心理科学进展, 2018, 26(6): 966-974 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00966

研究前沿

冲突解决过程中认知控制的注意调节机制 *

李政汉1,2, 杨国春1,2, 南威治3, 李琦1,2, 刘勋,1,2

1 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101

2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049

3 广州大学教育学院心理系脑与认知科学中心, 广州 510006

Attentional regulation mechanisms of cognitive control in conflict resolution

LI Zhenghan1,2, YANG Guochun1,2, NAN Weizhi3, LI Qi1,2, LIU Xun,1,2

1 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China

2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

3 Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience Research Center, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China

通讯作者: 刘勋, E-mail: liux@psych.ac.cn

收稿日期: 2017-07-21   网络出版日期: 2018-06-10

基金资助: * 国家重点研发项目计划.  2016YFC0800901-Z03
中德国际地区合作与交流项目.  NSFC 61621136008 /DFG TRR-169

Received: 2017-07-21   Online: 2018-06-10

摘要

认知控制在冲突解决过程中起到重要的调节作用。相关理论大多结合任务相关刺激的加工增强和任务无关刺激的加工抑制进行解释, 但近年来受到实证研究的挑战。综述了冲突解决中增强和抑制两种调节机制的争论和相应的实证证据, 同时指出认知控制的调节机制可能受到冲突情境和个体自身等因素的影响。未来的研究应更多关注认知控制调节机制的影响因素, 加强认知加工策略和认知训练的探究, 为认知功能受损群体的干预提供依据。

关键词: 认知控制 ; 冲突解决 ; 注意 ; 增强 ; 抑制

Abstract

Cognitive control is essential in conflict processing. Most related theories elucidated the mechanism via integrating both the enhancement of task-relevant stimuli and inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli, which has been challenged by recent studies. We reviewed the major debates on whether enhancement or inhibition might be the mechanism and their empirical evidences, and then argued that conflict resolution mechanisms might not be constant, but depend on conflict situation and individual state. Future studies could pay more attention to reveal the influence factors of cognitive control, exploring cognitive processing strategies and doing cognitive training, which may benefit the intervention treatment of the cognitive function disorders.

Keywords: cognitive control ; conflict resolution ; attention ; enhancement ; inhibition

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本文引用格式

李政汉, 杨国春, 南威治, 李琦, 刘勋. 冲突解决过程中认知控制的注意调节机制 * . 心理科学进展[J], 2018, 26(6): 966-974 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00966

LI Zhenghan, YANG Guochun, NAN Weizhi, LI Qi, LIU Xun. Attentional regulation mechanisms of cognitive control in conflict resolution. Advances in Psychological Science[J], 2018, 26(6): 966-974 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00966

1 引言

人们每天都要面对大量的信息, 但受到注意资源的限制, 我们无法在同一时间加工过多的信息(Wingfield, 2016)。因此, 人们会根据环境的需要, 对注意资源快速地、有策略地进行调整, 把注意集中到任务相关的信息同时忽略无关信息(Egner & Hirsch, 2005)。当不同信息相互冲突时, 认知控制对注意的调控就显得尤为重要。

认知控制(cognitive control)是指在特定的情境中, 个体为了达到具体的目的和意图, 灵活地、自适应地调动注意资源来动态地调整想法和行动的心理过程(Shenhav, Botvinick, & Cohen, 2013; Fan, 2014)。作为一种核心的高级认知功能, 认知控制参与从感知觉、注意、学习和记忆到情绪调节、奖励决策等心理过程的方方面面, 在人类智能中起关键作用(Stout, 2010)。此外, 诸多心理和行为障碍, 如抑郁症、精神分裂症、强迫症和双相障碍等也与认知控制的失调密不可分(Cole, Repovš, & Anticevic, 2014)。

在实验室, 研究者们开发了很多经典的实验范式来研究冲突加工过程中的认知控制机制, 使用最为广泛的当属刺激-反应协同性(stimulus- response compatibility, SRC)任务, 它是认知控制相关理论模型的主要实证依据来源(刘勋, 南威治, 王凯, 李琦, 2013; Botvinick & Braver, 2015)。比如在经典的Stroop范式中, 要求被试对表征颜色意义的词汇的印刷色(任务相关刺激)进行判断, 忽略词义(任务无关刺激), 当词义和印刷色不同的时候(如红颜色印刷的“蓝”字), 就会形成认知冲突, 导致被试的反应变慢, 更易出错(Stroop, 1935)。冲突解决是冲突加工过程中的重要环节, 一般认为冲突解决中, 认知控制调节注意分配的作用机制有两种:一种是对任务相关刺激的加工增强(enhancement), 另一种是对任务无关刺激的加工抑制(inhibition), 而相关理论模型大多将两者有机结合, 认为是两种过程共同作用的结果(Cohen, Dunbar, & McClelland, 1990; Posner & Dehaene, 1994; Verguts & Notebaert, 2008)。但这一观点又引起了很多争议, 近期的研究发现增强和抑制不一定同时发挥作用(Egner & Hirsch, 2005; Wendt, Luna-Rodriguez, & Jacobsen, 2012; Reisenauer & Dreisbach, 2014; Purmann & Pollmann, 2015; Manza et al., 2016; Noonan et al., 2016)。由于这些研究实验范式和结果不尽相同, 得出的结论也不一致, 有必要对这一问题进行系统归纳和梳理。

本文围绕认知控制的作用机制展开讨论, 首先介绍了冲突加工的相关理论, 随后从认知控制是增强相关刺激加工还是抑制无关刺激加工的角度出发, 评述了近年来对冲突解决的相关研究, 接着进一步分析和总结了该领域内存在的一些问题, 最后根据这些亟待解决的问题对未来的研究方向提出了一些展望。

2 冲突加工的相关理论

人们对于认知控制的探索要追溯到半个世纪以前, Miller, Galanter和Pribram (1960)最早将“控制”这一概念引入了心理学; 经过10多年的发展, 有人提出了“认知控制”的说法, 认为在注意系统中有一个独立的子系统来负责执行控制, 它的作用是将注意集中在具体情境中主动选择的方面(Posner & Snyder, 1975)。Posner的观点被广泛用于SRC任务中的冲突解决过程(Fox, Russo, Bowles, & Dutton, 2001; Fenske & Eastwood, 2003), 即主动将更多的注意资源分配给任务相关(task-relevant)的刺激, 减少对任务无关(task-irrelevant)刺激的注意。

2.1 强调任务相关刺激加工增强的模型

基于Posner的观点, Cohen等 (1990)提出了认知控制自上而下的兴奋性偏向(top-down excitatory biasing, TEB)模型, 指出认知控制的功能是通过自上而下的激活偏向实现的, 在任务加工过程中, 前额叶皮层(prefrontal cortex, PFC)通过兴奋性信号激活加工任务相关刺激的神经元, 以调控注意资源的分配。Corbetta, Miezin, Dobmeyer, Shulman和Petersen (1991)的研究也发现, 与处理任务无关刺激的神经元相比, 负责加工任务相关刺激的神经元具有更高的激活水平。而后, 有研究者结合功能磁共振(functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI)数据对TEB模型进行改进, 建立了一个以Stroop任务为例的更符合生物学特性的综合神经网络模型(Herd, Banich, & O'Reilly, 2006)。该模型主要包含4个部分(层级), 最下层是颜色和词汇的信息输入, 而后进入信息处理层, 在处理完毕后信息传递至输出层, 即做出决策与反应, 颜色和词汇在信息处理和输出阶段会发生注意资源的竞争, 而PFC所表征的调控部分则在信息的处理和输出两个阶段调整注意资源以更好地完成任务, 见图1。该模型认为任务相关刺激(颜色)加工和任务无关刺激(词汇)加工在某些阶段是独立的, 但更强调认知控制对任务相关刺激加工的增强调节, 认为对分心刺激加工的抑制这一说法可能只有最一般的行为学意义。

图1

图1   色-词加工的神经网络模型(改自: Herd et al., 2006)

注:g:绿色; r:红色; o:其他颜色; G:字词“绿”; R:字词“红”; O:其他字词; gr:对“绿”反应; rd:对“红”反应; ot:对其他内容反应; cn:颜色命名任务; wr:词汇阅读任务; c:颜色任务单元。


