心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2230-2237 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02230

研究前沿

框架效应的应用研究及其应用技巧

李晓明,1,2, 谭谱1

1. 湖南师范大学认知与人类行为湖南省重点实验室

2. 湖南师范大学心理系, 长沙 410081

Applied research on framing effect and related techniques

LI Xiao-Ming,1,2, TAN Pu1

1. Cognition and Human Behavior Key Laboratory of Hunan Province

2. Department of Psychology, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China

通讯作者: 李晓明, E-mail: lixiaoming- 2007@sohu.com

收稿日期: 2018-01-19   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *湖南省哲学社会科学基金资助.  13YBA220

Received: 2018-01-19   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

个体的决策及偏好常会因信息的表达方式而变, 研究者将这种违背期望效用理论不变性的现象称之为“框架效应”。框架效应体现了人类非理性决策的普遍性, 也为合理利用人类的决策特点以干预其决策行为提供了重要契机。本文总结了框架效应在健康行为、市场营销及环保领域中的应用研究, 着重分析了数量信息的表达技巧, 如风险信息的呈现、数量单位的选择以及图形的物理属性设计, 旨在探讨如何在实践过程中通过变化信息呈现方式以实现对人类决策行为的重要影响。

关键词: 框架效应 ; 图形框架效应 ; 损失框架 ; 收益框架 ; 信息表征

Abstract

Individuals’ decision-making and preferences often change as the way how information is expressed, which is obviously contrary to the invariance principle of expected utility theory, and it is called "framing effect". Framing effect is a kind of universal decision-making phenomenon that reflects human irrationality, but it also provides an important opportunity for practitioners to consider how to make good use of the characteristics of human decision-making to intervene their decision-making behavior. This paper focused on the application researches of framing effect in health behavior, marketing, and environmental protection. It also discussed the presentation skills of quantitative information, such as the selection of quantitative units, the presentation of risk information and the design of graphical attributes, and aimed at exploring how to manipulate the information presentation to influence human decision-making behavior.

Keywords: framing effect ; graphical framing effect ; gain framing ; loss framing ; informational representation

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本文引用格式

李晓明, 谭谱. (2018). 框架效应的应用研究及其应用技巧. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2230-2237

LI Xiao-Ming, TAN Pu. (2018). Applied research on framing effect and related techniques. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2230-2237

1 框架效应的概念及分类

, 该现象被称为框架效应(framing effect)。Tversky和Kahneman (1981)基于“亚洲疾病问题”发现, 个体的风险偏好依赖于问题的描述方式, 并由此提出框架效应。该概念自提出至今, 一直是决策研究者及实践者关注的热点。框架效应涉及范围广泛, 经典的分类是由Levin, Schneider和Gaeth (1998)所提出的三类框架效应:风险选择框架效应(risky choice framing effect)、特征框架效应(attribute framing effect)和目标框架效应(goal framing effect)。风险选择框架效应关注于当分别从损失或收益方面来描述某一风险信息时, 个体承担风险的意愿会如何变化。正如, 在经典的“亚洲疾病问题”中, 可分别采用损失(将有1/3的可能性没人死亡, 2/3的可能性600个人都死去)或收益框架(将有1/3的可能性600个人都获救, 2/3的可能性不能挽救任何人)来描述某医疗措施的风险; 特征框架效应关注于当分别从积极或消极方面描述某一事物或事件的关键特征时, 个体对其偏好会如何变化。例如, 汉堡肉可以描述为有80%的瘦肉, 也可描述为有20%的肥肉; 目标框架效应关注于当分别从实施/不实施某行为方面描述其与目标实现间的关系时, 个体对实施该行为的意愿会如何变化。例如, 乳腺投影检查可以描述为“如果进行乳腺投影检查, 那么你将获得及早发现乳腺癌的最佳机会。”或者“如果不进行乳腺投影检查, 那么你将失去及早发现乳腺癌的最佳机会。”

除了上述经典分类外, 基于框架效应的最新研究进展, 框架效应可从信息的表征形式上分为:言语框架效应(e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1981)和图形框架效应(李晓明, 和平, 刘林英, 2016; 李晓明, 刘心阁, 2013; 孙彦, 黄莉, 刘扬, 2012; Sun, Li, & Bonini, 2010; Sun, Li, Bonini, & Su, 2012)。从所探讨的决策行为上可划分为:风险决策(e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1981)、跨期决策(Li, Su, & Sun, 2010; Liu, Li, & Sun, 2014; Zhao, Jiang, Zhou, Li, Rao, & Zheng, 2015)、决策偏好(Burson, Larrick, & Lynch, 2009)、风险回避(李晓明等, 2016; Stone, Sieck, Bull, Yates, Parks, & Rush, 2003; Stone, Yates, & Parker, 1997)及社会决策(Heus, Hoogervorst, & Dijk, 2010)。从其应用上来看, 框架效应更是大放异彩, 是决策理论研究应用化的典范。框架效应的应用广泛, 如教育规劝(Orazi, Lei, & Bove, 2015)、谈判竞选(Kanner, 2004; Wettstein, 2012)、组织管理(Ganegoda & Folger, 2015; Hong, Hossain, & List, 2015), 其中在健康行为、广告营销领域方面尤为集中, 另外随着全球环境的恶化, 环保也已成为一个新的应用领域。之前国内学者已对框架效应的产生机制及影响因素进行了诸多阐述(刘扬, 孙彦, 2014; 史燕伟, 徐富明, 李燕, 刘程浩, 李彬, 2014; 文桂婵, 徐富明, 于会会, 黄宝珍, 王岚, 2011)。本研究将着重探讨框架效应在健康行为、广告营销及环境保护领域中的应用, 并基于以往研究总结出一些可行的应用技巧以促进框架效应研究的应用化, 提升决策研究的应用价值。

