心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2260-2271 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02260

研究方法

具身效应何处寻:解决可重复性危机的分析性途径

刘传军, 廖江群,

清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084

An analytical approach to understanding and solving the replication crisis of the embodiment effect

LIU Chuanjun, LIAO Jiangqun,

Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

通讯作者: 廖江群, E-mail: liaojq@tsinghua.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-01-29   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *国家社会科学基金项目.  2018BSH114
清华大学自主科研计划.  2017THZWYY11

Received: 2018-01-29   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

最近的研究发现某些具身效应不能被重复, 这给心理学界带来了空前的可重复性危机。基于对具身认知“概念化”、“替代”和“构成”主题的分析, 通过区分具身效应的生成层次、强弱条件、建构方向和任务特性四个方面, 以便在实验中更准确地“定位”具身效应。未来研究可以从具身效应层次的分离与综合, 强弱条件的界分, 调节或中介机制探讨以及实验范式革新等方面加以推进。

关键词: 具身认知 ; 可重复性 ; 具身层次 ; 具身强弱 ; 具身方向 ; 在线-离线任务

Abstract

Recently, previously established embodiment effects (e.g. power pose effects) have partly failed to replicate, calling into question whether embodiment is in fact a true effect. Based on an analysis of the concepts of “conceptualization”, “alternative” and “construction” of embodiment cognition, this present article proposed a way out of the dilemma by specifying four characteristics of this effect: embodied generating level, strength degree, constructing direction and experimental task. Clarifying these four aspects could be helpful to accurately understand the embodiment effect and address the replication crisis. Future studies could conduct by differentiating and synthesizing the embodied generating levels, distinguishing different conditions for embodied strength, discovering the mediating or moderating role of embodied variables, and creating new specific experimental paradigms.

Keywords: embodied cognition ; replication ; generating level ; strength degree ; constructing direction ; online- offline task

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本文引用格式

刘传军, 廖江群. (2018). 具身效应何处寻:解决可重复性危机的分析性途径. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2260-2271

LIU Chuanjun, LIAO Jiangqun. (2018). An analytical approach to understanding and solving the replication crisis of the embodiment effect. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2260-2271

身体本身在世界中, 就像心脏在机体中……我当然能在思想中俯视寓所, 想象寓所, 或在纸上画出寓所的平面图, 但如果不通过身体的体验, 我就不可能理解物体的统一性。

——梅洛·庞蒂, 《知觉现象学》

具身认知(Embodied Cognition)认为人类的认知加工活动根植于身体与世界的交互过程(Wilson, 2002)。具身效应是指身体或环境变量对人类认知加工活动的影响。近年来, 具身认知取得了许多引人注目的研究成果(Andy, 2008; Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996; Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010; Zhong, & Liljenquist, 2006)。然而, 最近的一些研究都发现, 不少具身认知研究并没有得到重复验证, 给认知科学界尤其是心理学界带来了前所未有的可重复性危机(陈巍, 2014; 胡传鹏等, 2016)。例如, Bargh等(1996)发现, 当启动了老年人的刻板印象后, 被试在离开实验室时走路变慢。而这一现象在后来的重复实验中未被发现(Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012)。又如Schnall, Benton和Harvey (2008)发现, 当启动了清洁的概念或在经历了厌恶后进行洗手行为, 人们会做出更不严厉的道德判断。Johnson, Cheung和Donnellan (2014)用原作者提供的材料进行了直接重复, 却没有发现类似效应。反而言之, 对于不相关的厌恶感是否会放大道德谴责的严重程度?Landy和Goodwin (2015)使用元分析方法发现了较小的厌恶放大道德谴责的证据(d = 0.11), 但在考虑出版偏差的情况下, 这种影响就完全消失了(d = -0.01)。具身效应时有时无, 学术界对此质疑重重。Goldinger, Papesh, Barnhart, Hansen和Hout (2016)提出具身理论的基本原则要么具有不可接受的模糊性(例如, 知觉受身体影响的理论前提), 要么没有提供任何新的东西(例如, 认知进化是为了最大化保存, 情感影响认知等), 因此并没有推进认知科学的进程。

那么, 具身效应到底是否存在呢?无论从理论上还是事实上, 身体参与人的认知活动是毋庸置疑的。理论上, 早期从区分意识和无意识的角度分析, 具身效应处于无意识当中, 在人类日常认知活动当中起着基础和默认装置的作用。正如Nosek, Hawkins和Frazier (2011)的观点, 大多数人的认知都发生在意识知觉或意识控制之外, 其中一些内隐加工影响着社会知觉、判断和行动。事实上, 在许多领域当中也都发现了具身效应, 例如上下、左右、高低、轻重、软硬、强弱、大小、远近、明暗、洁脏、甜苦、香臭、冷暖等物理变量的改变可能与心理变量存在对应关系(彭凯平, 喻丰, 2012)。但实证研究中出现许多无法重复的现象引起了学术界的不断反思。伍秋萍、冯聪和陈斌斌(2011)指出, 在社会认知领域中以具身理论为框架开展实证研究时可能需要注意身体状态、因变量的社会性等条件。Meier, Schnall, Schwarz和Bargh (2012)则指出大部分具身研究都是描述性, 而非解释性的, 需要基于现象学为基础的方法找出具身认知效应的边界条件和中介变量, 探索与行动相关结果的测量, 并解决个体差异的影响。这些研究都尝试对具身效应进行更深入细致的类属划分和机制探讨, 为未来的研究提供了参考。但是, 对于具身认知的本源问题仍未触及。为了进一步理解和解决具身效应的可重复性危机, 有必要追溯具身哲学的渊源, 重新理解实验具身效应, 从而找到适于自身的前进方向。

回到具身哲学理论, 研究者提炼出具身认知的三大主题(ShapiroL, 2011; 陈巍, 郭本禹, 2014):(1)概念化(Conceptualization)。身体的生理属性对我们获取生物体的概念给予了限制或约束。人类对世界万物所建构起来的概念会受到来自身体提供给自己的视角的影响。除此之外, 影响人类“概念化”的因素还有族群语言、文化、习俗、环境颜色等, 也无形中参与到认知加工。(2)替代(Replacement)。生物体的身体与环境之间的互动代替了作为经典认知核心的表征加工(representational processes)。认知不再依赖基于符号表征的算法加工(algorithmic processes)。它最重要的贡献是承认身体在心智加工中的重要作用, 理解身体施加在心智上的约束, 或者领会认知活动中自发涌现的脑、身体和世界之间的耦合交互作用。(3)构成(Constitution)。身体或世界在认知加工中扮演了要素(constitutive)角色, 而不是简单的因果性(causal)角色。如果传统认知科学的“构成”论是成立的, 那么身体至少应当是“构成”成分之一, 即心智延展出身体。总体来说, 身体和环境也是心智活动的组成部分。作为认知加工的要素, 具身变量是认知加工活动的有机组成部分, 可能以调节变量或中介变量的形式但并不一定以自变量的形式影响认知加工活动。

根据具身认知的“概念化”主题, 人类受制于身体而对外界进行“概念化”的过程, 必然会受到宏观的自然和文化环境、中观的躯干和肢体以及微观的感觉通道的影响。因此, 在宏观、中观和微观的层次上可能表现出不同的具身效应。但是, 目前关于具身效应的可重复性问题并没有将这些层次进行有效区分。因此, 这并不能证明具身效应是不可重复的甚至不存在的。根据“替代”主题, 在替代传统符号表征加工的过程中, 脑、身体和世界之间的耦合程度决定了具身效应的强弱差异。耦合的程度不同, 效应强弱也不同。因此, 对具身效应的“定位”也必须考虑影响脑、身体和世界之间耦合程度的条件。根据“构成”主题, 身体或世界在“构成”认知活动对象时, 作为认知主体还是认知客体的存在, 决定了具身认知的建构方向有所不同。这在具身效应实验当中也应当纳入考量, 从而清晰地“定位”具身效应的建构方向。此外, 实验操作化任务本身存在离线启动与在线操作的差异性。Wilson (2002)提出行为观察属于在线具身认知(online embodiment), 而文字启动属于离线具身认知(offline embodiment)。苏彦捷和孙芳芳(2014)在对道德具身效应进行元分析时对在线性与离线性任务进行区分, 发现在线性任务的具身效应大于离线性任务的具身效应(效果大小比为0.234 : 0.149, 虽不显著, 但仍有明显差异)。因此, 任务特性也是影响具身效应的重要因素。

据此分析, 具身效应是真实存在的, 但在实验研究过程中需要针对具身效应的生成层次、强弱条件、建构方向以及任务特性等四个方面做出更细致的区分, 从而准确“定位”具身效应, 解决具身效应的稳定性和可重复性问题。本文将从这四个方面对具身效应进行分析和解读。

1 具身效应的生成层次

传统认知科学主要围绕着核心认知系统——脑——展开研究, 而身体和环境均未被正式纳入传统认知科学的视域。具身认知正是在此意义上实现其对传统离身认知的革命。根据ShapiroL对具身认知三大主题的概括, 具身认知加工具有层次上的差异性(ShapiroL, 2011)。无论作为载体还是主体, 身体毫无疑问参与到人类认知世界及其自身的过程。正如“概念化”主题所述, 身体参与认知过程至少可以分成三个层次, 如图1所示:外部环境参与核心认知, 包括自然环境和社会文化环境的交互, 构成了具身认知的宏观层次; 身体躯干及肢体参与核心认知, 包括身体姿态、运动交互以及表情系统等, 构成了具身认知的中观层次; 身体内部感觉通道参与核心认知, 包括五感及本体感觉等, 构成了具身认知的微观层次。认知、身体、环境融为一体, 即认知存在于大脑, 大脑存在于身体, 身体存在于环境(叶浩生, 2010, 2013)。在这三大层次当中, 具身效应的稳定性可能随层次由宏观到微观而降低。究其原因在于, 在具身认知活动发生发展过程中, 宏观的自然和文化环境变化速度最慢, 具有季节和地域的稳定性; 中观的躯干及肢体变化速度中等, 具有与当前交互对象的即时反应性; 微观的感觉通道变化速度最快, 具有基于神经电传导和化学传导的瞬时反应性。因此, 宏观层次的变化速度最慢而保有最稳定的效应; 中观层次的变化速度快于环境而导致效应稳定性稍弱; 微观层次的变化速度最快而导致效应稳定性最差。因此, 有必要对当前所发现的具身效应所处层次进行有效区分, 以便理解为什么当前许多具身效应无法得到重复。

图1

图1   具身效应的生成层次


1.1 自然和文化环境参与核心认知

这是具身认知的宏观层次。在时间上, 自然环境的季节性和物候特征等可能会塑造人类的认知活动。在空间上, 环境空间的大小、视野宽窄等, 垂直和水平空间特征及遮挡关系等, 这种外部空间环境也可能影响人的核心认知活动。人文环境中被试的群体认同、所在地域的文化价值观念、传统习俗等均可能影响着认知加工。已有研究中, 如敬畏感与外部空间环境的关系(Bai et al., 2017), 又如区域温度与地缘人格之间的相关性(Wei et al., 2017), 都是环境影响核心认知的重要证据。综合身体与环境交互的时空特性, 可分为身体与小环境的互动, 如家庭环境对人的认知塑造; 身体与大环境的互动, 如自然环境与文化背景影响认知加工。

在身体与小环境的互动方面, 最有代表性的研究为沉浸式环境的研究, 比如以核心厌恶启动道德厌恶的方法, 让被试在恶臭的垃圾桶旁边填问卷从而使道德判断更为严厉(Schnall, Haidt, Clore, & Jordan, 2008), 在清新的实验室空气环境当中个体表现出更多互惠与信任(Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010)等。这些实验都是使身体沉浸于某个自然或实验室小环境当中进行。在身体与大环境的交互方面, 代表性研究有具身厌恶与政治态度(Inbar, Pizarro, & Bloom, 2009)、宗教纯洁性(Ritter & Preston, 2011)和其他非文化倡导性的现象如同性恋(Inbar, Pizarro, Knobe, & Bloom, 2009)等违背主流人文价值的人际关系(Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999)之间的相关性。其他研究则涉及到了地貌(Bai et al., 2017)、气温(Wei et al., 2017)等自然环境因素与身体交互关系对人的主观认知的塑造。

人类一切认知活动都沉浸于一定的自然和文化环境, 也因此受到自然和文化环境的稳定持久的塑造。在三大层次中, 宏观环境的变化速度最慢, 这种沉浸性特点和最缓慢持续的影响作用使这一层次认知活动的具身效应最为稳定。当重复实验的被试与原实验的被试在自然和文化环境具有同质性的抽样背景前提下, 这一层次的具身效应应具有最高的可重复性。相反, 如果被试具有不同的自然和文化环境背景, 则具身效应可能存在很大的差异性。比如, 苏彦捷和孙芳芳(2014)对道德这一与文化背景高度相关的领域中的具身效应进行元分析发现, 被试来源国家对道德具身效应具有非常显著的调节作用(Q = 79.454, df = 41,p < 0.001, 详见: 苏彦捷, 孙芳芳, 2014)。