2.2 强调任务无关刺激加工抑制的模型

Houghton和Tipper (1996)则更关注任务无关刺激的加工机制, 强调冲突刺激本身的特征对认知控制的影响, 提出了HT (Houghton & Tipper)选择性注意模型, 认为选择性注意是外部的信息输入(external inputs)和内在的监控系统(supervisory system)相互作用的结果。他们指出在监控系统中存在一个反馈环路, 该环路由抑制连接和兴奋连接两条通路构成, 大脑的监控系统首先会形成关于目标刺激的描述, 当外部信息输入之后, 大脑会将感知到的信息与已经形成的目标特征进行匹配, 如果匹配成功, 输入的信息会进入反馈环路中的兴奋连接通路, 激活监控系统的正性反馈从而获得更高的加工水平; 如果匹配失败则激活负性反馈, 相应信息的加工就会被监控系统发出的信号所抑制, 见图2。任务无关刺激刚输入时相应的激活水平是上升的, 这个阶段主要是刺激驱动发挥作用, 当负性反馈开始后, 无关刺激的激活水平便开始下降, 直到低于基线值, 并开始出现一定程度的抑制反弹, 研究者指出在任务无关刺激激活水平的下降阶段会出现一个平缓期, 认为这个平缓期是大脑对于抑制信号适应的表现。该模型试图阐释了任务无关刺激在冲突解决过程中的加工机制, 在很大程度上促进了抑制控制的发展, 近年来的一些研究, 如Frings和Wühr (2014)关于空间选择性注意机制的探究和Martiny- Huenger, Gollwitzer和Oettingen (2014)基于Flanker任务开展的分心刺激贬值效应(distractor devaluation effect)的研究, 都在很大程度上受到Tipper等思想的影响。

图2

图2   HT选择性注意模型

(改自: Houghton & Tipper, 1996)


2.3 强调任务相关/无关刺激加工协同作用的模型

Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter和Cohen (2001)为了解释错误或冲突试次后行为表现提升的现象, 提出了冲突测监理论。该理论认为, 在冲突加工的过程中, 有一个冲突监测(conflict monitoring, CM)模块, 专门负责冲突情境的监测, 然后将相关信息传递给执行控制(executive control, EC)模块, 由执行控制模块负责解决冲突情境。当前一试次为冲突条件时, CM模块发出的冲突信号会使EC模块提高认知控制的水平, 将注意资源更多地分配给相关刺激, 来帮助解决当前试次的冲突。而后, 有研究者引入了赫布学习(Hebbian Learning), 将认知控制看作根据冲突情境实时调整的赫布学习规则, 提出了更具一般性的学习模型(Verguts & Notebaert, 2008; 刘培朵, 杨文静, 田夏, 陈安涛, 2012)。在这个模型中, 需要增强加工的刺激(即任务相关刺激)连接着负责任务激活的神经单元, 需要被抑制的刺激(即任务无关刺激)与抑制神经单元相连, 前扣带皮层(anterior cingulate cortex, ACC)探测到冲突时会发出信号, 认知控制系统就会根据ACC提供的冲突监测信号对输入层的神经元发出指令, 结合任务需求单元提供的任务信息, 建立起刺激和神经元之间的任务激活联结和任务抑制联结, 进而增强任务相关刺激的加工并抑制任务无关刺激的加工, 见图3。该模型强调任务相关/无关刺激加工的协同作用, 更好地解释了认知控制系统如何确定调控和干预的对象(即任务相关/无关刺激)这一问题, 而且可以根据刺激信息实时调整, 更加灵活。

图3

图3   学习模型 (改自: Verguts & Notebaert, 2008)

注:T1:第一个任务; T2:第二个任务; T1r:第一个任务中的任务相关刺激特征; T1i:第一个任务中的任务无关刺激特征; T2r:第二个任务中的任务相关刺激特征; T2i:第二个任务中的任务无关刺激特征; R1-R4:不同的应答单元; ACC:前扣带皮层


这些理论很大程度上解释了认知控制在冲突解决过程中的作用机制, 但大都基于任务相关刺激增强和任务无关刺激抑制同时存在且协同发挥作用的假设, 而这个假设却受到了当前实证研究的挑战。

3 增强或抑制的争议

围绕认知控制在冲突解决过程中的作用机制这一问题, 研究者们开展了大量实验来探究任务相关刺激增强和任务无关刺激抑制扮演的角色, 但对于两者是单独发挥作用还是协同作用, 尚未形成统一的结论。

3.1 支持任务相关刺激加工增强的证据

有研究者将空间-数字反应联合编码(SNARC)任务与Simon任务相结合, 设置了两种条件, 即两种任务的目标刺激相同(如都是要求被试判断数字/字母是正体还是斜体)或不同(SNARC任务要求被试判断数字是正体还是斜体, 而Simon任务要求被试判断字母的颜色), 结果发现在任务转换时, 任务相关刺激相同的条件下出现了冲突适应效应, 即前一试次的冲突条件促进了当前试次的冲突解决, 而任务相关刺激不同时则没有发现冲突适应; 由于上述两种条件的任务无关刺激没有差异, 说明任务相关刺激的变化导致了前后试次冲突解决机制的差异, 表明冲突解决更多地依赖于对任务相关刺激的注意增强(Notebaert & Verguts, 2008)。为认知控制通过增强任务相关刺激的加工来促进冲突解决这一观点提供了证据。

脑成像研究也为刺激增强的观点提供了相应的证据。比如, Egner和Hirsch (2005)采用fMRI技术开展了一项研究来讨论认知控制的调节机制, 实验采用了改编的Stroop范式, 实验材料是带有人名的面孔图片, 被试需要分别判断人名或面孔代表的人物的职业, 即判断人名(面孔)的时候忽略面孔(人名); 实验选取对面孔加工敏感的梭状回面孔区(fusiform face area, FFA)作为感兴趣区, 结果发现当面孔作为目标刺激时, 与低控制(前一试次为一致条件而当前试次为冲突条件)条件相比, 被试在需要高水平的认知控制(前一试次和当前试次均为冲突条件)时, FFA的激活水平显著提升; 当面孔作为分心刺激时, 高控制条件下却没有发现FFA激活水平的下降; 进而得出结论, 认为冲突解决过程是认知控制对任务相关刺激加工的增强, 而非对任务无关刺激加工的抑制。研究者指出面孔作为目标刺激条件下FFA激活的增强可能是因为自上而下的注意信号提升了FFA神经活动的基线水平, 以便在接下来的刺激加工中可以争取到更多的注意资源。类似地, Purmann和Pollmann (2015)采用经典色-词Stroop任务, 同样发现了高冲突条件下, 任务相关刺激(颜色)特异性脑区(visual color-selective areas, V4/V4α)的激活增强, 而分心刺激(词汇)的特异性脑区(visual word-selective area, VWFA)激活强度没有显著变化; 还有研究者利用改编的Navon任务也得到了同样的结论(Weissman, Gopalakrishnan, Hazlett, & Woldorff, 2005)。

3.2 支持任务无关刺激加工抑制的证据

Burt (2002)采用启动刺激来研究经典Stroop范式中颜色命名的加工过程。在这个任务中, 先给被试呈现一个黑白的线索词, 并且这个线索词和随后呈现的Stroop颜色词相同, 如在黑白的“红”出现后紧接着呈现绿色的“红”, 要求被试判断后者的印刷色。结果发现被试在Stroop任务中的表现有显著提升。Burt对此的解释为, 由于注意资源有限, 目标刺激和分心刺激会相互竞争, 先出现的分心刺激在后续Stroop加工过程中易化了“词汇”这一分心物的加工, 为目标刺激“颜色”的加工留出了更多的注意资源, 促进了冲突的解决。但有研究者提出了质疑, 认为任务无关刺激提前呈现, 使被试可以提前编码抑制它的加工, 以便在后续的冲突解决中减少它的干扰(Olivers & Humphreys, 2002), 而后, 有人在Burt的研究基础上, 把线索词汇由Stroop的分心刺激换成了目标刺激, 如黑白的“绿”-绿色的“红”, 结果发现被试在Stroop任务中表现变差(Chao, 2011), 根据Burt的解释, 线索词被启动会易化Stroop任务中相同刺激(即目标颜色)的加工, 同样会提升冲突解决的表现, 但结果却相反, 呈现出类似于负启动或返回抑制的效应, 支持了分心刺激抑制的观点。

Houghton和Tipper (1996)同样认为冲突解决是通过认知控制对分心刺激自上而下的抑制作用实现的。他们假设, 在冲突解决过程中对于分心刺激的激活水平随时间呈倒U形曲线, 最初受到自下而上的刺激激活, 对干扰物的加工水平先提升, 在认知控制自上而下的抑制功能发挥作用后便开始下降。Frings, Wentura和Wühr (2012)采用改编的Flanker任务开展了一个行为实验来验证这个假设, 在有些试次中加入线索提示, 要求被试对分心刺激进行反应。他们发现随着提示线索出现时间的延长, 在冲突条件下被试对分心刺激加工的反应时和错误率呈现U形二次函数的倾向, 反映了激活水平的倒U形趋势, 与Houghton等人的模型预测相符。

