed a preference for whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts as the right and left fusiform face area showed a preference for whole faces compared to the sum of their parts. Thus, the present data support the idea that configural body and face processing is mediated by the fusiform gyrus. The current data further support the view that bodies are a special stimulus class with specific characteristics which are processed in body-sensitive brain areas.

Stein T., Sterzer P., & Peelen M. V . (2012).

Privileged detection of conspecifics: Evidence from inversion effects during continuous flash suppression.

Cognition, 125(1), 64-79.

URL     PMID:22776239      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

The rapid visual detection of other people in our environment is an important first step in social cognition. Here we provide evidence for selective sensitivity of the human visual system to upright depictions of conspecifics. In a series of seven experiments, we assessed the impact of stimulus inversion on the detection of person silhouettes, headless bodies, faces and other objects from a wide range of animate and inanimate control categories. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of binocular rivalry, to render stimuli invisible at the beginning of each trial and measured the time upright and inverted stimuli needed to overcome such interocular suppression. Inversion strongly interfered with access to awareness for human faces, headless human bodies, person silhouettes, and even highly variable body postures, while suppression durations for control objects were not (inanimate objects) or only mildly (animal faces and bodies) affected by inversion. Furthermore, inversion effects were eliminated when the normal body configuration was distorted. The absence of strong inversion effects in a binocular control condition not involving interocular suppression suggests that non-conscious mechanisms mediated the effect of inversion on body and face detection during CFS. These results indicate that perceptual mechanisms that govern access to visual awareness are highly sensitive to the presence of conspecifics.

Stekelenburg J.J., & de Gelder B. (2004).

The neural correlates of perceiving human bodies: An ERP study on the body-inversion effect.

Neuroreport, 15(5), 777-780.

URL     PMID:15073513      [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigated the neural correlates of perceiving human bodies. Focussing on the N170 as an index of structural encoding, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to images of bodies and faces (either neutral or expressing fear) and objects, while subjects viewed the stimuli presented either upright or inverted. The N170 was enhanced and delayed to inverted bodies and faces, but not to objects. The emotional content of faces affected the left N170, the occipito-parietal P2, and the fronto-central N2, whereas body expressions affected the frontal vertex positive potential (VPP) and a sustained fronto-central negativity (300-500 ms). Our results indicate that, like faces, bodies are processed configurally, and that within each category qualitative differences are observed for emotional as opposed to neutral images.

Susilo T., Yovel G., Barton J. J. S., & Duchaine B . (2013).

Face perception is category-specific: Evidence from normal body perception in acquired prosopagnosia.

Cognition, 129(1), 88-94.

URL     PMID:23856076      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Does the human visual system contain perceptual mechanisms specialized for particular object categories such as faces? This question lies at the heart of a long-running debate in face perception. The face-specific hypothesis posits that face perception relies on mechanisms dedicated to faces, while the expertise hypothesis proposes that faces are processed by more generic mechanisms that operate on objects we have extended experience with. Previous studies that have addressed this question using acquired prosopagnosia are inconclusive because the non-face categories tested (e.g., cars) were not well-matched to faces in terms of visual exposure and perceptual experience. Here we compare perception of faces and bodies in four acquired prosopagnosics. Critically, we used face and body tasks that generate comparable inversion effects in controls, which indicates that our tasks engage orientation-specific perceptual mechanisms for faces and bodies to a similar extent. Three prosopagnosics were able to discriminate bodies normally despite their impairment in face perception. Moreover, they exhibited normal inversion effects for bodies, suggesting their body perception was carried out by the same mechanisms used by controls. Our findings indicate that the human visual system contains processes specialized for faces. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tanaka J.W., &Farah M.J . (1993).

Parts and wholes in face recognition.

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 46(2), 225-245.

URL     PMID:8316637      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Are faces recognized using more holistic representations than other types of stimuli? Taking holistic representation to mean representation without an internal part structure, we interpret the available evidence on this issue and then design new empirical tests. Based on previous research, we reasoned that if a portion of an object corresponds to an explicitly represented part in a hierarchical visual representation, then when that portion is presented in isolation it will be identified relatively more easily than if it did not have the status of an explicitly represented part. The hypothesis that face recognition is holistic therefore predicts that a part of a face will be disproportionately more easily recognized in the whole face than as an isolated part, relative to recognition of the parts and wholes of other kinds of stimuli. This prediction was borne out in three experiments: subjects were more accurate at identifying the parts of faces, presented in the whole object, than they were at identifying the same part presented in isolation, even though both parts and wholes were tested in a forced-choice format and the whole faces differed only by one part. In contrast, three other types of stimuli--scrambled faces, inverted faces, and houses--did not show this advantage for part identification in whole object recognition.