1.2 躯干及肢体参与核心认知

这是具身的中观层次。在这个层次当中, 又可分为躯干和肢体两个部分, 它们通过与外部环境的直接交互而影响着核心认知加工活动。躯干是指整个躯干的感觉运动状态, 如坐、站、行等姿势, 身体伸张或收缩等状态。肢体是指躯干的各个部分, 主要是作为身体与外界直接交互的手和脚。当手或脚处于残缺、被占用以及动作状态时(如, 前伸或回缩等), 认知活动和心理过程均可能受到影响。

身体姿势整体的变化引起认知活动规律不同, 属于躯干整体参与认知加工的具身现象。比如, Carney等(2010)的实验通过身体姿势提升个体内力量感和适应性1(1 关于这一效应是否存在, 一直争议不断。Ranehill等(2015)在重复研究时发现了被试自我报告的力量感存在权力姿势效应, 但在睾丸素、皮质醇和风险行为方面并没发现相应的效应。Garrison, Tang和Schmeichel (2016) 提前注册了对权力姿势的重复和拓展研究, 也没有发现权力姿势导致风险寻求行为, 甚至没有发现被试自我报告的力量感存在权力姿势效应。Gronau等人(2017)通过基于贝叶斯模型的元分析, 对相关研究进行重新分析, 发现有很强的证据证明该效应存在, 但在排除掉被试对该效应熟悉性的影响之后, 发现该效应只有中等程度的存在证据。); Fischer, Fischer, Englich, Aydin和Frey (2011)发现高权力姿势使人们对自己决策的有效性更有信心, 从而系统性倾向于与他们的决策偏好一致的信息; Rotella和Richeson (2013)则发现不同的身体姿势直接影响到个体对行为过错的歉疚感和赔偿意愿。黎晓丹、杜建政和叶浩生(2016)则发现中国礼文化背景下蜷缩身体姿势与社会地位存在双向隐喻效应。这些研究都涉及躯干整体与外部世界进行交互时, 躯干整体的不同状态对人类以及外部世界进行认知加工的影响。而在部分躯干或肢体参与认知加工活动的研究中, 当前最广泛和热门的是身体清洁行为, 比如Zhong和Liljenquist (2006)发现的“麦克白效应”, 即罪恶或不道德感促使人们产生清洗自身的想法或行为。Lee和Schwarz (2011)发现罪恶感中的个体有手部清洁行为偏好, Schnall, Benton等人(2008)发现进行了身体清洁之后, 道德判断的标准会降低等。在宗教研究(Preston & Ritter, 2012; Yan, Ding, & Yan, 2011; 阎书昌, 2011)、政治态度研究(Helzer & Pizarro, 2011), 甚至是对运气好坏判断的影响(Xu, Zwick, & Schwarz, 2012)和日常数钱等经济活动(Yang et al., 2013)中, 也有类似发现。这些发现主要证明肢体清洁性特别是手部清洁性, 与道德纯洁性等高级认知概念和道德厌恶等高级情绪之间存在着隐喻关系。

躯干及肢体活动常常伴随认知活动发生, 不同的躯干及肢体活动伴随着不同的认知活动。因此, 某些躯干及肢体状态与某些认知活动可能存在一定的功能链接, 从而表现出一定具身效应。这一层次认知活动的具身效应具有伴随性和变化性, 具身表现随认知活动的变化而变化。相较于自然和文化环境, 这种伴随变化特点更明显, 变化速度更快, 使得这一层次具身效应稳定性差于自然和文化环境的具身效应, 可重复性也随之降低。

1.3 感觉通道参与核心认知

这是具身的微观层次。微观层面主要强调身体内部的感觉通道, 基于神经传导参与核心认知加工过程。除了基本感知觉, 如视觉、触觉、味觉、嗅觉、听觉之外, 还有本体感觉等都可能会影响高级认知加工活动。

根据具身认知的理论背景和生态学分析, 具身效应的生成层次具有由宏观到微观的差异性。但是, 在人类认知活动以及研究者的实验研究中, 这三大层次是综合作用于人类认知活动的, 并非只有某一层次参与了认知加工活动。对具身效应生成层次的划分, 主要意义在于清楚地定位具身效应生成的关键层次, 从而在具身效应的实验研究以及重复实验中, 更加全面和准确地进行新的具身效应发现和准确控制的重复验证。

2 具身效应的强弱条件

由具身认知的“替代”主题可知, 具身效应本身具有强弱差异性。具身认知的视域中, 核心认知系统(脑)、身体、环境都是认知活动不可或缺的元素, 这三者之间的耦合交互作用越强, 具身效应也越强。从核心认知、身体和环境三个角度均可能影响三者的耦合交互作用强度。在核心认知活动中, 主导加工系统的不同、身体在认知活动中的唤醒程度不同、认知活动与环境因素的一致性程度不同, 均可能导致三者的耦合交互作用强度不同, 从而使具身效应具有强弱差异。而从时间角度, 具身效应也可能随短期内的时间流逝而有强弱区分, 也会在长期进化过程中保留或发展出某种顺应进化趋势的具身效应。因此, 主导加工系统、具身唤醒程度、认知活动与环境因素的一致程度以及时间, 它们是影响具身效应强弱的四个基本条件。

一是认知任务中主导加工系统的差异性。根据目前主流的二元加工系统的划分, 在处理认知任务时, 个体的直觉加工系统和理性加工系统具有不同的作用过程。直觉系统反应快, 与情绪直接相关, 更多无意识成分, 而认知系统相对反应慢, 与认知权衡相关, 更多有意控制成分。这种二元划分, 早期与Dijksterhuis和Nordgren (2006)提出的关于人类思想的“无意识思想理论” (Unconscious Thought Theory)类似, 区分了两种思维模式:无意识和有意识, 也与近期的直觉加工和理性加工的划分具有相似之处。在道德认知领域, Greene等在综合前人的理性道德和社会直觉模型的基础上, 对提出的道德双加工理论也作了类似划分(Greene, 2007; Greene, Morelli, Lowenberg, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2008)。Ferrin (2017)在对心理学和认知科学的总结中指出, 大脑中有两个“系统”:一个系统(系统1)被描述为快速、直观、敏锐、可能更原始, 而另一个系统(系统2)则被描述为更慢、更深思熟虑, 并对高阶认知负责。显然, 在讨论具身效应是否存在的时候, 应当将这两个认知系统进行有效分离来加以考察。Schnall et al., (2008) 关于具身厌恶影响道德判断的发现支持了道德判断被直觉加工驱动的理论, 而不是通过认知推理。这在某种程度上证明具身效应可能更多存在于直觉系统。最近Zestcott, Stone和Landau (2017)对重量-重要性具身效应中有意注意的影响进行了探讨, 初步发现有意注意的认知加工会消除掉具身效应, 也证明具身效应可能存在于直觉系统。但在其他具身效应的研究中, 尚且需要进一步检验。

二是认知任务中具身变量的唤醒程度差异性。具身变量的唤醒程度是指具身变量参与认知和行为任务的程度。比如单纯的视觉搜索任务基本上只依靠视觉通道完成, 不需要其他感觉通道参与, 具身唤醒程度较低。而以厌恶这种情绪反应为例, 厌恶本身具有身体弥散性影响, 会唤醒身体整体性的防御机制, 导致整个身体和各个感觉通道驱动身体逃避厌恶源, 具身唤醒程度较高。除了厌恶之外, 疼痛也有类似作用, 比如Eisenberger, Lieberman和Williams (2003)发现被社会排斥时所产生的痛苦与生理疼痛感具有类似的脑神经机制。这种社会疼痛的具身性具有非常高的具身唤醒程度。因此, 具身唤醒程度可能随认知任务的差异而有所不同, 从而使具身效应并不具有跨任务的效应一致性, 在不同认知任务之间进行具身效应的比较和元分析计算也应该相应进行区分。

三是认知活动与环境因素的一致性程度差异性。环境因素可以分为自然环境因素和社会文化环境因素。当假设的具身效应与环境因素高度一致时, 该环境所预测的具身效应发生的可能性更高, 反之则更低甚至消失。比如在中国的等级文化差序格局的社会结构当中, 传统仪式上存在对高权力等级个体叩拜的文化传统, 因此个体对社会权力的服从会导致更多的身体蜷缩度(黎晓丹等, 2016), 但是这种现象在平等自由的文化背景环境中则未必存在。而在以往的研究当中, 对具身效应的文化背景环境一致性的考查相对较少。阎书昌(2011)提出对身体洁净与道德关联性的跨文化一致性仍是有待深入探讨的问题, 杨继平和郭秀梅(2016)也认为跨文化验证具身效应的稳定性和一致性很有必要。而当前的重复研究之所以不能重复出原研究的具身效应或效应量低于原研究, 这与被试群体所属自然和人文环境的差异性不无关系。苏彦捷和孙芳芳2014年对道德具身效应的元分析也发现了被试来源国家的显著调节作用。

四是具身效应随时间变化。目前大多数具身效应都是使用启动范式而发现的, 启动效应常常在短期内随着时间的流逝而减弱。比如杨继平和郭秀梅(2016)Zhang和Li (2012)发现拿一个重包(相对于轻包)会使被试将事情判断为更为重要, 但这种关系受到重量相关概念的通达性的中介作用。随着时间的流逝, 这种通达性逐步下降, 从而导致具身效应逐步降低。这可能是一种与动机无关的具身加工, 而前人研究也发现在动机相关的加工活动中, 目标动机感会随短期内的时间流逝而增强直到目标达成(Chartrand, Huber, Shiv, & Tanner, 2008), 从而使具身效应表现为一种随时间增强的现象(Mukherjee, Kramer, & Kulow, 2017)。在长期的时间进程——进化相关性方面, 具身效应与有利于进化的三个方面:避免伤害、趋近有利条件和信号作用的相关程度(薛灿灿和叶浩生, 2011), 也可能是影响具身效应的重要因素。具身研究中重复实验与原实验存在时间差, 因社会文化变迁, 隐喻内容变化等因素也会导致具身效应量变化甚至不可重复。因此, 有必要将具身效应增强或减弱的时间特性纳入具身效应研究设计的考虑范围。

基于核心认知(脑)、身体和环境的耦合交互作用的差异, 具身效应强弱也会存在差异。前三个方面从空间横断视角进行剖析, 强具身效应可能主要由直觉系统主导, 具有高身体唤醒程度, 与环境因素高度一致的特征; 而相对而言, 弱具身效应由理性系统主导, 具有低身体唤醒程度, 与环境因素低一致甚至不一致的特征。而第四个方面从时间纵向视角, 目前较少得到研究, 尚且没有达成共识。某些研究发现极低的具身效应甚至完全无效应的情况, 很有可能由于前三个方面的操控不严以及第四个方面未纳入应有的考虑导致。

3 具身效应的建构方向

根据具身认知的“概念化”和“构成”主题, 具身可能作为认知的主体或者客体而存在于人类建构自身和世界的过程中。具身实质上表现为一种调节作用, 调节着抽象概念与具体概念之间的关系, 以及意图与行为之间的关系。而关于具身效应的建构方向问题, 苏彦捷和孙芳芳(2014)主要讨论了抽象概念与具体概念之间的单向或双向隐喻关系。实际上, 具身效应的建构方向区分并不仅仅存在于概念的具体与抽象之间, 而是从认知、情绪、行为三个方面均存在具身效应的建构方向区分:在认知上的区分主要表现为抽象概念与具体概念之间的隐喻建构关系(Gilead, Gal, Polak, & Cholow, 2015; IJzerman & Koole, 2011; Landau, Meier, & Keefer, 2010; Schaefer, Denke, Heinze, & Rotte, 2014; 杨继平, 郭秀梅,王兴超, 2017; 殷融, 苏得权, 叶浩生, 2013); 在情绪上, 主要讨论具身情绪变量和高级情绪变量之间的单向或双向建构关系(Montoro, Jose Contreras, Rosa Elosua, & Marmolejo-Ramos, 2015; Niedenthal, 2007; Oosterwijk, Rotteveel, Fischer, & Hess, 2009; Price & Harmon- Jones, 2015; Sheikh, Botindari, & White, 2013; Wiswede, Muente, Kraemer, & Ruesseler, 2009); 在行为上, 主要讨论具身行为变量和内在心理变量之间的单向或双向建构关系(Schaefer, Rotte, Heinze, & Denke, 2015; Valdesolo, Ouyang, & DeSteno, 2010; 黎晓丹等, 2016; 阎书昌, 2011; 翟贤亮, 葛鲁嘉, 2017)。这些现象和心理机制可以由概念隐喻理论、知觉符号理论、情绪具身理论和模拟感觉运动隐喻理论加以解读(详见 方溦, 葛列众, 甘甜, 2016)。从具身变量的角度, 作为参与认知加工的重要因素, 具身变量与认知变量、具身变量与情绪变量、具身变量与行为变量三者均可能存在单向或双向建构性。在以往的研究当中, 仍然存在部分研究没有对具身效应的方向性加以区分, 这可能也是某些效应无法重复的重要因素。