有研究者将Stroop和Simon范式整合到一个实验任务中, 操纵变量使两个任务的目标刺激相同而分心刺激不同, 结果发现, 当任务无关刺激发生改变时, 没有冲突适应效应, 即没有发现前一试次调动的认知控制对当前试次冲突解决的易化作用, 说明冲突解决敏感于任务无关刺激的变化(Li, Nan, Wang, & Liu, 2014)。这个发现排除了认知控制通过增强目标刺激的加工来易化冲突解决的可能, 支持了任务无关刺激的加工抑制这一解释。

3.3 支持增强和抑制共同起作用的证据

除了以上这些实证证据外, 还有一些研究认为认知控制在增强任务相关刺激加工的同时也在抑制无关信息的加工, 从而使得冲突解决的效率最大化。比如一项行为学研究采用色-词Stroop范式对被试进行训练, 并通过前后测考察被试对颜色判断或者词汇报告成绩的变化, 结果发现训练既可以提升颜色命名任务的表现也可以降低词汇加工的表现(Zhang, Ding, Li, Zhang, & Chen, 2013), 研究者推测, 负责颜色和词汇加工的神经通路在信息处理过程中的某些时刻是分离的, 为增强和抑制过程的并行发生提供了可能。此外, 负启动(negative priming, NP)的相关研究也为此提供了证据。如Schrobsdorff等(2012)基于Stroop任务改编了传统的负启动范式, 结果发现, 与对照组(前后试次的刺激完全无关)相比, 当前一试次的分心刺激变成当前试次的目标刺激或前一试次的目标刺激变成当前试次的分心刺激时, 被试的反应时显著变慢。产生这一现象的原因可能是前一试次冲突解决过程中对分心刺激的加工抑制持续到了当前试次, 干扰了当前试次的任务加工。但也有人认为负启动效应是记忆提取造成的(Möller, Mayr, & Buchner, 2013), 仍需要进一步探究。

Polk, Drake, Jonides, Smith和Smith (2008)采用经典的色-词Stroop任务, 将颜色加工(双侧舌状回、梭状回后部)和词汇加工(左侧梭状回)的特异性脑区作为感兴趣区, 发现在高冲突条件下被试的颜色特异性脑区激活增强而词汇加工脑区的激活水平减弱。Polk等人对这一结果的解释是, 当刺激特征属于同一维度时, 对其中一个特征的注意增加也会增强对另一刺激特征的加工, 当刺激特征属于分离的两个维度时, 对一个特征的注意增加则会抑制另一特征的加工, 而Stroop任务中的颜色(目标刺激)和词汇(分心刺激)分属两个不同的维度, 因此在对颜色加工增强的同时会抑制词汇加工。

但除此之外, 人们还发现了一些很难解释的结果。如在一项色-词Stroop实验中既没有发现颜色(目标刺激)特异性加工脑区的激活增强, 也没有发现词汇(分心刺激)加工区域的抑制(Pardo, Pardo, Janer, & Raichle, 1990); 另外一项研究没有发现目标刺激的加工增强, 却发现了分心刺激的加工脑区激活增强(Banich et al., 2001)。这些结果掺杂在相关刺激增强/无关刺激抑制的争论中, 使得这个问题更难以定论。

4 小结与展望

围绕认知控制在冲突解决中的注意调节机制这一问题, 研究者们展开深入探讨, 取得了大量成果, 但在一些问题上还存在争论。通过归纳总结, 我们发现这些争论反映了相关研究存在的一些问题。首先, 概念的界定不明确, “分心物抑制”是一个复杂且颇有争议的概念, 很多研究用到“抑制”这一术语时的指代都不同(Gorfein & MacLeod, 2007), 比如是行为表现还是神经水平的抑制(Frings & Wühr, 2014)。其次, 实验范式的差异可能会引入不同的混淆变量, 如Frings等(2012)采用Flanker范式得出结论, 认为认知控制可以通过任务无关刺激的加工抑制来易化冲突解决, 但由于Flanker范式的任务相关刺激和任务无关刺激在空间位置上是分离的, 实验结果也可以用“聚焦镜头(zoom-lens)模型”来解释(Frings & Wühr, 2014), 而经典的Stroop任务中任务相关/无关刺激是一个客体的不同属性可以排除空间位置的干扰。最后, 很多相关研究掺杂了工作记忆和个体差异等因素, 有些实验还会加入线索、训练或是操纵试次的条件比例、刺激类型等。比如有研究发现高强度的工作记忆负载会增强分心刺激的干扰效应(Kalanthroff, Avnit, Henik, Davelaar, & Usher, 2015), 但工作记忆负载在有些条件下却也可以促进冲突任务的解决(Clouter, Wilson, Allen, Klein, & Eskes, 2015; Minamoto, Shipstead, Osaka, & Engle, 2015)。而被试的个体差异, 如情绪(Chun, Park, Kim, Kim, & Kim, 2017)、动机强度(Botvinick & Braver, 2015)、加工策略(Soutschek, Stelzel, Paschke, Walter, & Schubert, 2015)等也都影响冲突解决的过程。

由此可见, 认知控制的调节机制似乎不是一成不变的, 如Soutschek等(2015)发现动机可以增强被试对任务相关刺激的加工来提高冲突解决的效率, 而对任务难度的预期则主要影响分心刺激的加工过程来促进冲突解决; Noonan等(2016)发现分心刺激的加工抑制只有在区组设计时才出现, 而目标刺激增强则一直存在。基于此, 我们提出这样一个假设:在冲突解决过程中对任务相关刺激的加工增强与分心刺激的加工抑制并不是非此即彼的关系, 而是作为两种不同的加工策略灵活地参与冲突的解决, 具体采用哪种调节策略受到任务本身(如冲突类型、任务难度、不同条件的比例、工作记忆负载等)和个体情况(如情绪、动机、加工策略、预期)的影响。因此, 我们认为, 对认知控制的研究不应该再集中于目标刺激的加工增强和无关刺激的加工抑制的是非之争, 而应该去探寻认知控制调节策略的生理心理加工机制及其影响因素和应用价值。

未来的研究应更加关注刺激加工增强/抑制的神经机制, 可以从高级控制皮层和初级感觉皮层之间关系的着手, 探究两者之间的相互作用。神经元之间通过突触互相连接, 通过抑制性和兴奋性的神经递质来传导信号, 而高级神经元对初级神经元的调控则通过长轴突来发挥作用(Harris & Mrsic-Flogel, 2013), 这种远距离调控从宏观水平被称为功能连接。最近的研究发现, 额顶控制网络能够通过改变功能连接强度灵活调控感觉、运动等其他网络(Cole et al., 2013; Cole, Ito, Bassett, & Schultz, 2016)。另有研究发现, 前眼区(frontal eye field, FEF)和下额叶联合区(inferior frontal junction, IFJ)分别在空间和非空间注意中起着增强对靶刺激的注意的功能(Gregoriou, Gotts, Zhou, & Desimone, 2009; Baldauf & Desimone, 2014)。这些研究为我们理解冲突解决的机制提供了神经层面的视角, 今后的研究可以通过考察额顶控制网络对冲突任务中相关/无关刺激的功能连接水平来解释其加工机制。

认知控制调节机制的相关研究除了具有重要的理论意义外, 还可以为认知损伤患者的干预提供参考。已有大量研究表明抑郁症、多动症和强迫症(Cole et al., 2014)及成瘾(McClure & Bickel, 2014; Luna, Marek, Larsen, Tervo-Clemmens, & Chahal, 2015)等心理和行为障碍都与认知控制功能的失调密不可分, 还有前额叶损伤的病人也缺乏足够的抑制功能。近年来, 认知控制的训练研究取得了一些成效, 比如一项针对多动症儿童的注意力集中训练, 显著提升了被试对任务相关刺激的加工水平(Navalyal & Gavas, 2014), 对老年人(Gajewski & Falkenstein, 2012; Mishra, de Villers- Sidani, Merzenich, & Gazzaley, 2014)及焦虑症患者(Owens, Koster, & Derakshan, 2013)进行的分心刺激的抑制训练(Gajewski & Falkenstein, 2012; Mishra et al., 2014)也取得了显著效果(Owens et al., 2013); 此外, 近期的元分析研究也表明, 对抑郁症患者进行认知控制训练(cognitive control training, CCT)可以改善抑郁症状(Koster, Hoorelbeke, Onraedt, Owens, & Derakshan, 2017), 提升被试的工作记忆能力和日常认知功能(Motter et al., 2016)。因此, 探明认知控制作用机制的影响因素, 并找到高效的认知控制策略, 无疑也有着重大的临床价值。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28( 5), 1019-1038.

URL     PMID:12421053      [本文引用: 1]

In the non-color-word Stroop task, university students' response latencies were longer for low-frequency than for higher frequency target words. Visual identity primes facilitated color naming in groups reading the prime silently or processing it semantically (Experiment 1) but did not when participants generated a rhyme of the prime (Experiment 3). With auditory identity primes, generating an associate or a rhyme of the prime produced interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Color-naming latencies were longer for nonwords than for words (Experiment 4). There was a small long-term repetition benefit in color naming for low-frequency words that had been presented in the lexical decision task (Experiment 5). Facilitation of word recognition speeds color naming except when phonological activation of the base word increases response competition.