2 框架效应的应用研究

2.1 健康行为

框架效应在健康领域的应用研究非常丰富, 该领域主要涉及目标框架效应(Levin et al., 1998)。相关研究表明, 合理利用框架效应将有助于提高人们的健康行为, 如健康饮食、健康体检、体育运动及戒烟。那么究竟是收益框架(强调采取健康行为的益处)还是损失框架(强调没有采取健康行为的损失)会更有效地促进个体的健康行为?对于该问题尚无定论, 但相关研究揭示出如果要提高框架效应的有效性, 需谨慎思考相关的情景及个体因素(Updegraff & Rothman, 2013)。目前该领域存在两种经典的观点:第一种强调将信息框架与个体对相关行为的风险评估相匹配。前景理论认为, 信息框架可影响个体对风险信息的偏好, 通常在损失条件下个体更多地寻求风险, 在收益条件下会更多地规避风险。Rothman和Salovey (1997)将前景理论(Prospect Theory)引入到健康沟通领域中, 提出不同健康行为的风险水平不同, 所以框架效应会因行为类型而变, 研究者将健康行为划分为两类:高风险的疾病诊断行为(如HIV或癌症检测等), 此时个体在损失框架下会更愿意去接受这种高风险的行为; 相对安全或风险较小的疾病预防行为(如体育锻炼、节食等), 此时个体在收益框架下会更愿意接受这种安全的行为。该假设引发了一系列的实证研究, Gallagher和Updegraff (2012)通过元分析发现, 收益框架(执行某健康行为所带来的有益后果)比损失框架(不执行某健康行为所带来的不良后果)会更有效地推动疾病预防行为, 但在疾病诊断行为上的结果却并不稳定。研究者提出起关键作用的可能并不是健康行为本身, 而是个体如何评估该行为的风险。正如研究者曾发现, 对于那些认为自己更易患乳腺癌的女性而言, 损失框架会更有效地促使其进行乳腺检查, 但对于那些自认为健康的女性而言, 框架效应会消失 (Gallagher, Updegraff, Rothman, & Sims, 2011)。

第二种观点则强调将信息框架与信息接收者的动机取向相匹配(Lee & Aaker, 2004; Uskul, Sherman, & Fitzgibbon, 2009)。调节定向理论提出个体在目标实现过程中存在两种不同的动机趋向:促进定向和防御定向(Higgins, 1997)。促进定向的个体关注对理想状态及成长的实现, 更加追求成功, 因此对收益或积极结果更敏感; 防御定向的个体关注安全及责任的实现, 旨在避免失败, 因此对损失或消极结果更敏感。调节匹配理论强调当个体的动机取向与信息框架一致时(促进定向与收益框架匹配、防御定向与损失框架匹配), 会产生一种与正确性及重要性相关的“感觉对了”的体验, 此时个体将认为该信息更可信, 更具说服力(Cesario, Grant, & Higgins, 2004)。Cesario, Corker和Jelinek (2013)进一步提出如果要提高框架效应的有效性, 除了需要关注个体在调节取向上的个体差异外, 也应重视同一健康行为可能会激发出不同的调节取向。例如, 体育锻炼既可被描述为与成长相关(获得更健美的身材), 也可被描述为与安全相关(提高免疫力)。

除上述两种因素外, 研究者也探讨了其他个体因素, 这包括会随时间、情境而变的相对不稳定的个体因素, 如个体对相关行为的先前态度及信念。Sun, Sarma, Moyer和Messina (2015)发现当信息框架与个体先前对乳腺投影检查的态度匹配时, 会更有利于促进其接受乳腺投影检查, 即如果个体先前对该检查持积极(vs消极)态度, 则其在收益(vs损失)框架下会更倾向于接受此项检查。其次, 也包括相对稳定的个体因素, 如认知需求、接近-回避动机和自我效能感等(Gallagher & Updegraff, 2013)。目前研究者除了探讨损失及收益框架的有效性外, 也提出一些新的描述框架, 并考察了个体因素及信息背景在其中的调节作用。Churchill, Good和Pavey (2014)发现对于健康饮食自我效能感低者而言, “年”框架(每年有很多人因饮食不健康承受严重后果……)比“天”框架(每天有很多人因饮食不健康承受严重后果……)更有利于提高其节食行为, 但对于自我效能感高者来说, 此类框架效应不明显。Bertolotti, Chirchiglia和Catellani (2016)发现当信息涉及个体的成长/幸福感关注动机时, 前事实性表达(如果过多地摄入肉类, 那么将不利于你的幸福感体验)比事实性表达(过多摄入肉类不利于你的幸福感体验)更有效; 如果当前信息涉及安全/健康关注动机, 事实性表达(过多摄入肉类对身体健康不利)比前事实性表达更有效(如果你摄入过多的肉类, 那么将不利于你的身体健康)。