Tao W.D., &Sun H.J . (2013).

Configural processing in body posture recognition: An eye-tracking study.

Neuroreport, 24(16), 903-910.

URL     PMID:24071707      Magsci    

The body inversion effect is the finding that inverted body posture pictures are more difficult to recognize than upright body posture pictures are. The present study reinvestigated the body inversion effect in human observers using behavioral and eye movement measures to explore whether the body inversion effect correlates with specific eye movement features. Results showed that body postures elicited a robust and stable body inversion effect in reaction time throughout the experimental sessions. Eye-tracking data showed that the body inversion effect was robust only in the first fixation duration, but not in the second fixation duration. The analysis of the regions of interest showed that most fixations were located in the upper body for both the upright and the inverted body postures. Compared with inverted body postures, the upright postures led to a shorter reaction time and a shorter first fixation duration, but a larger portion of time to fixate on the head region, suggesting that participants tended to use head as a reference point to process upright body postures. For both the behavioral and the eye movement measures, the body inversion effect was robust for biomechanically possible body postures. However, for biomechanically impossible body postures (with angular manipulation of two joints), the effect was mixed. Although the error rate failed to show the body inversion effect, the reaction time measure and most eye movement measures, however, showed a body inversion effect. Overall, these results suggested that upright body postures are processed in expertise recognition and are processed configurally by human observers.

Tao W. D., Zeng W. X., & Sun H. J . (2014).

Behavioral and electrophysiological measures of the body inversion effect: The contribution of the limb configurations.

Neuroreport, 25(14), 1099-1108.

URL     PMID:25076068      Magsci     [本文引用: 8]

Abstract Previous behavioral and electrophysiological studies examining the body inversion effect, where inversion of a body stimulus reduces its recognition, suggested that information regarding human bodies is processed configurally. However, few studies to date have examined how the magnitude of the body inversion effect may be impacted by varying degrees of configural information present in a stimulus of interest. In the current study, upright and inverted body stimuli were presented across three body posture conditions, the whole body, piecemeal body (without head and trunk), and random body posture conditions, while response times, error rates, and event-related potentials were recorded. Behavioral measures and assessment of the N170 component, particularly at occipital-temporal site, revealed a robust difference between upright and inverted postures for both the whole body and piecemeal body posture conditions, which was not observed in the random body posture condition. The behavioral measure showed less errors and faster reaction times for upright compared with inverted orientation; however, the N170 component only showed typical effect of orientation (more negative and more delayed peak in waveform for the inverted compared with upright orientation) in the left hemisphere. The magnitude and direction of these differences were comparable for whole body and piecemeal postures. Overall, these results were consistent with the notion that it is the first-order information of body posture rather than the presence of the head (and trunk) that determines the body inversion effect.

Taylor J. C., Wiggett A. J., & Downing P. E . (2007).

Functional MRI analysis of body and body part representations in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas.

Journal of Neurophysiology, 98(3), 1626-1633.

URL     PMID:17596425      [本文引用: 1]

This study examined the contributions of two previously identified brain regions he extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA)o the visual representation of the human form. Specifically we measured in these two areas the magnitude of fMRI response as a function of the amount of the human figure that is visible in the image, in the range from a single finger to the entire body. A second experiment determined the selectivity of these regions for body and body part stimuli relative to closely matched control images. We found a gradual increase in the selectivity of the EBA as a function of the amount of body shown. In contrast, the FBA shows a steplike function, with no significant selectivity for individual fingers or hands. In a third experiment we demonstrate that the response pattern seen in EBA does not extend to adjacent motion-selective human midtemporal area. We propose an interpretation of these results by analogy to nearby face-selective regions occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA). Specifically, we hypothesize that the EBA analyzes bodies at the level of parts (as has been proposed for faces in the OFA), whereas FBA (by analogy to FFA) may have a role in processing the configuration of body parts into wholes.

Urgesi C., Calvo-Merino B., Haggard P., & Aglioti S. M . (2007).

Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals two cortical pathways for visual body processing.

Journal of Neuroscience, 27(30), 8023-8030.