Chao, H. F . ( 2011).

Active inhibition of a distractor word: The distractor precue benefit in the Stroop color-naming task

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37( 3), 799-812.

URL     PMID:21480743      [本文引用: 1]

The current study investigated attentional control through active inhibition of the identity of the distractor. Adapting a Stroop paradigm, the distractor word was presented in advance and made to disappear, followed by the presentation of a Stroop stimulus. Participants were instructed to inhibit the distractor in order to reduce its interference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that the distractor precue facilitated Stroop color naming by reducing Stroop interference. Experiment 3 demonstrated beneficial effects of the distractor precue when congruent trials were introduced. Experiment 4 showed that the distractor precue benefit was observed when the cue and target were in different forms. Experiment 5 indicated that if the item used as the cue became the target, naming it took longer in order to overcome the inhibitory effect. Experiment 6 demonstrated that the benefit of the distractor precue was not observed when the cue was uninformative. Finally, Experiment 7 demonstrated that active inhibition required working-resources to operate. This study suggests that the best explanation for the distractor precue benefit is the active inhibition account.

Chechko N., Kellermann T., Schneider F., & Habel U . ( 2014).

Conflict adaptation in emotional task underlies the amplification of target

Emotion, 14( 2), 321-330.

URL     PMID:24377682     

A primary function of cognitive control is to adjust the cognitive system according to situational demands. The so-called "conflict adaptation effect" elicited in laboratory experiments is supposed to reflect the above function. Neuroimaging studies suggest that adaptation of nonemotional conflict is mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex through a top-down enhancement of task-relevant (target), relative to task-irrelevant (distractor), stimulus representation in the sensory cortices. The adaptation of emotional conflict, on the other hand, is suggested to be related to the rostral anterior cingulate inhibiting the processing of emotional distractors through a top-down modulation of amygdala responsivity. In the present study, we manipulated, on a trial-by-trial basis, the levels of semantic interference conflict triggered by the incompatibility between emotional faces (targets) and emotional words (distractors) in a modified version of the emotional Stroop task. Similar to previous observations involving nonemotional interference effects, the behavioral adaptation of emotional conflict was found to be paralleled by a stronger recruitment of the fusiform face area. Additional areas related to the conflict adaptation effect were the bilateral insula, the bilateral frontal operculum (fO), the right amygdala, the left precentral and postcentral gyri, and the parietal cortex. These findings suggest that augmentation of cortical responses to task-relevant information in emotional conflict may be related to conflict adaptation processes in a way that has been observed in nonemotional conflict, challenging the view that brain circuitries underlying the conflict adaptation effect depend only on the nature of conflict.

Chun J. W., Park H. J., Kim D. J., Kim E., & Kim J. J . ( 2017).

Contribution of fronto-striatal regions to emotional valence and repetition under cognitive conflict

Brain Research, 1666, 48-57.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Conflict processing mediated by fronto-striatal regions may be influenced by emotional properties of stimuli. This study aimed to examine the effects of emotion repetition on cognitive control in a conflict-provoking situation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a sequential cognitive conflict task composed of emotional stimuli. The regional effects were analyzed according to the repetition or non-repetition of cognitive congruency and emotional valence between the preceding and current trials. Post-incongruence interference in error rate and reaction time was significantly smaller than post-congruence interference, particularly under repeated positive and non-repeated positive, respectively, and post-incongruence interference, compared to post-congruence interference, increased activity in the ACC, DLPFC, and striatum. ACC and DLPFC activities were significantly correlated with error rate or reaction time in some conditions, and fronto-striatal connections were related to the conflict processing heightened by negative emotion. These findings suggest that the repetition of emotional stimuli adaptively regulates cognitive control and the fronto-striatal circuit may engage in the conflict adaptation process induced by emotion repetition. Both repetition enhancement and repetition suppression of prefrontal activity may underlie the relationship between emotion and conflict adaptation.

Clouter A., Wilson R., Allen S., Klein R. M., & Eskes G. A . ( 2015).

The influence of verbal and spatial working memory load on the time course of the Simon effect

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41( 2), 342-355.

URL     PMID:25621577      [本文引用: 1]

The Simon effect refers to the relatively poorer response times and accuracy when responding to targets that appear in a task-irrelevant spatial location that is incongruent with the location of the correct response key, compared with targets that appear in spatially congruent locations. Like Stroop and flanker effects, the Simon effect is thought to result from conflict between an irrelevant response tendency and an intended response. Because attentional control has been linked to conflict resolution, the Simon task has been proffered as a possible tool for measuring the efficacy of executive control mechanisms. These mechanisms are also involved in working (WM) processes, and are thought to be responsible for maintaining information in the presence of continued processing or distraction. The present study investigated the interface between WM and attention by examining the time course of the Simon effect over the response time distributions under varying WM load conditions. Participants completed verbal 0-back, spatial 0-back, verbal 2-back, and spatial 2-back tasks. Results show that the Simon effect is diminished in high WM load tasks compared with low-load tasks, and that the Simon effect interacts with the spatial task domain such that the effect persists across the distribution of response times. In contrast, the Simon effect peaks and decays in verbal tasks. The results demonstrate that the Simon effect interacts with WM load and task domain. The results suggest that the effect is more modifiable than expected, and support a complex interface between WM and attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

Cohen J. D., Dunbar K., & McClelland J. L . ( 1990).

On the control of automatic processes - a parallel distributed- processing account of the Stroop effect

Psychological Review, 97( 3), 332-361.

URL     PMID:2200075      [本文引用: 2]

Traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity often has been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. A model of attention is presented to address these issues. Within a parallel distributed processing framework, it is proposed that the attributes of automaticity depend on the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. With the Stroop effect as an example, automatic processes are shown to be continuous and to emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, a computational model of the Stroop task simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the backpropagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, & Williams, 1986). The model can simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task that manipulate stimulus-onset asynchrony, response set, and degree of practice. The model presented is contrasted against other models, and its relation to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference is discussed.

Cole M. W., Ito T., Bassett D. S., & Schultz D. H . ( 2016).

Activity flow over resting-state networks shapes cognitive task activations

Nature Neuroscience, 19( 12), 1718-1726.

URL     PMID:27723746      [本文引用: 1]

Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allowed prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model. Applying this insight to empirical functional MRI data, we found that cognitive task activations can be predicted in held-out brain regions (and held-out individuals) via estimated activity flow over resting-state FC networks. This suggests that task-evoked activity flow over intrinsic networks is a large-scale mechanism explaining the relevance of resting-state FC to cognitive task activations.

Cole M. W., Repovš G., & Anticevic A . ( 2014).

The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

Neuroscientist, 20( 6), 652-664.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Cole M. W., Reynolds J. R., Power J. D., Repovs G., Anticevic A., & Braver T. S . ( 2013).

Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for adaptive task control

Nature Neuroscience, 16( 9), 1348-1355.

URL     PMID:3758404      [本文引用: 1]

Extensive evidence suggests that the human ability to adaptively implement a wide variety of tasks is preferentially a result of the operation of a fronto-parietal brain network (FPN). We hypothesized that this network's adaptability is made possible by flexible hubs: brain regions that rapidly update their pattern of global functional connectivity according to task demands. Using recent advances in characterizing brain network organization and dynamics, we identified mechanisms consistent with the flexible hub theory. We found that the FPN's brain-wide functional connectivity pattern shifted more than those of other networks across a variety of task states and that these connectivity patterns could be used to identify the current task. Furthermore, these patterns were consistent across practiced and novel tasks, suggesting that reuse of flexible hub connectivity patterns facilitates adaptive (novel) task performance. Together, these findings support a central role for fronto-parietal flexible hubs in cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands.

Corbetta M., Miezin F. M., Dobmeyer S., Shulman G. L., & Petersen S. E . ( 1991).

Selective and divided attention during visual discriminations of shape, color, and speed: Functional anatomy by positron emission tomography

Journal of Neuroscience, 11( 8), 2383-2402.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Egner, T., & Hirsch, J. (2005).

Cognitive control mechanisms resolve conflict through cortical amplification of task-relevant information

Nature Neuroscience, 8( 12), 1784-1790.

URL     PMID:16286928      [本文引用: 3]

A prominent model of how the brain regulates attention proposes that the anterior cingulate cortex monitors the occurrence of conflict between incompatible response tendencies and signals this information to a cognitive control system in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cognitive control is thought to resolve conflict through the attentional biasing of perceptual processing, emphasizing task-relevant stimulus information. It is not known, however, whether conflict resolution is mediated by amplifying neural representations of task-relevant information, inhibiting representations of task-irrelevant information, or both. Here we manipulated trial-by-trial levels of conflict and control during a Stroop task using face stimuli, while recording hemodynamic responses from human visual cortex specialized for face processing. We show that, in response to high conflict, cognitive control mechanisms enhance performance by transiently amplifying cortical responses to task-relevant information rather than by inhibiting responses to task-irrelevant information. These results implicate attentional target-feature amplification as the primary mechanism for conflict resolution through cognitive control.