在认知层面, 具身效应研究已经非常丰富, 主要表现在对概念隐喻的研究方面(Gilead et al., 2015; IJzerman & Koole, 2011; Landau et al., 2010; Schaefer, Denke, Heinze, & Rotte, 2014; 杨继平等, 2017)。殷融等对概念隐喻的相关研究进行了梳理(殷融, 曲方炳, 叶浩生, 2012; 殷融等, 2013), 发现这些研究主要涉及空间隐喻、温度隐喻、洁净隐喻、触觉隐喻等, 基于此指出未来的研究应探索塑造隐喻映射单向作用与相互作用的因素等问题。最近杨继平等(2017)从红白颜色、左右位置和正斜字体三个维度考察道德概念的隐喻表征, 发现左右位置、正斜字体与道德概念存在一定的隐喻联结。这些对具身认知的隐喻方向性提供了参考。

情绪层面, 目前的研究多数集中于探讨具身情绪变量对高级情绪变量的影响作用, 比如道德厌恶的研究中多以核心厌恶唤起具身厌恶感, 然后观测到这种厌恶感对后续的社会判断的影响(Giner-Sorolla & Chapman, 2017; Horberg, Oveis, Keltner, & Cohen, 2009; Schnall, 2017; Schnall, Haidt, et al., 2008), 反向关系的讨论相对较少, 以Eskine, Kacinik和Webster (2012)的研究为代表, 他们发现, 阅读损人行为、道德性或者中性事件会相应地启动被试对味觉的厌恶, 喜欢或者中性的品尝经验; Banerjee等人(2012)发现, 不道德行为启动组相比于道德行为启动组会判断所处环境更暗, 而且在选择实验礼物时更偏好与光源相关的物品; Skarlicki等人(2013)则发现厌恶情绪反过来影响个体的嗅觉反应。情绪具身性有着广泛的理论假说与研究证据(刘亚, 王振宏, 孔风, 2011), 但在具身方向性探讨上还需要继续推进。

在行为层面, 具身行为变量与内在心理变量间的建构方向性可以区分为执行性具身和塑造性具身。执行性具身是指具身行为变量是对某种内在心理变量的执行性表现, 如黎晓丹等(2016)在研究中发现, 相比于被试给同地位的同学打电话, 被试给校长等社会地位高于被试的人打电话时身体蜷缩度更高, 这就是具身变量(身体蜷缩度)对内在心理变量(社会权力地位服从)的执行性表现。塑造性具身是指具身行为变量塑造或引起内在心理变量的变化, 如Valdesolo等(2010)发现同步摇摆增强了个体对其他个体的动作的感知敏感性, 从而提高了他们在随后的联合行动任务中的成功率, 这需要动态地发现并对合作伙伴的动作做出适当的反应, 这便是具身行为变量(同步摇摆)对内在心理变量(他人动作感知力)的塑造性作用。Schaefer等(2015)对塑造性具身的通道特异性研究发现, 在语音邮箱中说谎之后被试对漱口产品的需要增强, 而写了一个谎言之后被试对洗手产品的需要增加, 但对于执行性具身是否有类似的效应目前尚不清楚。

在具身效应的重复研究当中, 一方面, 必须注意到原研究中的具身效应的建构方向, 在实验操作中对方向进行有效控制, 特别是对认知、情绪和行为的不同层面的建构方向必须进行严格控制, 否则, 笼统地对具身效应进行元分析或者缺乏严格控制的重复实验, 并不能证明具身效应不可重复甚至不存在。另一方面, 就整个具身效应的研究而言, 具身变量作为认知活动的构成“要素”而并非简单的“因素”作用, 其更重要意义在于具身变量对传统心理变量间关系的调节或中介作用。在不同建构方向上可能存在着认知、情绪和行为变量的共生变量未被纳入考察。而具身变量正是在对这些变量间关系的调节或中介中起作用。

4 具身效应的任务特性

以具身变量为自变量设计的实验, 最常见的实验范式有启动范式、STROOP范式、IAT范式、情境操纵范式等(陈潇, 江琦, 侯敏, 朱梦音, 2014)。这些实验范式的任务通常有两种类型:离线性任务与在线性任务。离线性具身任务常常是相继性的, 以启动范式为代表, 常常以启动某种心理变量, 然后来观察其是否影响具身表现, 比如Bargh的“老年人实验”和“热咖啡”实验(Bargh et al., 1996; Williams & Bargh, 2008)。与这种离线性任务相似的实验, 其效应可能受到启动本身的效力, 以及时间衰减等问题的影响。另一方面, 离线性具身所影响的具身变量通常与实验任务没有直接关系, 是一种无意识影响的探讨, 这也为实验无法重复埋下隐患。在线性具身任务常常是伴随性的, 以现场情境操纵范式为代表, 具身与被试所操作的实验任务之间融合在一起, 具身变量伴随着实验任务过程。在线性具身当中, 具身变量与所探讨的变量之间通常存在一定关系。比如Rozin, Haidt和Fincher (2009)在点评同期Chapman团队的工作(Chapman et al., 2009)时, 指出苦味直接触发的抵触和厌恶感引起不公平感等社会情绪, 这便是在线性具身的典型代表。

在社会认知神经科学领域中, 第二人称(second-person)方法所体现的在线性实时交互特征(Schilbach et al., 2013)是在线性具身的典型代表。Moore和Barresi (2017)指出社会理解发展中包括了5种第二人称的信息的综合作用:自主(self- directedness), 耦合(contingency), 互惠(reciprocity), 情感卷入(affective engagement)以及意图共享(shared intentions)。这种第二人称范式方法比第三人称的旁观推测具有更强的实时社会交互特性, 被试在实验任务中更能寓于其中, 也更可能表现出具身效应。最近一项使用第二人称方法对高功能自闭症成人社交耦合敏感性的研究, 也发现这种方法具有很好的具身交互特性, 有助于社交功能的恢复(Zapatafonseca, Froese, Schilbach, Vogeley, & Timmermans, 2018)。

在具身效应的研究中, 在线性任务相比离线性任务具有更重要的具身意义。在线性任务的具身效应大于离线性任务的具身效应(苏彦捷, 孙芳芳, 2014)。从具身认知对传统认知科学离身性革命的角度, 具身认知真正将人类的认知活动还原到其所发生的环境和载体(身体)之中, 使认知活动具有了生态性。而这种生态性正在于具身变量与核心认知活动的同步在线性。离线性任务实际上是通过核心认知想象再现的方式使具身变量参与了当下核心认知加工, 这种再现性本身就可能使具身效应衰减甚至消失。

与具身效应任务的离线和在线性区分相关, 具身变量在实验任务中的变量属性也很重要。理论上, 具身变量可以以自变量、中介变量、调节变量和因变量四种形式出现在实验研究当中。而从具身认知的理论渊源来看, 身体承载并影响认知加工, 具身变量最重要的角色应当是调节变量, 对人类的内部认知活动与外部实践活动的关系进行调节。而出于实验逻辑, 为了证明具身变量的直接作用, 研究者常常将其作为自变量来观察其对因变量的影响。这样操作化在实验逻辑上并无不妥, 但是与具身的构成假设有出入。身体或世界在认知加工中扮演了要素(constitutive)角色, 而不是简单的因果性(causal)角色。因此, 具身实验操作化任务特别是在在线性实验任务中应更多将具身变量操作化为伴随性的调节变量, 这也是影响具身效应的重要因素。

对实验任务的离线性和在线性区分, 以及具身变量的属性区分, 对于厘清具身效应及其可重复性有非常重要的意义。因为在人类日常认知活动当中, 具身影响的重要意义正在于具身变量与认知变量的同步在线性, 从而对人类的认知活动产生影响。对于离线性任务, 研究者实际上利用的是想象再现从而实现基于想象的具身-认知同步性。而这种想象再现本身就可能导致具身变量的影响力下降, 进一步导致数据统计上的不显著。具身变量作为调节变量出现在实验研究设计当中, 更是需要进一步研究验证。

5 研究展望

具身效应之所以难以重复, 时有时无, 与学界没有回到具身哲学源头上将具身效应细化区分有一定关系。根据具身认知的“概念化”、“替代”和“构成”主题以及近年来具身效应研究, 具身效应应当从生成层次, 强弱条件, 建构方向和任务特性四个方面进行细分, 从而促进对具身变量在人类认知加工活动中的角色和作用的研究。基于以上区分, 未来的研究可以从以下四个方面推进:

第一, 具身效应层次的分离与综合。在实际生活当中, 具身的环境、身体及其感官的三个层次常常相互依赖, 共生共存, 三者并不能严格地区分开来。但是, 为了厘清这三个层次上的具身效应差异性, 有必要在严格控制的实验室实验当中关注这三大层次的分离与综合, 从而更加深入细致地找到具身效应所处的关键层次以及个体差异等。

第二, 具身效应强弱条件的界分。在目前已经发现的具身效应当中, 主导加工系统未做区分, 身体唤醒程度各有不同, 与背景环境的一致性程度也存在差异。这些都是从横断分析上可能导致效应强弱差异的原因, 需要在未来的实验研究中进一步界分。而在时间纵向维度上已有研究发现, 具身效应在时间上具有随时间的动机加工导致的效应增强特征, 也有随时间的非动机加工引起的效应衰减特征(Mukherjee et al., 2017; Natanzon & Ferguson, 2012), 这也需要进一步厘清具身效应在时间上的强弱规律。

第三, 具身效应的调节或中介机制的探索。具身效应在认知、情绪和行为方面具有主体与客体、内部建构与外部执行的方向性差异。具身变量常常在传统离身认知变量与外在行为变量之间扮演着调节或中介角色, 正如Schnall (2017)在综述身体厌恶与道德判断的研究时提出, 实验启动的厌恶和清洁影响了道德判断, 但需要考虑调节变量和归因过程。因此, 未来研究有必要对具身效应的调节或中介机制进行探索, 以明确具身变量的“构成”角色作用。

第四, 具身实验范式的革新。当前的具身认知实验范式多延用或化用传统基础认知(特别是感知觉)和社会认知(特别是情境认知)的研究范式。这些范式的实验任务多为离线性具身任务, 在线性具身任务较少。社会认知神经科学中所使用的第二人称技术, 可以作为具身研究的参考方法, 实验本身应当基于使被试寓于其中的实时交互来进行设计。目前, 尚且没有基于在线性实验任务的具身实验特异性范式。因此, 在未来的实验研究当中, 应该进一步拓展具身实验范式, 特别是整合移动互联网络技术、虚拟现实技术、人工智能穿戴式设备以及3D运动捕捉技术等新技术和方法, 找到适用于具身认知的独特实验范式。

致谢

感谢彭凯平教授、胡传鹏博士、张力同学对本文早期版本的批判性阅读和建设性意见!感谢外审专家的审稿意见以及编辑部老师对本文的辛苦付出!

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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实验伦理学的一些研究发现,诸如上下、左右、高低、轻重、软硬、强弱、大小、远近、明暗、洁脏、甜苦、香臭、热冷等物理变量的改变与心理变量存在对应关系。物理变量的改变在具体情境中可使人的道德判断和道德行为发生较大变化,从而使该类研究成为了实验伦理学领域中一个探索方向,我们将其命名为道德的心理物理学。这种借助物理变量来理解抽象道德概念的心理机制,涉及表征认知、隐喻认知和具身认知三种思维策略。基于计算机模型的表征认知与隐喻认知从概念层面上将物理变量与道德概念建立语义联系,而基于生物有机体模型的具身认知则通过具体的身体状态和动作的变化与道德概念建立联系。这三种认知方式形成的物理变量与道德概念之间联结成带有道德意涵的认知单元,它将作为认知过程的载体影响人类的道德判断和行为。同时,这种两阶段模型在某种程度上受到人类的内在思维特性以及社会文化和历史时代的影响,因此,我们还需要更多的实证探索与跨文化分析,以期对个体的道德教育与社会政策的制定产生一定的指导作用。

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具身认知强调身体的感知觉在认知过程中发挥着重要的作用。有研究者将物理变量的改变使得人们的道德行为和道德判断发生变化这一探讨方向命名为"道德的心理物理学"。元分析研究的目的在于探讨个体的感知觉与道德行为和道德判断之间是否存在联系,以及这种效应是否受到某些变量的影响。元分析纳入42个研究,共包含2962名被试。研究结果表明道德的具身认知效应显著,具体感知觉与道德行为和道德判断之间存在相关(r=0.19,p0.01)。"被试来源国家"这一变量的调节作用显著(Q=79.454,df=41,p0.001)。

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心理学探新, 36( 5), 387-391.

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隐喻是指利用具体形象概念理解抽象概念。随着第二代认知革命的兴起,具身认知给道德心理学领域的概念隐喻研究注入了新的活力。具身道德的概念隐喻研究主要围绕空间维度、颜色维度、大小维度等角度展开。考虑到身体变量对道德概念理解的影响,未来具身道德角度的概念隐喻研究,应整合概念隐喻理论和具身认知理论,采用更生态化的实验范式进一步探讨和验证道德概念隐喻的多种维度,并需对道德概念的隐喻研究作跨文化探索。

杨继平, 郭秀梅, 王兴超 . ( 2017).