URL     PMID:17652592     

Visual recognition of human bodies is more difficult for upside down than upright presentations. This body inversion effect implies that body perception relies on configural rather than local processing. Although neuroimaging studies indicate that the visual processing of human bodies engages a large fronto-temporo-parietal network, information about the neural underpinnings of configural body processing is meager. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to study the causal role of premotor, visual, and parietal areas in configural processing of human bodies. Eighteen participants performed a delayed matching-to-sample task with upright or inverted static body postures. Event-related, dual-pulse rTMS was applied 150 ms after the sample stimulus onset, over left ventral premotor cortex (vPMc), right extrastriate body area (EBA), and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and, as a control site, over the right primary visual cortex (V1). Interfering stimulation of vPMc significantly reduced accuracy of matching judgments for upright bodies. In contrast, EBA rTMS significantly reduced accuracy for inverted but not for upright bodies. Furthermore, a significant body inversion effect was observed after interfering stimulation of EBA and V1 but not of vPMc and SPL. These results demonstrate an active contribution of the fronto-parietal mirror network to configural processing of bodies and suggest a novel, embodied aspect of visual perception. In contrast, the local processing of the body, possibly based on the form of individual body parts instead of on the whole body unit, appears to depend on EBA. Therefore, we propose two distinct cortical routes for the visual processing of human bodies.

Urgesi C., Fornasari L., Canalaz F., Perini L., Cremaschi S., Faleschini L., .. Fabbro F . (2014).

Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: Evidence from the body inversion effect.

British Journal of Psychology, 105(4), 486-508.

URL     PMID:24206365      [本文引用: 1]

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style.

Willems S., Vrancken L., Germeys F., & Verfaillie K . (2014).

Holistic processing of human body postures: Evidence from the composite effect.

Frontiers in Psychology, 5(7), 618.

URL     PMID:24999337      [本文引用: 1]

The perception of socially relevant stimuli (e.g., faces and bodies) has received considerable attention in the vision science community. It is now widely accepted that human faces are processed holistically and not only analytically. One observation that has been taken as evidence for holistic face processing is the face composite effect: Two identical top halves of a face tend to be perceived as being different when combined with different bottom halves. This supports the hypothesis that face processing proceeds holistically. Indeed, the interference effect disappears when the two face parts are misaligned (blocking holistic perception). In the present study, we investigated whether there is also a composite effect for the perception of body postures: Are two identical body halves perceived as being in different poses when the irrelevant body halves differ from each other? Both a horizontal (i.e., top-bottom body halves; Experiment 1) and a vertical composite effect (i.e., left-right body halves; Experiment 2) were examined by means of a delayed matching-to-sample task. Results of both experiments indicate the existence of a body posture composite effect. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that body postures, as faces, are processed holistically.

Yin R.K . (1969).

Looking at upside-down faces.

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81(1), 141-145.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Compared memory for faces with memory for other classes of familar and complex objects which, like faces, are also customarily seen only in 1 orientation (mono-oriented). Performance of 4 students was tested when the inspection and test series were presented in the same orientation, either both upright or both inverted, or when the 2 series were presented in opposite orientations. The results show that while all mono-oriented objects tend to be more difficult to remember when upside-down, faces are disproportionately affected. These findings suggest that the difficulty in looking at upside-down faces involves 2 factors: a general factor of familiarity with mono-oriented objects, and a special factor related only to faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Yovel G., & Kanwisher N. (2005).

The neural basis of the behavioral face-inversion effect.

Current Biology, 15(24), 2256-2262.

[本文引用: 2]

Yovel G., Pelc T., & Lubetzky I . (2010).

It's all in your head: Why is the body inversion effect abolished for headless bodies?

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36(3), 759-767.

URL     PMID:20515202      [本文引用: 1]

It has been recently argued that bodies are processed by a specialized processing mechanism. Central evidence was that body inversion reduces recognition abilities (body inversion effect; ) as much as it does for faces, but more than for other objects. Here we showed that the is markedly reduced for headless bodies and examined the reason for this unexpected finding. Two alternative hypotheses were examined. Either the is reduced for any type of incomplete body, or the head plays a special role in discrimination of body posture. Results show that omission of other body parts (leg or arms) did not influence the magnitude of the relative to complete bodies. Analogous manipulations with faces did not influence the magnitude of the face inversion effect. Importantly, similar to effects we found for headless bodies, discrimination abilities for upright bodies and the were markedly reduced for complete bodies that did not differ in head posture. We conclude that intact discrimination of body posture relies heavily on the head position. Our findings also imply that the and the face inversion effect may be generated by different mechanisms.

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