Fan, J. (2014).

An information theory account of cognitive control

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 680.

URL     PMID:4151034      [本文引用: 1]

Our ability to efficiently process information and generate appropriate responses depends on the processes collectively called cognitive control. Despite a considerable focus in the literature on the cognitive control of information processing, neural mechanisms underlying control are still unclear, and have not been characterized by considering the quantity of information to be processed. A novel and comprehensive account of cognitive control is proposed using concepts from information theory, which is concerned with communication system analysis and the quantification of information. This account treats the brain as an information-processing entity where cognitive control and its underlying brain networks play a pivotal role in dealing with conditions of uncertainty. This hypothesis and theory article justifies the validity and properties of such an account and relates experimental findings to the frontoparietal network under the framework of information theory.

Fenske, M. J., & Eastwood, J. D . ( 2003).

Modulation of focused attention by faces expressing emotion: Evidence from Flanker tasks

Emotion, 3( 4), 327-343.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Fox E., Russo R., Bowles R., & Dutton K . ( 2001).

Do threatening stimuli draw or hold visual attention in subclinical anxiety?

Journal of Experimental Psychology- General, 130( 4), 681-700.

URL     PMID:11757875      [本文引用: 1]

Biases in information processing undoubtedly play an important role in the maintenance of emotion and emotional disorders. In an attentional cueing paradigm, threat words and angry faces had no advantage over positive or neutral words (or faces) in attracting attention to their own location, even for people who were highly state-anxious. In contrast, the presence of threatening cues (words and faces) had a strong impact on the disengagement of attention. When a threat cue was presented and a target subsequently presented in another location, high state-anxious individuals took longer to detect the target relative to when either a positive or a neutral cue was presented. It is concluded that threat-related stimuli affect attentional dwell time and the disengage component of attention, leaving the question of whether threat stimuli affect the shift component of attention open to debate.

Frings C., Wentura D., & Wühr P . ( 2012).

On the fate of distractor representations

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38( 3), 570-575.

URL     PMID:22428679      [本文引用: 2]

Research on the topic of distractor inhibition has used different empirical approaches to study how the human mind selects relevant information from the environment, and the results are controversially discussed. One key question that typically arises is how selection deals with the irrelevant information. We used a new selection task, in which participants sometimes had to respond to the distractors instead of the target. Importantly, we varied the time interval between stimuli onset and the cue that signaled participants to respond to the distractors. We analyzed RTs and error rates from responses to distractors as a function of how long the target had been processed (and the distractor ignored) before the cue required a response to the distractor (i.e., stimulus-cue SOA). The data are compatible with selection models assuming that distractor stimuli are initially activated and then deactivated. Thus, we argue for selection models assuming top down deactivation of distractor representations that work in parallel with top down activation of target representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Frings, C., & Wühr, P. (2014).

Top-down deactivation of interference from irrelevant spatial or verbal stimulus features

Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 76( 8), 2360-2374.

URL     PMID:24980154      [本文引用: 3]

The selective-attention model of Houghton and Tipper ( 1994 ) assumes top-down deactivation of (conflicting) distractor representations as a mechanism of visual attention. Deactivation should produce an inverted-U-shaped activation function for distractor representations. In a recent study, Frings, Wentura, and W眉hr ( 2012 ) tested this prediction in a variant of the flanker task in which a cue sometimes required participants to respond to the distractors rather than to the target. When reaction times and error rates were plotted as a function of the target-揷ue stimulus onset asynchrony, a quadratic trend emerged, consistent with the notion of distractor deactivation. However, in the flanker task, an alternative explanation for the quadratic trend in terms of attentional zooming is possible. The present experiments tested the deactivation account against the attentional-zooming account with the Stroop and the Simon task, in which attentional zooming should have minimal effects on distractor processing, because the target and distractor are presented at the same spatial location. Both experiments replicated the quadratic trend in the performance functions for responses to incongruent distractors, and additionally showed linear trends in the performance functions for responses to congruent distractors. These results provide additional support for the notion of top-down deactivation of distractor representations as a mechanism of visual selective attention.

Gajewski, P. D., & Falkenstein, M. (2012).

Training-induced improvement of response selection and error detection in aging assessed by task switching: Effects of cognitive, physical, and relaxation training

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 130.

URL     PMID:3349932      [本文引用: 2]

Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in changes of cognitive functions, as measured in electrophysiological brain activity (event-related potentials). One hundred forty-one healthy participants aged 6565years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength training), cognitive training (paper–pencil and computer-aided), relaxation and wellness (social control group), and a control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 9065min for a period of 465months. The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task sets in working memory, and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2), allocation of cognitive resources (P3b), and error detection (Ne). Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods.

Gorfein, D. S., & MacLeod, C. M . ( 2007).

Inhibition in cognition

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

[本文引用: 1]

Gregoriou G. G., Gotts S. J., Zhou H. H., & Desimone R . ( 2009).

High-frequency, long-range coupling between prefrontal and visual cortex during attention

Science, 324, 1207-1210.

URL     PMID:2849291650773022967381      [本文引用: 1]

Electrical recordings in humans and monkeys show attentional enhancement of evoked responses and gamma synchrony in ventral stream cortical areas. Does this synchrony result from intrinsic activity in visual cortex or from inputs from other structures? Using paired recordings in the frontal eye field (FEF) and area V4, we found that attention to a stimulus in their joint receptive field leads to enhanced oscillatory coupling between the two areas, particularly at gamma frequencies. This coupling appeared to be initiated by FEF and was time-shifted by about 8 to 13 milliseconds across a range of frequencies. Considering the expected conduction and synaptic delays between the areas, this time-shifted coupling at gamma frequencies may optimize the postsynaptic impact of spikes from one area upon the other, improving cross-area communication with attention.

Harris, K. D., & Mrsic-Flogel, T. D . ( 2013).

Cortical connectivity and sensory coding

Nature, 503( 7474), 51-58.

URL     PMID:24201278      [本文引用: 1]

The sensory cortex contains a wide array of neuronal types, which are connected together into complex but partially stereotyped circuits. Sensory stimuli trigger cascades of electrical activity through these circuits, causing specific features of sensory scenes to be encoded in the firing patterns of cortical populations. Recent research is beginning to reveal how the connectivity of individual neurons relates to the sensory features they encode, how differences in the connectivity patterns of different cortical cell classes enable them to encode information using different strategies, and how feedback connections from higher-order cortex allow sensory information to be integrated with behavioural context.

Herd S. A., Banich M. T., & O'Reilly R. C . ( 2006).

Neural mechanisms of cognitive control: An integrative model of stroop task performance and fMRI data

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18( 1), 22-32.

URL     PMID:16417680      [本文引用: 2]

We address the connection between conceptual knowledge and cognitive control using a neural network model. This model extends a widely held theory of cognitive control [Cohen, J. D., Dunbar, K., & McClelland, J. L. On the control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed processing model of the Stroop effect. Psychological Review, 97, 332-361, 1990] so that it can explain new empirical findings. Leveraging other computational modeling work, we hypothesize that representations used for task control are recruited from preexisting representations for categories, such as the concept of color relevant to the Stroop task we model here. This hypothesis allows the model to account for otherwise puzzling fMRI results, such as increased activity in brain regions processing to-be-ignored information. In addition, biologically motivated changes in the model's pattern of connectivity show how global competition can arise when inhibition is strictly local, as it seems to be in the cortex. We also discuss the potential for this theory to unify models of task control with other forms of attention.

Houghton, G., & Tipper, S. P . ( 1996).

Inhibitory mechanisms of neural and cognitive control: Applications to selective attention and sequential action

Brain and Cognition, 30( 1), 20-43.

URL     PMID:8811979      [本文引用: 3]

This paper discusses the role of inhibition in neural and cognitive control, in particular its role in selective processes in perception and action. We first review neuroanatomical and physiological evidence that cortical control is mediated by a variety of local-circuit inhibitory neurons, distributed throughout all layers and areas of the cortex. We then consider the use of inhibition in control processes in behavioral neural network models, focusing on two areas: selective attention and sequential action. Relations between the architecture and dynamics of these models and relevant neurological findings are discussed. We conclude that a full understanding of inhibitory control of mental functioning will require the integration of data from both the behavioral and neural levels, and that formal neural network models can play an important role in bridging this epistemological divide.

Kalanthroff E., Avnit A., Henik A., Davelaar E. J., & Usher M . ( 2015).