道德概念的隐喻表征——从红白颜色、左右位置和正斜字体的维度

心理学报, 49( 7), 875-885.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

随着具身认知的兴起和发展,道德隐喻的研究焕发新活力。在此背景下,本研究从红白颜色、左右位置和正斜字体三个维度考察道德概念的隐喻表征。实验1的结果显示,红白颜色可能并不与道德概念存在隐喻表征。实验2表明,左右位置与道德概念交互作用显著,左边、右边位置分别与不道德概念、道德概念存在一致的隐喻表征。实验3发现,正斜字体对道德概念的判断具有干扰作用,正体字与道德词汇隐喻表征一致,斜体字与不道德词汇隐喻表征一致。研究表明:左右位置、正斜字体与道德概念存在一定的隐喻联结。

叶浩生 . ( 2010).

具身认知: 认知心理学的新取向

心理科学进展, 18( 5), 705-710.

[本文引用: 1]

叶浩生 . ( 2013).

认知与身体: 理论心理学的视角

心理学报, 45( 4), 481-488.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

With the approach of theoretical psychology, this paper is to explore the possible relations between cognition and body in light of embodiment thesis. According to present author, Dualist viewpoints of mind-body relationship, until recently, have been in dominant position in western culture. The denial of the body in consideration of human mind has been a heritage of the western intellectual zeitgeist since the time of the ancient Greeks. Plato put the body in the position of distraction in intellectual life, and separated the human soul from the body. He is the earliest representative of dualism. In the 17th century, a philosopher of France, Rene Descartes, epistemologically, demonstrated the existence of the dualist world, and distinguished between physical substances and thinking substance. According to Descartes, physical substances (“res extensa”)could be measured and divided, and occupied a physical space, while the thinking substance (“res cogitans”) could not be divided, and was unextended into physical space. Following in Descartes’ footsteps, traditional cognitive science took the metaphor, the MIND IS A COMPUTER. Human mind has been modeled as a digital computer, and cognition was considered as an autonomous, logical, and disembodied process. There was a sharp line between human physical capacities and its intellectual abilities. This kind of dualist viewpoints has been challenged, however, in recent decades in cognitive science. One of the most recent developments that has implications for understanding the relationship between cognition and body is that of embodied mind. According to proponents of theoretical models of embodiment, cognition is body’s cognition, and body is the subject rather than the object of cognition. In author’s opinion, the dependence of cognition on body can be in the following aspects: (1) an agent’s body in action is a powerful constraint on how the agent conceive their environments. Because of its bodily shape and structure, some forms of cognition tend to be easier, and some kinds of cognition tend to be difficult even impossible. (2) an agent’s body can function to distribute cognitive tasks between brain and body, and between body and environment. This means that the mind extends beyond the skull and skin into the outer physical environment, and cognitive systems may loop into the world and hence constitute hybrid systems consisting of both neural and non-neural parts of the body. (3) an agent’s body can regulate cognitive activity and influence mental processes. Nodding our heads result in more positive evaluations, while shaking our heads result in more negative evaluations. This indicate our body’s influence on our mind. Generally speaking, body and mind are not separated but unified. The interaction between body and the world made the mind become possible.

殷融, 曲方炳, 叶浩生 . ( 2012).

具身概念表征的研究及理论述评

心理科学进展, 20( 9), 1372-1381.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The viewpoints of embodied cognition advocate that cognition is essentially embodied and the body plays a pivotal role in an organism’s cognitive processes. Traditional symbolic–computational theories assume conceptual representation is stored as abstract symbols in semantic memory, separated from systems governing perception and action. The embodied theories of conceptual representation hold that conceptual representation is grounded in the same neural systems that govern sensation, perception and action. According this viewpoint, concepts are essentially neural recordings during perceptual and motor experiences, and these recordings can later be re–enacted as the way of conceptual processing. Recent work has focused on the emergence of perceptual phenomena in conceptual processing, the effect of body movement on conceptual processing, the embodied effect for processing abstract conception, the embodied effect for processing combined concept and modality switching costs effect. Future researches should focus on combining symbolic–computational theories and embodied theories.

殷融, 苏得权, 叶浩生 . ( 2013).

具身认知视角下的概念隐喻理论

心理科学进展, 21( 2), 220-234.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Metaphor is a common linguistic phenomenon. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) assumes that metaphor is not only just the language we use to communicate: it reflects a cognitive character that sensorimotor experiences and concrete concepts serve as the foundation for the development of more abstract concepts. According to CMT, the sensorimotor information should be an integral part for representing abstract concepts and the sensorimotor experiences also can be activated as the way of abstract conceptual processing. A growing body of work has found that the processes of abstract concepts are linked to the physical experiences that describe them metaphorically. These studies involve spatial metaphor, thermal metaphor, clean metaphor, haptic metaphor and so on. Future researches should focus on the effect of multiple metaphors on conceptual processing, determine how the unidirectional relationship and bidirectional relationship are shaped and develop the application of CMT.

翟贤亮, 葛鲁嘉 . ( 2017).

从离身到具身: 具身管理学的可能

心理科学, 40( 1), 238-243.

[本文引用: 1]

Ackerman J. M., Nocera C. C., & Bargh J. A . ( 2010).

Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions

Science, 328( 5986), 1712-1715.

URL     PMID:20576894     

Abstract Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth puzzles, and touching hard or soft objects nonconsciously influenced impressions and decisions formed about unrelated people and situations. Among other effects, heavy objects made job candidates appear more important, rough objects made social interactions appear more difficult, and hard objects increased rigidity in negotiations. Basic tactile sensations are thus shown to influence higher social cognitive processing in dimension-specific and metaphor-specific ways.

Andy, C(2008 ).

Supersizing the mind: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension

New York: Oxford University Press.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Reviewed by Craig DeLancey Andy Clark. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension . New York: Oxford UP, 2008. 320 pp. Andy Clark’s works set the standard for theoretical cognitive science corroborated by wide-ranging surveys of empirical results. His philosophical claims are always simultaneously provocative and productive: he not only criticizes but always offers new directions for research. Supersizing the Mind is Clark’s most recent book of this kind. Supersizing the Mind supersizes the arguments made by Clark and David Chalmers in their seminal 1998 Analysis paper, “The Extended Mind.” That paper (handily included as an appendix to this book) argued for the then radical, but also immensely compelling, claim that cognition can extend not only outside the skull, but outside the body. The arguments in that paper made use of a simple parity principle: “If, as we confront some task, a part of the world functions as a process which, were it to go on in the head, we would have no hesitation in accepting as part of the cognitive process, then that part of the world is (for that time) part of the cognitive process” (77). Thus, they argued, a man Otto who reliably used a notebook to guide his actions can be said to have beliefs that are recorded in the notebook—at least when using the notebook in certain kinds of ways. The parity principle provides a powerful argument for extending cognition; those who oppose the extended mind hypothesis must offer some non-arbitrary reason to rule out these particular instances of potential extension. Many have tried, of course, and in this book, Clark sets out to explain, emend, and defend the hypothesis. The book has three distinct parts. The first provides the context for the extended mind. Clark reviews research and provides a theoretical perspective, that reveals (mostly) human minds as economically exploiting their environment in ways that minimize the demands for internal representation when the environment itself can do the required work. Thus, “ the canny cognizer tends to recruit, on the spot, whatever mix of problem-solving resources will yield an acceptable result with a minimum of effort ” (13; Clark’s emphasis). This can include not bothering to remember elements of the environment if one can merely look at them to check on their status. Clark also reviews the kinds and complexities of mind-and-world interactions and entrainings. This guiding principle of cognitive economy also elegantly relates Clark’s work on embodiment to his work on the extended mind; the main lesson of [End Page 415] embodiment is that the body and its environment can solve problems in place of complex representations or algorithms. The second part of the book defends the extended mind hypothesis from a range of critical responses to the original paper. Most of these criticisms are, as Clark shows, off the mark. For example, they include the claim that the notebook referred to in the original paper is, on the extended mind hypothesis, itself conscious or cognitive. Clark patiently explains that it is the agent and the notebook that have cognition, never the notebook alone. He unequivocally clarifies that the human body is necessary for human cognition, the body is cognition’s source and font, and that there is no inconsistency between his work on embodiment and the extended mind hypothesis. Here, Clark’s ecumenicalism—his willingness, shared by most other cognitive scientists, to approach the study of mind from a very diverse range of perspectives, bringing to bear many different kinds of models—comes to the fore. Extending the mind is an important strategy but only one that thinking agents use. The final part of the book is a different kind of clarification: an exploration of the limits of embodiment and the extended mind. This begins with Clark’s criticism of proposals by No05 and others that perception is always actively constructive and dependent upon motor engagement with the environment. Clark rejects this by—unsurprisingly—proposing a mixed model of perception in which the role of motor engagement in perception requires that there be some dedicated and stable representations of which perception can make use. These explain, for example, the dual-stream models of vision...

Bai Y., Maruskin L. A., Chen S., Gordon A. M., Stellar J. E., McNeil G. D., .. Keltner D . ( 2017).

Awe, the diminished self, and collective engagement: Universals and cultural variations in the small self

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113( 2), 185-209.

URL     PMID:28481617     

Abstract Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self. These findings were observed across collectivist and individualistic cultures, but also varied across cultures in magnitude and content. Evidence from the last 2 studies showed that the influence of awe upon the small self accounted for increases in collective engagement, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Discussion focused on how the small self might mediate the effects of awe on collective cognition and behavior, the need to study more negatively valenced varieties of awe, and other potential cultural variations of the small self. (PsycINFO Database Record.

Banerjee P., Chatterjee P., & Sinha J . ( 2012).

Is it light or dark? Recalling moral behavior changes perception of brightness

Psychological Science, 23( 4), 407-409.

URL     PMID:22395128      [本文引用: 2]

[Abstract unavailable]

Bargh J. A., Chen M., & Burrows L . ( 1996).

Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype-activation on action

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71( 2), 230-244.

URL     PMID:8765481      [本文引用: 2]

Previous research has shown that trait concepts and stereotype become active automatically in the presence of relevant behavior or stereotyped-group features. Through the use of the same priming procedures as in previous impression formation research, Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli. In Experiment 2, participants for whom an elderly stereotype was primed walked more slowly down the hallway when leaving the experiment than did control participants, consistent with the content of that stereotype. In Experiment 3, participants for whom the African American stereotype was primed subliminally reacted with more hostility to a vexatious request of the experimenter. Implications of this automatic behavior priming effect for self-fulfilling prophecies are discussed, as is whether social behavior is necessarily mediated by conscious choice processes.

Carney D. R., Cuddy A. J., & Yap A. J . ( 2010).

Power posing: Brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance

Psychological Science, 21( 10), 1363-1368.

[本文引用: 3]

Chapman H. A., Kim D. A., Susskind J. M., & Anderson A. K . ( 2009).

In bad taste: Evidence for the oral origins of moral disgust

Science, 323( 5918), 1222-1226.

URL     PMID:19251631     

In common parlance, moral transgressions "leave a bad taste in the mouth." This metaphor implies a link between moral disgust and more primitive forms of disgust related to toxicity and disease, yet convincing evidence for this relationship is still lacking. We tested directly the primitive oral origins of moral disgust by searching for similarity in the facial motor activity evoked by gustatory distaste (elicited by unpleasant tastes), basic disgust (elicited by photographs of contaminants), and moral disgust (elicited by unfair treatment in an economic game). We found that all three states evoked activation of the levator labii muscle region of the face, characteristic of an oral-nasal rejection response. These results suggest that immorality elicits the same disgust as disease vectors and bad tastes.

Chartrand T. L., Huber J., Shiv B., & Tanner R. J . ( 2008).

Nonconscious goals and consumer choice

Journal of Consumer Research, 35( 2), 189-201.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This work examines the process through which thrift versus prestige goals can nonconsciously affect decisions in a choice task. Drawing upon research on nonconscious goal pursuit, we present a theoretical framework detailing how consumer choices are affected by incidentally activated goals. We show that such primed goals have motivational properties consistent with goal pursuit but inconsistent with mere cognitive activation; the effects are greater with a longer time interval between the priming task and the choice and are less pronounced when the primed goal is satiated in a real, as opposed to a hypothetical, intervening choice task. Additionally, we show that subliminally evoked retail brand names can serve as the cues that activate purchasing goals.

Day, M.V., &Bobocel, D.R . ( 2013).

The weight of a guilty conscience: Subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt

PLoS One, 8( 7), e69546.

URL     PMID:3729967     

Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

Dijksterhuis, Ap, &Nordgren, Loran F . ( 2006).

A theory of unconscious thought

Perspectives on Psychological Science: A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 1( 2), 95-109.