Stroop proactive control and task conflict are modulated by concurrent working memory load

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22( 3), 869-875.

URL     PMID:25257710      [本文引用: 1]

Performance on the Stroop task reflects two types of conflict—informational (between the incongruent word and font color) and task (between the contextually relevant color-naming task and the...

Kim S. Y., Kim M. S., & Chun M. M . ( 2005).

Concurrent working memory load can reduce distraction

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102( 45), 16524-16529.

URL     PMID:16258067     

People have difficulty performing two tasks at once. For example, maintaining items in working memory (WM) makes people more distractible. However, different types of WM load may have different effects on attentional selection depending on whether WM load overlaps with mechanisms involved in target or distractor processing. Three experiments examined the effect of concurrent WM load on Stroop tasks, a widely used measure of executive control and inhibition. Stroop interference increased when the type of WM load overlapped with the type of information required for the target task (experiment 1). In striking contrast, Stroop interference decreased when the type of WM load overlapped with distractor processing (experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicated these results in a different Stroop task. Thus, concurrent WM load does not always impair executive control; performance depends on how contents of WM and task-relevant information overlap. The results highlight how dissociable components of WM interact with perception and executive control.

Koster E. H. W., Hoorelbeke K., Onraedt T., Owens M., & Derakshan N . ( 2017).

Cognitive control interventions for depression: A systematic review of findings from training studies

Clinical Psychology Review, 53, 79-92.

URL     PMID:28273486      [本文引用: 1]

There is a strong interest in cognitive control training as a new intervention for depression. Given the recent promising meta-analytical findings regarding the effects of cognitive training on cognitive functioning and depressive symptomatology, the current review provides an in-depth discussion of the role of cognitive control in depression. We consider the state-of-the-art research on how manipulation of cognitive control may influence cognitive and depression-related outcomes. Evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive control training procedures are discussed in relation to three stages of depression (at-risk, clinically depressed, remission) as well as the training approach that was deployed, after which the putative theoretical mechanisms are discussed. Finally, we provide ways in which cognitive control training can be utilized in future research.

Li Q., Nan W. Z., Wang K., & Liu X . ( 2014).

Independent processing of stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflicts

PLoS One, 9( 2), e89249.

URL     PMID:3928426      [本文引用: 1]

The dimensional overlap (DO) model proposes distinct mechanisms for stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflict effects. Many studies have examined the independence of S-S and S-R conflict effects in the color-word Stroop and Simon tasks. However, confounds exist between the distinction of DO (i.e., S-S dimensional overlap compared with S-R dimensional overlap) and the distinction of stimulus attributes (e.g., color compared with spatial location; semantic compared with nonsemantic information), which may hinder interpretation of the independence of S-S and S-R conflicts. A spatial Stroop (word) task and a spatial Stroop (arrow) task were combined with a Simon task in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively to eliminate these confounds of stimulus attributes. The results showed that S-S and S-R conflicts affected performance additively. There was no significant correlation across participants. These findings lend further support to independent processing of S-S and S-R conflicts as it is outlined in the taxonomy of DO.

Luna B., Marek S., Larsen B., Tervo-Clemmens B., & Chahal R . ( 2015).

An integrative model of the maturation of cognitive control

Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38, 151-170.

URL     PMID:26154978      [本文引用: 1]

Brains systems undergo unique and specific dynamic changes at the cellular, circuit, and systems level that underlie the transition to adult-level cognitive control. We integrate literature from these different levels of analyses to propose a novel model of the brain basis of the development of cognitive control. The ability to consistently exert cognitive control improves into adulthood as the flexible integration of component processes, including inhibitory control, performance monitoring, and working , increases. Unique maturational changes in brain structure, supported by interactions between dopaminergic and GABAergic systems, contribute to enhanced network synchronization and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. In turn, these factors facilitate the specialization and strengthening of connectivity in networks supporting the transition to adult levels of cognitive control. This model provides a novel understanding of the adolescent period as an adaptive period of heightened experience-seeking necessary for the specialization of brain systems supporting cognitive control.

Manza P., Hu S., Chao H. H., Zhang S., Leung H. C., & Li, C. S. R. (2016).

A dual but asymmetric role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in response inhibition and switching from a non-salient to salient action

Neuroimage, 134, 466-474.

URL     PMID:27126003      [本文引用: 1]

Response inhibition and salience detection are among the most studied psychological constructs of cognitive control. Despite a growing body of work, how inhibition and salience processing interact and engage regional brain activations remains unclear. Here, we examined this issue in a stop signal task (SST), where a prepotent response needs to be inhibited to allow an alternative, less dominant response. Sixteen adult individuals performed two versions of the SST each with 25% (SST25) and 75% (SST75) of stop trials. We posited that greater regional activations to the infrequent trial type in each condition (i.e., to stop as compared to go trials in SST25 and to go as compared to stop trials in SST75) support salience detection. Further, successful inhibition in stop trials requires attention to the stop signal to trigger motor inhibition, and the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) has been used to index the efficiency of motor response inhibition. Therefore, greater regional activations to stop as compared to go success trials in association with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) serves to expedite response inhibition. In support of an interactive role, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) increases activation to salience detection in both SST25 and SST75, but only mediates response inhibition in SST75. Thus, infrequency response in the dACC supports motor inhibition only when stopping has become a routine. In contrast, although the evidence is less robust, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) increases activity to the infrequent stimulus and supports inhibition in both SST25 and SST75. These findings clarify a unique role of the dACC and add to the literature that distinguishes dACC and pre-SMA functions in cognitive control.

Martiny-Huenger T., Gollwitzer P. M., & Oettingen G . ( 2014).

Distractor devaluation in a flanker task: Object-specific effects without distractor recognition memory

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40( 2), 613-625.

URL     PMID:24016067      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Previous research has shown that ignored stimuli are affectively devalued (i.e., distractor devaluation effect). Whereas previous research used feature-based selection tasks to investigate distractor devaluation, we used an object-based paradigm, allowing us to investigate open questions regarding underlying mechanisms. First, by using an object-based paradigm, we expected to find distractor devaluation for specific distractors (in contrast to general effects for certain categories). Second, we expected distractor devaluation in the absence of explicit recall of the to-be-evaluated stimulus' prior status (e.g., distractor), which is an important and previously untested factor, in order to exclude alternative explanations for distractor devaluation. Third, derived from the devaluation-by-inhibition hypothesis, we predicted that conditions of stronger distractor interference would result in stronger distractor devaluation. These predictions were confirmed in two experiments. We thus provide evidence that distractor devaluation can be a consequence of selective attention processes and that the evaluative consequences of ignoring can be tied to the mental representation of specific distractors.

McClure, S. M., & Bickel, W. K . ( 2014).

A dual-systems perspective on addiction: Contributions from neuroimaging and cognitive training

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1327, 62-78.

URL     PMID:4285342      [本文引用: 1]

Dual-systems theories explain lapses in self-control in terms of a conflict between automatic and deliberative modes of behavioral control. Numerous studies have now tested whether the brain areas that control behavior are organized in a manner consistent with dual-systems models. Brain regions directly associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system, the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in particular, capture some of the features assumed by automatic processing. Regions in the lateral prefrontal cortex are more closely linked to deliberative processing and the exertion of self-control in the suppression of impulses. While identifying these regions crudely supports dual-systems theories, important modifications to what constitutes automatic and deliberative behavioral control are also suggested. Experiments have identified various means by which automatic processes may be sculpted. Additional work decomposes deliberative processes into component functions such as generalized working memory, reappraisal of emotional stimuli, and prospection. The importance of deconstructing dual-systems models into specific cognitive processes is clear for understanding and treating addiction. We discuss intervention possibilities suggested by recent research, and focus in particular on cognitive training approaches to bolster deliberative control processes that may aid quit attempts.

Miller G. A., Galanter E., & Pribram K. H . ( 1960).

Plans and the structure of behavior. New York, NY, US: Henry Holt and

Company.

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Minamoto T., Shipstead Z., Osaka N., & Engle R. W . ( 2015).

Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77( 5), 1659-1673.

URL     PMID:25813738      [本文引用: 1]

Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have...

Mishra J., de Villers-Sidani E., Merzenich M., & Gazzaley A . ( 2014).

Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species

Neuron, 84( 5), 1091-1103.

URL     PMID:4264379      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Möller M., Mayr S., & Buchner A . ( 2013).

Target localization among concurrent sound sources: No evidence for the inhibition of previous distractor responses

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75( 1), 132-144.