URL     PMID:26151465      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT090000 We present a theory about human thought named the unconscious-thought theory (UTT). The theory is applicable to decision making, impression formation, attitude formation and change, problem solving, and creativity. It distinguishes between two modes of thought: unconscious and conscious. Unconscious thought and conscious thought have different characteristics, and these different characteristics make each mode preferable under different circumstances. For instance, contrary to popular belief, decisions about simple issues can be better tackled by conscious thought, whereas decisions about complex matters can be better approached with unconscious thought. The relations between the theory and decision strategies, and between the theory and intuition, are discussed. We end by discussing caveats and future directions.

Doyen S., Klein O., Pichon C. L., & Cleeremans A . ( 2012).

Behavioral priming: It's all in the mind, but whose mind?

Plos One, 7( 1), e29081.

URL     PMID:22279526      [本文引用: 1]

The perspective that behavior is often driven by unconscious determinants has become widespread in social psychology. Bargh, Chen, and Burrows' (1996) famous study, in which participants unwittingly exposed to the stereotype of age walked slower when exiting the laboratory, was instrumental in defining this perspective. Here, we present two experiments aimed at replicating the original study. Despite the use of automated timing methods and a larger sample, our first experiment failed to show priming. Our second experiment was aimed at manipulating the beliefs of the experimenters: Half were led to think that participants would walk slower when primed congruently, and the other half was led to expect the opposite. Strikingly, we obtained a walking speed effect, but only when experimenters believed participants would indeed walk slower. This suggests that both priming and experimenters' expectations are instrumental in explaining the walking speed effect. Further, debriefing was suggestive of awareness of the primes. We conclude that unconscious behavioral priming is real, while real, involves mechanisms different from those typically assumed to cause the effect.

Eisenberger N. I., Lieberman M. D., & Williams K. D . ( 2003).

Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion

Science, 302( 5643), 290-292.

URL     PMID:14551436      [本文引用: 1]

A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress. ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC activity.

Eskine K. J., Kacinik N. A., & Prinz J. J . ( 2011).

A bad taste in the mouth: Gustatory disgust influences moral judgment

Psychological Science, 22( 3), 295-299.

URL     PMID:21307274     

Can sweet-tasting substances trigger kind, favorable judgments about other people? What about substances that are disgusting and bitter? Various studies have linked physical disgust to moral disgust, but despite the rich and sometimes striking findings these studies have yielded, no research has explored morality in conjunction with taste, which can vary greatly and may differentially affect cognition. The research reported here tested the effects of taste perception on moral judgments. After consuming a sweet beverage, a bitter beverage, or water, participants rated a variety of moral transgressions. Results showed that taste perception significantly affected moral judgments, such that physical disgust (induced via a bitter taste) elicited feelings of moral disgust. Further, this effect was more pronounced in participants with politically conservative views than in participants with politically liberal views. Taken together, these differential findings suggest that embodied gustatory experiences may affect moral processing more than previously thought.

Eskine K. J., Kacinik N. A., & Webster G. D . ( 2012).

The bitter truth about morality: Virtue, not vice, makes a bland beverage taste nice

PLoS One, 7( 7), e41159.

URL     PMID:3399822      [本文引用: 1]

To demonstrate that sensory and emotional states play an important role in moral processing, previous research has induced physical disgust in various sensory modalities (visual, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory modalities, among others) and measured its effects on moral judgment. To further assess the strength of the connection between embodied states and morality, we investigated whether the directionality of the effect could be reversed by exposing participants to different types of moral events prior to rating the same neutral tasting beverage. As expected, reading about moral transgressions, moral virtues, or control events resulted in inducing gustatory disgust, delight, or neutral taste experiences, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between embodied cognition and processing abstract conceptual representations.

Ferrin, A. ( 2017).

Good moral judgment and decision-making without deliberation

Southern Journal of Philosophy, 55( 1), 68-95.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

It is widely accepted in psychology and cognitive science that there are two “systems” in the mind: one system is characterized as quick, intuitive, perceptive, and perhaps more primitive, while the other is described as slower, more deliberative, and responsible for our higher-order cognition. I use the term “reflectivism” to capture the view that conscious reflection—in the “System 2” sense—is a necessary feature of good moral judgment and decision-making. This is not to suggest that System 2 must operate alone in forming our moral decisions, but that it plays a normatively ineliminable role. In this paper, I discuss arguments that have been offered in defense of reflectivism. These arguments fit into two broad categories; let us think of them as two sides of a coin. On the first side are arguments about the efficaciousness of conscious reasoning—for example, without conscious deliberation we will make bad moral judgments and decisions. On the other side of the coin are arguments about the centrality of conscious deliberation to normative actions—for example, without conscious deliberation we are no more agential than animals or automatons. Despite their attractiveness, I argue that these arguments do not successfully establish that reflection is a necessary component of good moral judgment and decision-making. If I am right, the idea that good moral judgment and decision-making can result from entirely automatic and subconscious processes gains traction. My goal in this paper is to show that reflectivism fails to include the full range of cases of moral decision-making and that a theory of automaticity may do a better job. I briefly discuss at the end of the paper how an account of successful automatic moral judgment and decision-making might begin to take shape.

Fischer J., Fischer P., Englich B., Aydin N., & Frey D . ( 2011).

Empower my decisions: The effects of power gestures on confirmatory information processing

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47( 6), 1146-1154.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

78 Power increases confirmatory information processing. 78 Power is likely to reduce decision quality. 78 Power increases decision certainty.

Garrison K. E., Tang D., & Schmeichel B. J . ( 2016).

Embodying power: A preregistered replication and extension of the power pose effect

Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7( 7), 623-630.

[本文引用: 2]

Gilead M., Gal O., Polak M., & Cholow Y . ( 2015).

The role of nature and nurture in conceptual metaphors the case of gustatory priming

Social Psychology, 46( 3), 167-173.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT It is unclear whether embodied-cognition effects are caused by the activation of cultural-linguistic metaphors, or whether these metaphors stem from preverbal mechanisms that directly affect both language and behavior. Therefore, we conducted a study wherein 62 Israeli participants ate sweet or spicy snacks and performed a social judgment task. Preverbal mechanisms assign positive hedonic value to sweetness and negative value to spiciness. However, in Israeli culture, "sweetness" is used as a metaphor for inauthenticity, whereas "spiciness"stands for intellectual competence. In accordance with the predictions of a culturally-mediated variant of conceptual-metaphor theory, the results showed that priming participants with spicy (vs. sweet) tastes increased judgments of intellectual competence, decreased judgments of inauthenticity, and increased overall evaluation of a social target.

Giner-Sorolla, R., &Chapman, H.A . ( 2017).

Beyond Purity

Psychological Science, 28( 1), 80-91.

[本文引用: 1]

Goldinger S. D., Papesh M. H., Barnhart A. S., Hansen W. A., & Hout M. C . ( 2016).

The poverty of embodied cognition

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23( 4), 959-978.

URL     PMID:27282990      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life.

Greene, J.D. ( 2007).

Why are VMPFC patients more utilitarian? A dual-process theory of moral judgment explains

Trends In Cognitive Sciences, 11( 8), 322-323.

URL     PMID:17625951      [本文引用: 1]

This article has no associated abstract. ( fix it )

Greene J. D., Morelli S. A., Lowenberg K., Nystrom L. E., & Cohen J. D . ( 2008).

Cognitive load selectively interferes with utilitarian moral judgment

Cognition, 107( 3), 1144-1154.

URL     PMID:2429958      [本文引用: 1]

Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions that maximize good consequences) with controlled cognitive processes and associates non-utilitarian moral judgment with automatic emotional responses. Consistent with this theory, we find that a cognitive load manipulation selectively interferes with utilitarian judgment. This interference effect provides direct evidence for the influence of controlled cognitive processes in moral judgment, and utilitarian moral judgment more specifically.

Gronau Q. F., Van Erp S., Heck D. W., Cesario J., Jonas K. J., & Wagenmakers E.-J . ( 2017).

A Bayesian model-averaged meta-analysis of the power pose effect with informed and default priors: The case of felt power

Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology, 2( 1), 123-138.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Earlier work found that compared to participants who adopted constrictive body postures participants who adopted expansive body postures reported feeling more powerful, showed an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol, and displayed an increased tolerance for risk. However, these power pose effects have recently come under considerable scrutiny. Here, we present a Bayesian metaanalysis of six preregistered studies from this special issue, focusing on the effect of power posing on felt power. Our analysis improves on standard classical meta-analyses in several ways. First and foremost, we considered only preregistered studies, eliminating concerns about publication bias. Second, the Bayesian approach enables us to quantify evidence for both the alternative and the null hypothesis. Third, we use Bayesian model-averaging to account for the uncertainty with respect to the choice for a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model. Fourth, based on a literature review, we obtained an empirically informed prior distribution for the between-study heterogeneity of effect sizes. This empirically informed prior can serve as a default choice not only for the investigation of the power pose effect but for effects in the field of psychology more generally. For effect size, we considered a default and an informed prior. Our meta-analysis yields very strong evidence for an effect of power posing on felt power. However, when the analysis is restricted to participants unfamiliar with the effect, the meta-analysis yields evidence that is only moderate.

Helzer, E.G., &Pizarro, D.A . ( 2011).

Dirty liberals! reminders of physical cleanliness influence moral and political attitudes

Psychological Science, 22( 4), 517-522.

URL     PMID:21421934      [本文引用: 1]

Many moral codes place a special emphasis on bodily purity, and manipulations that directly target bodily purity have been shown to influence a variety of moral judgments. Across two studies, we demonstrated that reminders of physical purity influence specific moral judgments regarding behaviors in the sexual domain as well as broad political attitudes. In Study 1, individuals in a public setting who were given a reminder of physical cleansing reported being more politically conservative than did individuals who were not given such a reminder. In Study 2, individuals reminded of physical cleansing in the laboratory demonstrated harsher moral judgments toward violations of sexual purity and were more likely to report being politically conservative than control participants. Together, these experiments provide further evidence of a deep link between physical purity and moral judgment, and they offer preliminary evidence that manipulations of physical purity can influence general (and putatively stable) political attitudes.

Homan P., Ely B. A., Yuan M., Brosch T., Ng J., Trope Y., & Schiller D . ( 2017).

Aversive smell associations shape social judgment

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 144, 86-95.

URL    

Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation. This effect was predicted by the degree of the preceding olfactory evaluative conditioning. Whole brain analysis of stimulus by stage interaction indicated differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and right angular gyrus to the conditioned versus the neutral person during the attribution phase only. These results suggest that negative smell associations do not simply induce a negative perception of the target person but rather bias the attribution style towards trait attributions. The fact that this bias was evident regardless of behavior valence suggests it may reflect enhanced psychological distance. Thus, the known observation of social rejection triggered by aversive smell may be driven by a shift in social attribution style.

Horberg E. J., Oveis C., Keltner D., & Cohen A. B . ( 2009).

Disgust and the moralization of purity

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97( 6), 963-976.

URL     PMID:19968413      [本文引用: 1]

Guided by appraisal-based models of the influence of emotion upon judgment, we propose that disgust moralizes--that is, amplifies the moral significance of--protecting the purity of the body and soul. Three studies documented that state and trait disgust, but not other negative emotions, moralize the purity moral domain but not the moral domains of justice or harm/care. In Study 1, integral feelings of disgust, but not integral anger, predicted stronger moral condemnation of behaviors violating purity. In Study 2, experimentally induced disgust, compared with induced sadness, increased condemnation of behaviors violating purity and increased approval of behaviors upholding purity. In Study 3, trait disgust, but not trait anger or trait fear, predicted stronger condemnation of purity violations and greater approval of behaviors upholding purity. We found that, confirming the domain specificity of the disgust-purity association, disgust was unrelated to moral judgments about justice (Studies 1 and 2) or harm/care (Study 3). Finally, across studies, individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely than individuals of higher SES to moralize purity but not justice or harm/care.

IJzerman, H., &Koole, S.L . ( 2011).

From perceptual rags to metaphoric riches-bodily, social, and cultural constraints on sociocognitive metaphors: Comment on Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010)

Psychological Bulletin, 137( 2), 355-361.

URL     PMID:21355634      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract What leads people to describe some of their interpersonal relationships as "close" and "warm" and others as "distant" and "cold"? Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010) proposed that conceptual metaphors facilitate social cognition by allowing people to use knowledge from a relatively concrete (source) domain (e.g., physical distance) in understanding a different, usually more abstract (target) concept (e.g., love). We concur that such a notion of metaphors can greatly enrich the field of social cognition. At the same time, we believe it is important to devote greater theoretical attention to the nature of metaphorical representations in social cognition. We believe that Landau et al. place too much emphasis on sociocognitive metaphors as top-down knowledge structures and pay too little attention to the constraints that shape metaphors from the bottom up. In the present contribution, we highlight important bottom-up constraints, imposed through bodily constraints and social scaffolds. Sociocognitive metaphors do not exist just for mental representation but for action as well. We discuss the relevance of grounding sociocognitive metaphors for broader motivational purposes. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

Inbar Y., Pizarro D. A., & Bloom P . ( 2009).

Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals

Cognition & Emotion, 23( 4), 714-725.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The uniquely human emotion of disgust is intimately connected to morality in many, perhaps all, cultures (Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999b). We report two studies suggesting that a predisposition to feel disgust (“disgust sensitivity”) is associated with more conservative political attitudes, especially for issues related to the moral dimension of purity. In the first study, we document a positive correlation between disgust sensitivity and self-reported conservatism in a broad sample of US adults. In Study 2 we show that while disgust sensitivity is associated with more conservative attitudes on a range of political issues, this relationship is strongest for purity-related issues—specifically, abortion and gay marriage.

Inbar Y., Pizarro D. A., Knobe J., & Bloom P . ( 2009).

Disgust sensitivity predicts intuitive disapproval of gays

Emotion, 9( 3), 435-439.

URL     PMID:19485621      [本文引用: 1]

Two studies demonstrate that a dispositional proneness to disgust ("disgust sensitivity") is associated with intuitive disapproval of gay people. Study 1 was based on previous research showing that people are more likely to describe a behavior as intentional when they see it as morally wrong (see Knobe, 2006, for a review). As predicted, the more disgust sensitive participants were, the more likely they were to describe an agent whose behavior had the side effect of causing gay men to kiss in public as having intentionally encouraged gay men to kiss publicly-even though most participants did not explicitly think it wrong to encourage gay men to kiss in public. No such effect occurred when subjects were asked about heterosexual kissing. Study 2 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2006) as a dependent measure. The more disgust sensitive participants were, the more they showed unfavorable automatic associations with gay people as opposed to heterosexuals. Two studies demonstrate that a dispositional proneness to disgust ("disgust sensitivity") is associated with intuitive disapproval of gay people. Study 1 was based on previous research showing that people are more likely to describe a behavior as intentional when they see it as morally wrong (see Knobe, 2006, for a review). As predicted, the more disgust sensitive participants were, the more likely they were to describe an agent whose behavior had the side effect of causing gay men to kiss in public as having intentionally encouraged gay men to kiss publicly-even though most participants did not explicitly think it wrong to encourage gay men to kiss in public. No such effect occurred when subjects were asked about heterosexual kissing. Study 2 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2006) as a dependent measure. The more disgust sensitive participants were, the more they showed unfavorable automatic associations with gay people as opposed to heterosexuals.

Johnson D. J., Cheung F., & Donnellan M. B . ( 2014).

Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? A direct replication of Schnall, Benton, and Harvey (2008)

Social Psychology, 45( 3), 209-215.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Schnall, Benton, and Harvey (2008) hypothesized that physical cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgments. In support of this idea, they found that individuals make less severe judgments when they are primed with the concept of cleanliness (Exp. 1) and when they wash their hands after experiencing disgust (Exp. 2). We conducted direct replications of both studies using materials supplied by the original authors. We did not find evidence that physical cleanliness reduced the severity of moral judgments using samples sizes that provided over.99 power to detect the original effect sizes. Our estimates of the overall effect size were much smaller than estimates from Experiment 1 (original d = -0.60, 95% CI [-1.23, 0.04], N = 40; replication d = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.28, 0.26] , N = 208) and Experiment 2 (original d = -0.85, 95% CI [-1.47, -0.22], N = 43; replication d = 0.01, 95% CI [-.34, 0.36] , N = 126). These findings suggest that the population effect sizes are probably substantially smaller than the original estimates. Researchers investigating the connections between cleanliness and morality should therefore use large sample sizes to have the necessary power to detect subtle effects. 2014.

Kang, E., &Lakshmanan, A . ( 2017).

Role of executive attention in consumer learning with background music

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27( 1), 35-48.

URL    

This paper examines how the type of background music (vocal vs. instrumental) affects consumers' cognitive performance depending on individual differences in executive attention (i.e., working memory capacity). Across three experiments, we find that vocal music leads to poorer cognitive and attitudinal outcomes for consumers lower in working memory capacity but does not affect those higher in working memory capacity. However, short-term habituation to background music helps mitigate this negative effect of vocal music on consumer ad recall. Finally, consumer performances on computing discount prices are also affected by music type depending upon whether prices are communicated in verbal or numeric form. Overall, this research lays out an executive-attention based process mechanism explaining when and how background music shapes consumer learning and memory. The outlined theory enriches the literature on music effects as well as immediate-term learning by explicating the role of selective attention in the processing of multi-modal marketing stimuli.

Kang Y., Williams L. E., Clark M. S., Gray J. R., & Bargh J. A . ( 2011).

Physical temperature effects on trust behavior: The role of insula

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6( 4), 507-515.

URL     PMID:3150863      [本文引用: 1]

Trust lies at the heart of person perception and interpersonal decision making. In two studies, we investigated physical temperature as one factor that can influence human trust behavior, and the insula as a possible neural substrate. Participants briefly touched either a cold or warm pack, and then played an economic trust game. Those primed with cold invested less with an anonymous partner, revealing lesser interpersonal trust, as compared to those who touched a warm pack. In Study 2, we examined neural activity during trust-related processes after a temperature manipulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The left-anterior insular region activated more strongly than baseline only when the trust decision was preceded by touching a cold pack, and not a warm pack. In addition, greater activation within bilateral insula was identified during the decision phase followed by a cold manipulation, contrasted to warm. These results suggest that the insula may be a key shared neural substrate that mediates the influence of temperature on trust processes.

Landau M. J., Meier B. P., & Keefer L. A . ( 2010).

A metaphor-enriched social cognition

Psychological Bulletin, 136( 6), 1045-1067.

URL     PMID:20822208      [本文引用: 1]

Social cognition is the scientific study of the cognitive events underlying social thought and attitudes. Currently, the field's prevailing theoretical perspectives are the traditional schema view and embodied cognition theories. Despite important differences, these perspectives share the seemingly uncontroversial notion that people interpret and evaluate a given social stimulus using knowledge about similar stimuli. However, research in cognitive linguistics (e.g., Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) suggests that people construe the world in large part through conceptual metaphors, which enable them to understand abstract concepts using knowledge of superficially dissimilar, typically more concrete concepts. Drawing on these perspectives, we propose that social cognition can and should be enriched by an explicit recognition that conceptual metaphor is a unique cognitive mechanism that shapes social thought and attitudes. To advance this metaphor-enriched perspective, we introduce the metaphoric transfer strategy as a means of empirically assessing whether metaphors influence social information processing in ways that are distinct from the operation of schemas alone. We then distinguish conceptual metaphor from embodied simulation--the mechanism posited by embodied cognition theories--and introduce the alternate source strategy as a means of empirically teasing apart these mechanisms. Throughout, we buttress our claims with empirical evidence of the influence of metaphors on a wide range of social psychological phenomena. We outline directions for future research on the strength and direction of metaphor use in social information processing. Finally, we mention specific benefits of a metaphor-enriched perspective for integrating and generating social cognitive research and for bridging social cognition with neighboring fields.

Landy, J.F., &Goodwin, G.P . ( 2015).

Does incidental disgust amplify moral judgment? a meta-analytic review of experimental evidence

Perspectives on Psychological Science A Journal of The Association for Psychological Science, 10( 4), 518-536.

URL     PMID:26177951      [本文引用: 1]

The role of emotion in moral judgment is currently a topic of much debate in moral psychology. One specific claim made by many researchers is that irrelevant feelings of disgust can amplify the severity of moral condemnation. Numerous researchers have found this effect, but there have also been several published failures to replicate it. Clarifying this issue would inform important theoretical debates among rival accounts of moral judgment. We meta-analyzed all available studies--published and unpublished--in which incidental disgust was manipulated prior to or concurrent with a moral judgment task (k = 50). We found evidence for a small amplification effect of disgust (d = 0.11), which is strongest for gustatory/olfactory modes of disgust induction. However, there is also some suggestion of publication bias in this literature, and when this is accounted for, the effect disappears entirely (d = -0.01). Moreover, prevalent confounds mean that the effect size that we estimate is best interpreted as an upper bound on the size of the amplification effect. On the basis of the results of this meta-analysis, we argue against strong claims about the causal role of affect in moral judgment and suggest a need for new, more rigorous research on this topic.

Lee, S. W.S., &Schwarz, N . ( 2011).

Wiping the slate clean: Psychological consequences of physical cleansing

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20( 5), 307-311.

[本文引用: 1]

Lee, S. W.S., &Schwarz, N . ( 2012).

Bidirectionality, mediation, and moderation of metaphorical effects: The embodiment of social suspicion and fishy smells

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103( 5), 737-749.

URL     PMID:22905770     

Abstract Metaphorical effects are commonly assumed to be unidirectional, running from concrete to abstract domains but not vice versa. Noting that metaphorical effects are often found to be bidirectional, we explore how they may be mediated and moderated according to the principles of knowledge accessibility and applicability. Using the example of "something smells fishy" (a metaphorical expression of social suspicion), 7 experiments tested for the behavioral effects of fishy smells on social suspicion among English speakers, the reversed effects of suspicion on smell labeling and detection, and the underlying mechanism. Incidental exposure to fishy smells induced suspicion and undermined cooperation in trust-based economic exchanges in a trust game (Study 1) and a public goods game (Study 2). Socially induced suspicion enhanced the correct labeling of fishy smells, but not other smells (Studies 3a-3c), an effect that could be mediated by the accessibility and moderated by the applicability of metaphorically associated concepts (Studies 4-6). Suspicion also heightened detection sensitivity to low concentrations of fishy smells (Study 7). Bidirectionality, mediation, and moderation of metaphorical effects have important theoretical implications for integrating known wisdom from social cognition with new insights into the embodied and metaphorical nature of human thinking. These findings also highlight the need for exploring the cultural variability and origin of metaphorical knowledge. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

Liljenquist K., Zhong C. B., & Galinsky A. D . ( 2010).

The smell of virtue: Clean scents promote reciprocity and charity

Psychological Science, 21( 3), 381-383.

URL     PMID:2042407420      [本文引用: 1]

Psychol Sci. 2010 Mar;21(3):381-3. doi: 10.1177/0956797610361426. Epub 2010 Feb 4.

Meier B. P., Moeller S. K., Riemer-Peltz M., & Robinson M. D . ( 2012).

Sweet taste preferences and experiences predict prosocial inferences, personalities, and behaviors

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102( 1), 163-174.

URL     PMID:21875232      [本文引用: 1]

It is striking that prosocial people are considered "sweet" (e.g., "she's a sweetie") because they are unlikely to differentially taste this way. These metaphors aid communication, but theories of conceptual metaphor and embodiment led us to hypothesize that they can be used to derive novel insights about personality processes. Five studies converged on this idea. Study 1 revealed that people believed strangers who liked sweet foods (e.g., candy) were also higher in agreeableness. Studies 2 and 3 showed that individual differences in the preference for sweet foods predicted prosocial personalities, prosocial intentions, and prosocial behaviors. Studies 4 and 5 used experimental designs and showed that momentarily savoring a sweet food (vs. a nonsweet food or no food) increased participants' self-reports of agreeableness and helping behavior. The results reveal that an embodied metaphor approach provides a complementary but unique perspective to traditional trait views of personality.

Meier B. P., Simone S., Norbert S., & Bargh J. A . ( 2012).

Embodiment in social psychology

Topics in Cognitive Science, 4( 4), 705-716.

Montoro P. R., Contreras M. J., Elosúa M. R., & Marmolejoramos F . ( 2015).

Cross-modal metaphorical mapping of spoken emotion words onto vertical space

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1205.

URL     PMID:4531208      [本文引用: 1]

From the field of embodied cognition, previous studies have reported evidence of metaphorical mapping of emotion concepts onto a vertical spatial axis. Most of the work on this topic has used visual words as the typical experimental stimuli. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association between affect and vertical space using a cross-modal procedure. The current research is a first step toward the study of the metaphorical mapping of emotions onto vertical space by means of an auditory to visual cross-modal paradigm. In the present study, we examined whether auditory words with an emotional valence can interact with the vertical visual space according to a ositive-up/negative-down embodied metaphor. The general method consisted in the presentation of a spoken word denoting a positive/negative emotion prior to the spatial localization of a visual target in an upper or lower position. In Experiment 1, the spoken words were passively heard by the participants and no reliable interaction between emotion concepts and bodily simulated space was found. In contrast, Experiment 2 required more active listening of the auditory stimuli. A metaphorical mapping of affect and space was evident but limited to the participants engaged in an emotion-focused task. Our results suggest that the association of affective valence and vertical space is not activated automatically during speech processing since an explicit semantic and/or emotional evaluation of the emotionally valenced stimuli was necessary to obtain an embodied effect. The results are discussed within the framework of the embodiment hypothesis.

Moore, C., &Barresi, J . ( 2017).

The role of second-person information in the development of social understanding

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1667.