URL     PMID:23077027      [本文引用: 1]

The visuospatial negative priming effect-hat is, the slowed-down responding to a previously ignored location-s partly due to response inhibition associated with the previously ignored location (Buckolz, Goldfarb, & Khan, Perception & Psychophysics 66:837-845 2004 ). We tested whether response inhibition underlies spatial negative priming in the auditory modality as well. Eighty participants localized a target sound while ignoring a simultaneous distractor sound at another location. Eight possible sound locations were arranged in a semicircle around the participant. Pairs of adjacent locations were associated with the same response. On ignored repetition trials, the probe target sound was played from the same location as the previously ignored prime sound. On response control trials, prime distractor and probe target were played from different locations but were associated with the same response. On control trials, prime distractor and probe target shared neither location nor response. A response inhibition account predicts slowed-down responding when the response associated with the prime distractor has to be executed in the probe. There was no evidence of response inhibition in audition. Instead, the negative priming effect depended on whether the sound at the repeatedly occupied location changed identity between prime and probe. The latter result replicates earlier findings and supports the feature mismatching hypothesis, while the former is compatible with the assumption that response inhibition is irrelevant in auditory spatial attention.

Motter J. N., Pimontel M. A., Rindskopf D., Devanand D. P., Doraiswamy P. M., & Sneed J. R . ( 2016).

Computerized cognitive training and functional recovery in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis

Journal of Affective Disorders, 189, 184-191.

URL     PMID:26437233      [本文引用: 1]

CCT is associated with improvement in depressive symptoms and everyday functioning, though produces inconsistent effects on cognition.

Navalyal, G. U., & Gavas, R. D . ( 2014).

A dynamic attention assessment and enhancement tool using computer graphics

Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, 4( 1), 11.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Training Programs to enhance Math Solving Skills, Memory, Visualization, etc in children are gaining popularity worldwide. Any skill is better acquired, when attention, the basic cognitive ability of the trainee is improved. This study makes an attempt to devise a technique in the form of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Game, to assist the trainers in monitoring and evaluating the attention levels of the trainees, at regular intervals during the training period.The gaming environment is designed using Open Source Graphics Library (OpenGL) package and the game control is through the player brain waves using the BCI technology. The players control the movement of an object from a source to a destination location on the screen by focussing their thought processes. The time taken to complete one game can be recorded. More the time taken, lesser would be the attention sustaining capacity of the player.Thirteen subjects under different levels of the ABACUS Math Solving training program controlled the ball movement while solving math problems mentally, the time taken reduced for most of the subjects as they reached higher levels of their training course, indicating the benefit of such training programmes. The game was also played by eight non-abacus literates. The evaluation procedure was found to be very easy and fast.

Noonan M. P., Adamian N., Pike A., Printzlau F., Crittenden B. M., & Stokes M. G . ( 2016).

Distinct mechanisms for distractor suppression and target facilitation

Journal of Neuroscience, 36( 6), 1797-1807.

URL     PMID:26865606      [本文引用: 2]

It is well established that preparatory attention improves processing of task-relevant stimuli. Although it is often more important to ignore task-irrelevant stimuli, comparatively little is known about preparatory attentional mechanisms for inhibiting expected distractions. Here, we establish that distractor inhibition is not under the same top-down control as target facilitation. Using a variant of the Posner paradigm, participants were cued to either the location a target stimulus, the location of a distractor, or were provided no predictive information. In Experiment 1, we found that participants were able to use target-relevant cues to facilitate target processing in both blocked and flexible conditions, but distractor cueing was only effective in the blocked version of the task. In Experiment 2, we replicate these findings in a larger sample, and leveraged the additional statistical power to perform individual differences analyses to tease apart potential underlying mechanisms. We found no evidence for a correlation between these two types of benefit, suggesting that flexible target cueing and distractor suppression depend on distinct cognitive mechanisms. In Experiment 3, we use EEG to show that preparatory distractor suppression is associated with a diminished P1, but we found no evidence to suggest that this effect was mediated by top-down control of oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12Hz). We conclude that flexible top-down mechanisms of cognitive control are specialised for target-related attention, whereas distractor suppression only emerges when the predictive information can be derived directly from experience. This is consistent with a predictive coding model of expectation suppression.

Notebaert, W., & Verguts, T. (2008).

Cognitive control acts locally

Cognition, 106( 2), 1071-1080.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Olivers, C. N. L., & Humphreys, G. W . ( 2002).

When visual marking meets the attentional blink: More evidence for top-down, limited-capacity inhibition

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28( 1), 22-42.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Investigates the attentional resources necessary for visual marking using attentional blink. Detection of probe dots on blinked distractors; Accounts on the inhibitory processes involved on visual marking; Amount of attentional resources available for visual marking.

Owens M., Koster E. H. W., & Derakshan N . ( 2013).

Improving attention control in dysphoria through cognitive training: Transfer effects on working memory capacity and filtering efficiency

Psychophysiology, 50( 3), 297-307.

URL     PMID:23350956      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Impaired filtering of irrelevant information from working memory is thought to underlie reduced working memory capacity for relevant information in dysphoria. The current study investigated whether training-related gains in working memory performance on the adaptive dual n-back task could result in improved inhibitory function. Efficacy of training was monitored in a change detection paradigm allowing measurement of a sustained event-related potential asymmetry sensitive to working memory capacity and the efficient filtering of irrelevant information. Dysphoric participants in the training group showed training-related gains in working memory that were accompanied by gains in working memory capacity and filtering efficiency compared to an active control group. Results provide important initial evidence that behavioral performance and neural function in dysphoria can be improved by facilitating greater attentional control. Copyright 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

Padmala, S., & Pessoa, L. (2011).

Reward reduces conflict by enhancing attentional control and biasing visual cortical processing

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23( 11), 3419-3432.

URL     PMID:21452938     

Abstract How does motivation interact with cognitive control during challenging behavioral conditions? Here, we investigated the interactions between motivation and cognition during a response conflict task and tested a specific model of the effect of reward on cognitive processing. Behaviorally, participants exhibited reduced conflict during the reward versus no-reward condition. Brain imaging results revealed that a group of subcortical and fronto-parietal regions was robustly influenced by reward at cue processing and, importantly, that cue-related responses in fronto-parietal attentional regions were predictive of reduced conflict-related signals in the medial pFC (MPFC)/ACC during the upcoming target phase. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between cue responses in the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and interference-related responses in the MPFC during the subsequent target phase was mediated via signals in the left fusiform gyrus, which we linked to distractor-related processing. Finally, reward increased functional connectivity between the right IPS and both bilateral putamen and bilateral nucleus accumbens during the cue phase, a relationship that covaried with across-individual sensitivity to reward in the case of the right nucleus accumbens. Taken together, our findings are consistent with a model in which motivationally salient cues are employed to upregulate top-down control processes that bias the selection of visual information, thereby leading to more efficient stimulus processing during conflict conditions.

Pardo J. V., Pardo P. J., Janer K. W., & Raichle M. E . ( 1990).

The anterior cingulate cortex mediates processing selection in the Stroop attentional conflict paradigm

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87( 1), 256-259.

URL     PMID:2296583      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Regional cerebral blood flow, an index of local neuronal activity, was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) during the performance of the classic Stroop color/word task in eight healthy right-handed subjects. In the first condition of this paradigm, subjects name the color of the words presented on a video monitor. All the words are the color names congruent to the color presented (e.g., the noun "red" displayed in red color). In the second condition, subjects also name the color of the words presented on the monitor. However, during these trials all words are color names incongruent to the color presented (e.g., the noun "red" displayed in green color). The difference in brain activity between these two conditions (i.e., incongruent minus congruent) could reveal brain systems involved in the attentionally mediated resolution of the conflict between the habitual response of reading words vs. the task demands of naming the color of the words--i.e., the Stroop interference effect. The most robust responses occurred in the anterior cingulate cortex. Other responses noted were in the left premotor cortex, left postcentral cortex, left putamen, supplementary motor area, right superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral peristriate cortices. These data provide support for the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in attentional processing through the selection and recruitment of processing centers appropriate for task execution. Furthermore, the extensive distributed network of activated regions suggests that the Stroop interference effect cannot be explained simply in terms of stimulus encoding or response interference.

Polk T. A., Drake R. M., Jonides J. J., Smith M. R., & Smith E. E . ( 2008).

Attention enhances the neural processing of relevant features and suppresses the processing of irrelevant features in humans: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the stroop task

Journal of Neuroscience, 28( 51), 13786-13792.

URL     PMID:19091969      [本文引用: 1]

We present a functional MRI experiment investigating the neural basis of feature-based attention in humans using the Stroop task. Cortical areas specifically involved in color processing and word reading were first identified in individual participants using independent tests. These areas were then probed during the Stroop task (in which participants must selectively attend to the font color of a word while ignoring the word itself). We found that activation in functionally defined color areas increased during the task relative to a neutral color-naming task while activation in functionally defined word areas decreased. These results are consistent with a biased competition model of feature-based attention in which the processing of attended features is enhanced and the processing of ignored features is suppressed.

Posner, M., & Snyder, C. (1975).

Attention and cognitive control

In R. L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: Loyola symposium. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.