URL     PMID:5622194      [本文引用: 2]

We consider the second-person or interactive approach to social understanding, conceived as an understanding of intentional relations. We identify five forms of second-person information self-directedness, contingency, reciprocity, affective engagement, and shared intentions that occur only in interactions. We assess the extent to which these forms of information are available to observers of interactions as well as to the participants of an interaction and conclude that whereas observers may gain some second-person information, interactive participants have a privileged position. We also ask whether these forms of second-person information can deliver social understanding in terms of the understanding of intentional relations that are descriptive of persons. We argue that whereas none of these forms alone is sufficient for understanding intentional relations, they all play an important role in the developmental processes that enable the construction of social understanding. Therefore, the second-person approach, understood as theorizing how second-person information available in interactions is used in the development of social understanding, is a critically important approach to a full theory of social understanding.

Mukherjee S., Kramer T., & Kulow K . ( 2017).

The effect of spicy gustatory sensations on variety-seeking

Psychology & Marketing, 34( 8), 786-794.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

react-text: 437 It is unclear whether embodied-cognition effects are caused by the activation of cultural-linguistic metaphors, or whether these metaphors stem from preverbal mechanisms that directly affect both language and behavior. Therefore, we conducted a study wherein 62 Israeli participants ate sweet or spicy snacks and performed a social judgment task. Preverbal mechanisms assign positive hedonic... /react-text react-text: 438 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Natanzon, M., &Ferguson, M.J . ( 2012).

Goal pursuit is grounded: The link between forward movement and achievement

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48( 1), 379-382.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

78 Goals contain embodied and metaphorical information. 78 Concept of achievement may become scaffolded onto simple forward movement. 78 Visual cues of forward movement increased implicit positivity toward achievement. 78 Visual cues of forward movement increased word puzzle performance.

Niedenthal, P.M. ( 2007).

Embodying emotion

Science, 316( 5827), 1002-1005.

[本文引用: 1]

Nosek B. A., Hawkins C. B., & Frazier R. S . ( 2011).

Implicit social cognition: From measures to mechanisms

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15( 4), 152-159.

URL     PMID:3073696      [本文引用: 1]

Most human cognition occurs outside conscious awareness or conscious control. Some of these implicit processes influence social perception, judgment and action. The past 15 years of research in implicit social cognition can be characterized as the Age of Measurement because of a proliferation of measurement methods and research evidence demonstrating their practical value for predicting human behavior. Implicit measures assess constructs that are distinct, but related, to self-report assessments, and predict variation in behavior that is not accounted for by those explicit measures. The present state of knowledge provides a foundation for the next age of implicit social cognition: clarification of the mechanisms underlying implicit measurement and how the measured constructs influence behavior.

Oosterwijk S., Rotteveel M., Fischer A. H., & Hess U . ( 2009).

Embodied emotion concepts: How generating words about pride and disappointment influences posture

European Journal of Social Psychology, 39( 3), 457-466.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Embodiment theories predict that activating conceptual knowledge about emotions can be accompanied by re-experiencing bodily states, since simulations of sensory, motor, and introspective experiences form the foundation of conceptual representations of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether the activation of the specific emotion concepts of pride and disappointment are embodied in the sense that they are accompanied by changes in posture. Participants generated words associated with pride and disappointment while posture height was measured. Results show that during the generation of disappointment words participants decreased their posture height more than when participants generated pride words. This finding suggests that the activation of conceptual knowledge about disappointment can lead to a spontaneous expression of the associated body posture. In contrast to posture changes along the vertical axis, movement along the horizontal axis was not influenced by concept activation. In addition to bodily simulation the data also indicated introspective simulation, since feelings of disappointment increased after generating disappointment words. The current study provides the first evidence for the claim that the activation of conceptual knowledge about emotion can instantiate spontaneous simulations at a behavioral level. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Preston, J.L., &Ritter, R.S . ( 2012).

Cleanliness and godliness: Mutual association between two kinds of personal purity

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48( 6), 1365-1368.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

78 Three studies demonstrate a bi-directional association between religion and cleanliness. 78 Religion primes increase accessibility of cleaning-related concepts (Study 1). 78 Religion primes enhance value of cleaning products, indicating cleanliness goal (Study 2). 78 Clean prime enhances value of religious beliefs (Study 3), indicating a religious goal.

Price, T.F., &Harmon-Jones, E . ( 2015).

Embodied emotion: The influence of manipulated facial and bodily states on emotive responses

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Cognitive Science, 6( 6), 461-473.

URL     PMID:26401657      [本文引用: 1]

A growing body of evidence suggests that certain facial expressions and postures are associated with emotional and motivational responses. This review discusses behavioral, neuroscientific, and cognitive research connecting these bodily movements with emotive responses. General bodily feedback theories of emotion have suggested that manipulated facial expressions and postures influence emotive reactions to stimuli as well as physiological responses such as heart rate, skin conductance, and the temperature of blood entering the brain. More recent evidence suggests that manipulated bodily states influence prefrontal cortical activation and amygdala activation. Even further evidence has suggested that manipulated bodily states influence cognitive processes, such as the speed at which individuals read emotional content, the speed at which they classify information as emotional, and the extent to which they determine emotional information as threatening. Bodily feedback theories may also suggest clinical applications. Bodily feedback theories of emotion therefore have generated research showing that bodily expressions play a pivotal role in our emotive experiences. WIREs Cogn Sci 2015, 6:461 473. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1370 <p>For further resources related to this article, please visit the

Ranehill E., Dreber A., Johannesson M., Leiberg S., Sul S., & Weber R. A . ( 2015).

Assessing the robustness of power posing: No effect on hormones and risk tolerance in a large sample of men and women

Psychological Science, 26( 5), 653-656.

URL     PMID:25810452      [本文引用: 1]

[Abstract unavailable]

Ritter, R.S., &Preston, J.L . ( 2011).

Gross gods and icky atheism: Disgust responses to rejected religious beliefs

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47( 6), 1225-1230.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Disgust is an emotional response that helps to maintain and protect physical and spiritual purity by signaling contamination and motivating the restoration of personal cleanliness. In the present research we predicted that disgust may be elicited by contact with outgroup religious beliefs, as these beliefs pose a threat to spiritual purity. Two experiments tested this prediction using a repeated taste-test paradigm in which participants tasted and rated a drink before and after copying a passage from an outgroup religion. In Experiment 1, Christian participants showed increased disgust after writing a passage from the Qur'an or Richard Dawkins' Highlights? A taste-test paradigm is used to measure disgust after writing a religious passage. ? Disgust is elicited after writing an outgroup–but not ingroup–religious passage. ? Hand washing after writing the passage eliminates disgust to outgroup religion.

Rotella, K.N., &Richeson, J.A . ( 2013).

Body of guilt: Using embodied cognition to mitigate backlash to reminders of personal & ingroup wrongdoing

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49( 4), 643-650.

[本文引用: 1]

Rozin P., Haidt J., & Fincher K . ( 2009).

Psychology. From oral to moral

Science, 323( 5918), 1179-1180.

URL     PMID:19251619      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The authors explore whether moral disgust is an elaboration of a food rejection system. According to the principle of preadaptation, a system that evolves for one purpose is later used for another purpose. From this viewpoint, disgust originates in the mammalian bitter taste rejection system, which directly activates a disgust output system. This primal route (e.g., bitter and some other tastes) evokes only the output program, without a disgust evaluation phase. During human evolution, the disgust output system was harnessed to a disgust evaluation system that responded not to simple sensory inputs (such as bitter tastes) but to more cognitively elaborated appraisals (e.g., a cockroach). Initially, the evaluation system was a food rejection system that rejected potential foods on the basis of their nature or perceived origin. This was the first "true disgust," because it engaged this evaluation system. Separately, the authors present a possible, three-layer scheme of disgust analysis, in which there are three pathways through which an elicitor could activate the disgust output program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Rozin P., Lowery L., Imada S., & Haidt J . ( 1999).

The CAD triad hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity)

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76( 4), 574-586.

URL     PMID:10234846      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract It is proposed that 3 emotions--contempt, anger, and disgust--are typically elicited, across cultures, by violations of 3 moral codes proposed by R. A. Shweder and his colleagues (R. A. Shweder, N. C. Much, M. Mahapatra, & L. Park, 1997). The proposed alignment links anger to autonomy (individual rights violations), contempt to community (violation of communal codes including hierarchy), and disgust to divinity (violations of purity-sanctity). This is the CAD triad hypothesis. Students in the United States and Japan were presented with descriptions of situations that involve 1 of the types of moral violations and asked to assign either an appropriate facial expression (from a set of 6) or an appropriate word (contempt, anger, disgust, or their translations). Results generally supported the CAD triad hypothesis. Results were further confirmed by analysis of facial expressions actually made by Americans to the descriptions of these situations.

Schaefer M., Denke C., Heinze H. J., & Rotte M . ( 2014).

Rough primes and rough conversations: Evidence for a modality-specific basis to mental metaphors

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9( 11), 1653-1659.

URL     PMID:4221208      [本文引用: 1]

How does our brain organize knowledge ? Traditional theories assume that our knowledge is represented abstractly in an amodal conceptual network of formal logic symbols. The theory of embodied challenges this view and argues that conceptual representations that constitute our knowledge are grounded in sensory and motor experiences. We tested this hypothesis by examining how the concept of social coordination is grounded metaphorically in the tactile sensation of roughness. Participants experienced rough or smooth touch before being asked to judge an ambiguous social interaction. Results revealed that rough touch made social interactions appear more difficult and adversarial, consistent with the rough metaphor. This impact of tactile cues on social impressions was accompanied by a network including primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, amygdala, hippocampus and inferior prefrontal cortex. Thus, the roughness of tactile stimulation affected metaphor-relevant (but not metaphor-irrelevant) behavioral and neural responses. Receiving touch from a rough object seems to trigger the application of associated ontological concepts (or scaffolds) even for unrelated people and situations (but not to unrelated or more general feelings). Since this priming was based on somatosensory brain areas, our results provide support for the theory that sensorimotor grounding is intrinsic to cognitive processes.

Schaefer M., Rotte M., Heinze H. J., & Denke C . ( 2015).

Dirty deeds and dirty bodies: Embodiment of the Macbeth effect is mapped topographically onto the somatosensory cortex

Scientific Reports, 5, 18051.

URL     PMID:26686599      [本文引用: 4]

The theory of embodied cognition claims that knowledge is represented in modal systems derived from perception. Recent behavioral studies found evidence for this hypothesis, for example, by linking moral purity with physical cleansing (the Macbeth effect). Neurophysiological approaches provided further support by showing an involvement of sensorimotor cortices for embodied metaphors. However, the exact role of this brain region for embodied cognitions remains to be cleared. Here we demonstrate that the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex for the embodied metaphor of moral-purity is somatotopically organized. Participants enacted in scenarios where they had to perform immoral or moral acts either with their mouths or their hands. Results showed that mouthwash products were particularly desirable after lying in a voice mail and hand wash products were particularly desirable after writing a lie, thus demonstrating that the moral-purity metaphor is specific to the sensorimotor modality involved in earlier immoral behavior. FMRI results of this interaction showed activation in sensorimotor cortices during the evaluation phase that was somatotopically organized with respect to preceding lying in a voice mail (mouth-area) or in a written note (hand-area). Thus, the results provide evidence for a central role of the sensorimotor cortices for embodied metaphors.

Schilbach L., Timmermans B., Reddy V., Costall A., Bente G., Schlicht T., & Vogeley K . ( 2013).

Toward a second-person neuroscience

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36( 4), 393-462.

Schnall, S. ( 2017).

Disgust as embodied loss aversion

European Review of Social Psychology, 28( 1), 50-94.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

(2017). Disgust as embodied loss aversion. European Review of Social Psychology: Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 50-94. doi: 10.1080/10463283.2016.1259844

Schnall S., Benton J., & Harvey S . ( 2008).

With a clean conscience: Cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgments

Psychological Science, 19( 12), 1219-1222.

URL     PMID:19121126      [本文引用: 5]

ABSTRACT Theories of moral judgment have long emphasized reasoning and conscious thought while downplaying the role of intuitive and contextual influences. However, recent research has demonstrated that incidental feelings of disgust can influence moral judgments and make them more severe. This study involved two experiments demonstrating that the reverse effect can occur when the notion of physical purity is made salient, thus making moral judgments less severe. After having the cognitive concept of cleanliness activated ( Experiment 1 ) or after physically cleansing themselves after experiencing disgust ( Experiment 2 ), participants found certain moral actions to be less wrong than did participants who had not been exposed to a cleanliness manipulation. The findings support the idea that moral judgment can be driven by intuitive processes, rather than deliberate reasoning. One of those intuitions appears to be physical purity, because it has a strong connection to moral purity.

Schnall S., Haidt J., Clore G. L., & Jordan A. H . ( 2008).

Disgust as embodied moral judgment

Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34( 8), 1096-1109.

Seidel, A., &Prinz, J . ( 2013).

Sound morality: Irritating and icky noises amplify judgments in divergent moral domains

Cognition, 127( 1), 1-5.

URL     PMID:23318349     

Theoretical models and correlational research suggest that anger and disgust play different roles in moral judgment. Anger is theorized to underlie reactions to crimes against persons, such as battery and unfairness, and disgust is theorized to underlie reactions to crimes against nature, such as sexual transgressions and cannibalism. To date, however, it has not been shown that induction of these two emotions has divergent effects. In this experiment we show divergent effects of anger and disgust. We use sounds to elicit anger and disgust, and participants are then asked to consider moral vignettes. As compared to disgust and control condition, anger increases severity of judgments about crimes against persons, and disgust increases severity of judgments about crimes against nature, but not conversely.

ShapiroL. ( 2011).

Embodied Cognition

London and New York: Rutledge.

[本文引用: 2]

Sheikh S., Botindari L., & White E . ( 2013).

Embodied metaphors and emotions in the moralization of restrained eating practices

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49( 3), 509-513.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

78 Restrained eating is moralized among women and embodied in a sense of cleanliness. 78 Overeating increased women's desire for physical cleanliness. 78 Moral emotions fully mediated the effect of overeating on desire for cleanliness.

Sherman, G.D., &Clore, G.L . ( 2009).

The color of sin: White and black are perceptual symbols of moral purity and pollution

Psychological Science, 20( 8), 1019-1025.

URL     PMID:2832478     

ABSTRACT Three studies examined automatic associations between words with moral and immoral meanings and the colors black and white. The speed of color naming in a Stroop task was faster when words in black concerned immorality (e.g., greed), rather than morality, and when words in white concerned morality (e.g., honesty), rather than immorality. In addition, priming immorality by having participants hand-copy an unethical statement speeded identification of words in the black font. Making immorality salient in this way also increased the moral Stroop effect among participants who had not previously shown it. In the final study, participants also rated consumer products. Moral meanings interfered with color naming most strongly among those participants who rated personal cleaning products as especially desirable. The moderation of the moral Stroop effect by individual differences in concerns about personal cleanliness suggests that ideas about purity and pollution are central to seeing morality in black and white.

Skarlicki D. P., Hoegg J., Aquino K., & Nadisic T . ( 2013).

Does injustice affect your sense of taste and smell? The mediating role of moral disgust

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49( 5), 852-859.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Unfair treatment can activate strong negative emotions among victims and third parties. Less is known about other innate and evolutionary-based reactions to unfairness, such as those that manifest themselves through our senses. In three experiments, we found that interpersonally unfair treatment at work, defined as treatment that violates an individual's sense of dignity and respect, triggered disgust emotions over and above anger which subsequently related to stronger taste and smell reactions to gustatory and olfactory stimuli. This effect was observed for pleasant and unpleasant tasting products, for agreeable and malodorous scents, and among both mistreatment victims and third parties. Our findings suggest that violations of dignity and respect can trigger an evolutionary based reaction that activates a human alarm system, warning individuals of impending threats even when no oral threat is imminent. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Song H. J., Vonasch A. J., Meier B. P., & Bargh J. A . ( 2012).

Brighten up: Smiles facilitate perceptual judgment of facial lightness

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48( 1), 450-452.

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78 We examine how facial expressions influence perceptual judgment of facial lightness. 78 We predict people will judge smiling faces as brighter than frowning faces. 78 We test this hypothesis using choice and absolute judgment paradigm with schematic and real faces.

Valdesolo P., Ouyang J., & DeSteno D . ( 2010).

The rhythm of joint action: Synchrony promotes cooperative ability

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46( 4), 693-695.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Although evidence has suggested that coordinated action enhances rapport and fosters cooperation, the possibility that it might also influence the ability to pursue joint goals has yet to be demonstrated. We show that rocking in synchrony enhanced individuals’ perceptual sensitivity to the motion of other entities and thereby increased their success in a subsequent joint-action task that required the ability to dynamically detect and respond appropriately to a partner’s movements. These findings support the view that in addition to fostering social cohesion, synchrony hones the abilities that allow individuals to functionally direct their cooperative motives.

Wei W. Q., Lu J. G., Galinsky A. D., Wu H., Gosling S. D., Rentfrow P. J., .. Wang L . ( 2017).

Regional ambient temperature is associated with human personality

Nature Human Behaviour, 1( 12), 890-895.

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Temperature clemency AgeGenderResponse styleGDP per capita

Williams, L.E., &Bargh, J.A . ( 2008).

Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth

Science, 322( 5901), 606-607.

URL     PMID:2737341      [本文引用: 1]

"Warmth" is the most powerful personality trait in social judgment, and attachment theorists have stressed the importance of warm physical contact with caregivers during infancy for healthy relationships in adulthood. Intriguingly, recent research in humans points to the involvement of the insula in the processing of both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) information. Accordingly, we hypothesized that experiences of physical warmth (or coldness) would increase feelings of interpersonal warmth (or coldness), without the person's awareness of this influence. In study 1, participants who briefly held a cup of hot (versus iced) coffee judged a target person as having a "warmer" personality (generous, caring); in study 2, participants holding a hot (versus cold) therapeutic pad were more likely to choose a gift for a friend instead of for themselves.

Wilson, M. ( 2002).

Six views of embodied cognition

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9( 4), 625-636.

URL     PMID:12613670      [本文引用: 2]

The emerging viewpoint of embodied cognition holds that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in the body interactions with the world. This position actually houses a number of distinct claims, some of which are more controversial than others. This paper distinguishes and evaluates the following six claims: (1) cognition is situated; (2) cognition is time-pressured; (3) we off-load cognitive work onto the environment; (4) the environment is part of the cognitive system; (5) cognition is for action; (6) offline cognition is body based. Of these, the first three and the fifth appear to be at least partially true, and their usefulness is best evaluated in terms of the range of their applicability. The fourth claim, I argue, is deeply problematic. The sixth claim has received the least attention in the literature on embodied cognition, but it may in fact be the best documented and most powerful of the six claims.

Wiswede D., MÜnte T. F., Krämer U. M., & RÜsseler J . ( 2009).

Embodied emotion modulates neural signature of performance monitoring

Plos One, 4( 6), e5754.

URL     PMID:2685014      [本文引用: 1]

Recent research on the “embodiment of emotion” implies that experiencing an emotion may involve perceptual, somatovisceral, and motor feedback aspects. For example, manipulations of facial expression and posture appear to induce emotional states and influence how affective information is processed. The present study investigates whether performance monitoring, a cognitive process known to be under heavy control of the dopaminergic system, is modulated by induced facial expressions. In particular, we focused on the error-related negativity, an electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring. During a choice reaction task, participants held a Chinese chop stick either horizontally between the teeth (“smile” condition) or, in different runs, vertically (“no smile”) with the upper lip. In a third control condition, no chop stick was used (“no stick”). It could be shown on a separate sample that the facial feedback procedure is feasible to induce mild changes in positive affect. In the ERP sample, the smile condition, hypothesized to lead to an increase in dopaminergic activity, was associated with a decrease of ERN amplitude relative to “no smile” and “no stick” conditions. Embodying emotions by induced facial expressions leads to a changes in the neural correlates of error detection. We suggest that this is due to the joint influence of the dopaminergic system on positive affect and performance monitoring.

Xu A. J., Zwick R., & Schwarz N . ( 2012).

Washing away your (good or bad) luck: Physical cleansing affects risk-taking behavior

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141( 1), 26-30.

URL     PMID:21707206      [本文引用: 1]

Many superstitious practices entail the belief that good or bad luck can be "washed away." Consistent with this belief, participants who recalled (Experiment 1) or experienced (Experiment 2) an episode of bad luck were more willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands, whereas participants who recalled or experienced an episode of good luck were less willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands. Thus, the psychological effects of physical cleansings extend beyond the domain of moral judgment and are independent of people's motivation: incidental washing not only removes undesirable traces of the past (such as bad luck) but also desirable ones (such as good luck), which people would rather preserve.

Yan Z. X., Ding D. Q., & Yan L. S . ( 2011).

To wash your body, or purify your soul: Physical cleansing would strengthen the sense of high moral character

Psychology, 2( 9), 992-997.

[本文引用: 2]

Yang Q., Wu X. C., Zhou X. Y., Mead N. L., Vohs K. D., & Baumeister R. F . ( 2013).

Diverging effects of clean versus dirty money on attitudes, values, and interpersonal behavior

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104( 3), 473-489.

URL     PMID:23127377     

Abstract Does the cue of money lead to selfish, greedy, exploitative behaviors or to fairness, exchange, and reciprocity? We found evidence for both, suggesting that people have both sets of meaningful associations, which can be differentially activated by exposure to clean versus dirty money. In a field experiment at a farmers' market, vendors who handled dirty money subsequently cheated customers, whereas those who handled clean money gave fair value (Experiment 1). In laboratory studies with economic games, participants who had previously handled and counted dirty money tended toward selfish, unfair practices-unlike those who had counted clean money or dirty paper, both of which led to fairness and reciprocity. These patterns were found with the trust game (Experiment 2), the prisoner's dilemma (Experiment 4), the ultimatum game (Experiment 5), and the dictator game (Experiment 6). Cognitive measures indicated that exposure to dirty money lowered moral standards (Experiment 3) and reduced positive attitudes toward fairness and reciprocity (Experiments 6-7), whereas exposure to clean money had the opposite effects. Thus, people apparently have 2 contradictory sets of associations (including behavioral tendencies) to money, which is a complex, powerful, and ubiquitous aspect of human social life and cultural organization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

Zapatafonseca L., Froese T., Schilbach L., Vogeley K., & Timmermans B . ( 2018).

Sensitivity to social contingency in adults with high-functioning autism during computer- mediated embodied interaction

Behavioral Science, 8, 22.

URL     PMID:29419758      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be understood as a social interaction disorder. This makes the emerging "second-person approach" to social cognition a more promising framework for studying ASD than classical approaches focusing on mindreading capacities in detached, observer-based arrangements. According to the second-person approach, embodied, perceptual, and embedded or interactive capabilities are also required for understanding others, and these are hypothesized to be compromised in ASD. We therefore recorded the dynamics of real-time sensorimotor interaction in pairs of control participants and participants with High-Functioning Autism (HFA), using the minimalistic human-computer interface paradigm known as "perceptual crossing" (PC). We investigated whether HFA is associated with impaired detection of social contingency, i.e., a reduced sensitivity to the other's responsiveness to one's own behavior. Surprisingly, our analysis reveals that, at least under the conditions of this highly simplified, computer-mediated, embodied form of social interaction, people with HFA perform equally well as controls. This finding supports the increasing use of virtual reality interfaces for helping people with ASD to better compensate for their social disabilities. Further dynamical analyses are necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms that are leading to the somewhat surprising results here obtained.

Zestcott C. A., Stone J., & Landau M. J . ( 2017).

The role of conscious attention in how weight serves as an embodiment of importance

Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 43( 12), 1712-1723.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Inconsistency among findings in the embodied cognition literature suggests a need for theoretical boundary conditions. The current research proposes that conscious attention of a bodily state can moderate its influence on social judgment. Three studies tested this possibility in the case of the demonstrated effect of weight sensations on judgments of an abstract idea's importance. Studies 1 and 2 showed that participants rated a topic as more important when holding a moderately heavy, compared with light, clipboard. However, when the clipboard was very heavy, participants rated the survey topic as less important compared with when the clipboard was moderately heavy. The differences in importance ratings were not caused by derogation of the topic or the activation of a different metaphor. In Study 3, the importance rating difference between light and moderately heavy clipboards was eliminated by explicitly drawing perceiver's attention to the clipboard's weight. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Zhang, M., &Li, X.P . ( 2012).

From physical weight to psychological significance: The contribution of semantic activations

Journal of Consumer Research, 38( 6), 1063-1075.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Past research has shown that a physical experience can influence metaphorically linked psychological judgment. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been formally tested. This article examines the role of semantic activations underlying such influences, focusing on the effects of a ubiquitous physical experience—“carrying weight”—on consumers’ judgment of importance. Five experiments provide converging evidence that semantic activation is the primary underlying process for the effect. Specifically, physically carrying a load is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for processing the concept of importance. The effect is fully mediated by semantic activation of related weight concepts. Moreover, processing the concept of importance does not necessarily influence the physical experience of carrying weight. An affective state such as mental stress (psychological load), however, does have a reciprocal effect on the physical experience of carrying weight, indicating that there might be different pathways between weight experience and its metaphorically linked concepts.

Zhong, C.B., &Liljenquist, K . ( 2006).

Washing away your sins: Threatened morality and physical cleansing

Science, 313( 5792), 1451-1452.

[本文引用: 2]

Ziv N., Hoftman M., & Geyer M . ( 2012).

Music and moral judgment: The effect of background music on the evaluation of ads promoting unethical behavior

Psychology of Music, 40( 6), 738-760.

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Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described examined the effect of background music on recall and evaluation of a fictive radio ad promoting different types of cheating. The studies consider the effect of involvement, attitudes, priming and presentation context, and music's valence. In all the studies, background music led to reduced recall of information. Positive-valence music reduced awareness of the unethical message, and increased acceptance of the product. The results demonstrate the power of music to manipulate and bias moral judgment. (Contains 4 tables and 4 figures.)

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