[本文引用: 1]

Posner, M. I., & Dehaene, S. (1994).

Attentional networks

Trends in Neurosciences, 17( 2), 75-79.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Purmann, S., & Pollmann, S. (2015).

Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 88.

URL     PMID:4347451      [本文引用: 2]

To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4伪), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information.

Reisenauer, R., & Dreisbach, G. (2014).

The shielding function of task rules in the context of task switching

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67( 2), 358-376.

URL     PMID:23805948      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract There is increasing evidence that task rules help shield the response against distractor interference. Here, the authors investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying this assumed shielding function of task rules and how it is adjusted to changing task demands. In two experiments, participants switched between a noun categorization and an adjective categorization task. Target words were superimposed on distractor pictures. These pictures were always irrelevant and depicted either objects also used as target words in the noun task (noun distractors) or objects that were not part of the noun target-set but could be categorized according to the noun task (noun-related distractors). Results show that (a) on task repetitions shielding prevents interference from any distractors associated with a competing task; this is indicated by the lack of interference on adjective task repetitions; and (b) shielding is reduced on task switches. In the noun task, this reduction resulted in attenuated interference by noun-related distractors. In the adjective task, spatial distractors did not interfere despite the reduction. This result suggests that shielding is supported by a processing advantage for task-related information and not by distractor suppression.

Schrobsdorff H., Ihrke M., Behrendt J., Hasselhorn M., & Herrmann J. M . ( 2012).

Inhibition in the dynamics of selective attention: An integrative model for negative priming

Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 491.

URL     PMID:3498964      [本文引用: 1]

We introduce a computational model of the negative priming (NP) effect that includes perception, memory, attention, decision making, and action. The model is designed to provide a coherent picture across competing theories of NP. The model is formulated in terms of abstract dynamics for the activations of features, their binding into object entities, their semantic categorization as well as related memories and appropriate reactions. The dynamic variables interact in a connectionist network which is shown to be adaptable to a variety of experimental paradigms. We find that selective attention can be modeled by means of inhibitory processes and by a threshold dynamics. From the necessity of quantifying the experimental paradigms, we conclude that the specificity of the experimental paradigm must be taken into account when predicting the nature of the NP effect.

Shenhav A., Botvinick M. M., & Cohen J. D . ( 2013).

The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function

Neuron, 79( 2), 217-240.

URL     PMID:23889930      [本文引用: 1]

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

Soutschek A., Stelzel C., Paschke L., Walter H., & Schubert T . ( 2015).

Dissociable effects of motivation and expectancy on conflict processing: An fMRI Study

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27( 2), 409-423.

URL     PMID:25203271      [本文引用: 2]

Previous studies suggest that both motivation and task difficulty expectations activate brain regions associated with cognitive control. However, it remains an open question whether motivational and cognitive determinants of control have similar or dissociable impacts on conflict processing on a neural level. The current study tested the effects of motivation and conflict expectancy on activity in regions related to processing of the target and the distractor information. Participants performed a picture-word interference task in which we manipulated the size of performance-dependent monetary rewards (level of motivation) and the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials within a block (level of conflict expectancy). Our results suggest that motivation improves conflict processing by facilitating task-relevant stimulus processing and task difficulty expectations mainly modulate the processing of distractor information. We conclude that motivation and conflict expectancy engage dissociable control strategies during conflict resolution.

Stout, D. (2010).

The evolution of cognitive control

Topics in Cognitive Science, 2( 4), 614-630.

URL     PMID:25164046      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract One of the key challenges confronting cognitive science is to discover natural categories of cognitive function. Of special interest is the unity or diversity of cognitive control mechanisms. Evolutionary history is an underutilized resource that, together with neuropsychological and neuroscientific evidence, can help to provide a biological ground for the fractionation of cognitive control. Comparative evidence indicates that primate brain evolution has produced dissociable mechanisms for external action control and internal self-regulation, but that most real-world behaviors rely on a combination of these. The archeological record further indicates the timing and context of distinctively human elaborations to these cognitive control functions, including the gradual emergence of increasingly complex hierarchical action control. Copyright 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Stroop, J. R . ( 1935).

Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Elsevier’s Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. Search and access research from the science, technology, medicine, social sciences and arts and humanities fields.

Verguts, T., & Notebaert, W. (2008).

Hebbian learning of cognitive control: Dealing with specific and nonspecific adaptation

Psychological Review, 115( 2), 518-525.

URL     PMID:18426302      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract The conflict monitoring model of M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, C. S. Carter, and J. D. Cohen (2001) triggered several research programs investigating various aspects of cognitive control. One problematic aspect of the Botvinick et al. model is that there is no clear account of how the cognitive system knows where to intervene when conflict is detected. As a result, recent findings of task-specific and context-specific (e.g., item-specific) adaptation are difficult to interpret. The difficulty with item-specific adaptation was recently pointed out by C. Blais, S. Robidoux, E. F. Risko, and D. Besner (2007), who proposed an alternative model that could account for this. However, the same problem of where the cognitive system should intervene resurfaces in a different shape in this model, and it has difficulty in accounting for the Gratton effect, a hallmark item-nonspecific effect. The authors of the current article show how these problems can be solved when cognitive control is implemented as a conflict-modulated Hebbian learning rule.

Weissman D. H., Gopalakrishnan A., Hazlett C. J., & Woldorff M. G . ( 2005).

Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex resolves conflict from distracting stimuli by boosting attention toward relevant events

Cerebral Cortex, 15( 2), 229-237.

URL     PMID:15238434      [本文引用: 1]

In everyday life, we often focus greater attention on behaviorally relevant stimuli to limit the processing of distracting events. For example, when distracting voices intrude upon a conversation at a noisy social gathering, we concentrate more attention on the speaker of interest to better comprehend his or her speech. In the present study, we investigated whether dorsal/caudal regions of the anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), thought to make a major contribution to cognitive control, boost attentional resources toward behaviorally relevant stimuli as a means for limiting the processing of distracting events. Sixteen healthy participants performed a cued global/local selective attention task while brain activity was recorded with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with our hypotheses, greater dACC activity during distracting events predicted reduced behavioral measures of interference from those same events. dACC activity also differed for cues to attend to global versus local features of upcoming visual objects, further indicating a role in directing attention toward task-relevant stimuli. Our findings indicate a role for dACC in focusing attention on behaviorally relevant stimuli, especially when the achievement of our behavioral goals is threatened by distracting events.

Wendt M., Luna-Rodriguez A., & Jacobsen T . ( 2012).

Conflict-Induced perceptual filtering

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38( 3), 675-686.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wingfield, A. (2016).

Evolution of models of working memory and cognitive resources

Ear and Hearing, 37, 35S-43S.

URL     PMID:27355768      [本文引用: 1]

The goal of this article is to trace the evolution of models of working memory and cognitive resources from the early 20th century to today. Linear flow models of information processing common in the 1960s and 1970s centered on the transfer of verbal information from a limited-capacity short-term memory store to long-term memory through rehearsal. Current conceptions see working memory as a dynamic system that includes both maintaining and manipulating information through a series of interactive components that include executive control and attentional resources. These models also reflect the evolution from an almost exclusive concentration on working memory for verbal materials to inclusion of a visual working memory component. Although differing in postulated mechanisms and emphasis, these evolving viewpoints all share the recognition that human information processing is a limited-capacity system with limits on the amount of information that can be attended to, remain activated in memory, and utilized at one time. These limitations take on special importance in spoken language comprehension, especially when the stimuli have complex linguistic structures or listening effort is increased by poor acoustic quality or reduced hearing acuity.

Zhang L. W., Ding C., Li H., Zhang Q. L., & Chen A. T . ( 2013).

The influence of attentional control on stimulus processing is category specific in Stroop tasks: Attentional control

Psychological Research, 77( 5), 599-610.

URL     PMID:23080057      [本文引用: 1]

It is still unclear how attentional control influences stimulus processing. We investigated this issue in four Stroop task experiments utilizing a pretest-raining-osttest design. Subjects were given extensive training on the Stroop task using typical incongruent Stroop trials. The rates of color naming and word reading, which reflect the efficiency of stimulus processing, were assessed in pretest and posttest. The difference in rates between posttests and pretests reflects the influence of attentional control, acquired during the training phase, on stimulus processing. In Experiment 1, members of color category were used in the training phase; in Experiment 2, members of color category were used, but not in the training phase; in Experiment 3, they were neither in the color category nor were they used in the training. The results consistently showed that the suppression of word reading and the enhancement of color naming were developed in the training phases and they were not due to general training of color-naming task without conflict but to color-naming training with Stroop conflict (Experiment 4). More importantly, both suppression and enhancement affected the members of color category regardless of whether they were trained or not. The present findings suggest that the influence of attentional control on stimulus processing is category specific. We discuss the implications of the present results in terms of existing research on the locus of attentional control in Stroop tasks.

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