2.2 广告营销

框架效应的另一经典应用领域为广告营销, 该领域主要涉及特征框架效应(Levin et al., 1998)。Levin和Gaeth (1988)较早在广告营销领域引入特征框架效应, 其研究发现当分别从积极(75%的瘦肉)或消极方面(25%的肥肉)来描述同一份牛肉时, 消费者会更偏好积极框架下的牛肉, 该研究也发现个体对牛肉口味的实际体验可削弱框架效应。研究者随后也开始探讨影响这一效价效应的调节变量, 如产品性质(Khan & Dhar, 2010), 个体卷入度(Chan & Mukhopadhyay, 2010)以及心理距离(Freling, Vincent, & Henard, 2014)。如Freling等(2014)将解释水平理论(Construal level theory)引入特征框架效应, 通过元分析及实验研究发现当个体在评估心理远期事件时, 与高水平解释相关的积极框架会更有说服力。相反, 当个体在评估心理近期事件时, 与低水平解释相关的消极框架会更有说服力。以往研究主要探讨了框架效应对即刻判断的影响, Isaac和Poor (2016)则进一步测查了信息框架与实际消费体验如何交互影响个体对产品的即刻判断/回顾性判断(接受产品信息的50分钟后)。研究发现, 个体对产品的即刻判断主要依赖于情绪性的实际消费体验, 而个体对产品的回顾性判断主要依赖于认知性的信息框架, 研究者也发现这种“沉睡性框架效应” (the sleeper framing effect)只出现在实际消费体验相对中性的情况下。该研究提示实践者应该意识到在消费体验过程中或之后接受到的二手信息(如信息框架或广告)可以掩盖个体对实际体验的记忆。因此, 实践者应注重用积极框架来描述自己的产品, 因为广告的一次性即刻消费无效并不一定意味着广告失效, 它更可能影响个体之后的记忆重建及随后的消费行为。

目前广告营销领域的框架效应研究已不仅限于用效价(积极或消极方面)对产品的特性进行操纵, 也关注于如何用不同的数字表达方式(365天或1年)来呈现产品特性(Burson, et al., 2009; Pandelaere, Briers, & Lembregts, 2011)。另外, 除特征框架效应外, 该领域还扩展出很多新的框架效应。Bagchi和Davis (2012)发现价格及项目数的呈现顺序会影响其对该打包(多项目)商品的偏好。当打包商品的项目多且项目单价难以计算时, 首先出现的信息会更加凸现, 进而影响其对商品的评价, 即与价格在先时(29美元70个)相比, 当项目数在先(70个29美元)时个体对同一组商品的评价会更为积极。Mittelman, Andrade, Chattopadhyay和Brendl (2014)则提出一种“供给框架效应” (the offer framing effect), 即商品的供给模式(单个供给vs 捆绑供给)可影响个体在商品选择中的多样性寻求倾向, 与将一类商品捆绑呈现相比, 当单独呈现每个商品时消费者会更加追求选择的多样性。Schröder, LÜer和Sadrieh (2015)发现相比于“自主砍价” (mark-off-your-own-price, MOYOP)框架, 当采用“自主支付” (pay-what-you-want, PWYW)这种赋价框架时, 消费者给商品的定价会更高, 这很可能源于“自主支付”会诱导合作性动机, 使个体关注于与销售者建立一种社会交换, 而“自主砍价”会诱导自我服务动机, 使个体关注于充分利用对自己有利的定价权。Sun和Mellers (2016)则发现与交易框架(购买新项目)相比, 当同样一桩交易被构建为升级框架(用旧项目加上额外的费用升级为新项目)时个体更愿意接受该交易, 而个体在交易过程中所体验到损失可中介框架类型与个体接受意愿的关系。

2.3 环境保护

气候及环境变化是一个日益严峻的全球性问题, 框架效应已从传统的健康及营销等领域扩展到环保领域, 旨在通过适当的信息沟通方式推动民众的环保行为, 主要涉及节能及温室气体排放问题(Hurlstone, Lewandowsky, Newell, & Sewell, 2013; Steinhorst, Klöckner, & Matthies, 2015)。环保领域除了探讨传统的积极/消极框架外(Spence & Pidgeon, 2010), 也有该领域的一些特殊框架:强调经济/环境影响的效益框架(Spence, Leygue, Bedwell, & O'Malley, 2014)、强调当地/全球影响的地域框架(Wiest, Raymond, & Clawson, 2015)和强调小的近期/累计的远期影响的时间框架(Xu, Arpan, & Chen, 2015)。

另外, 研究者也提出一些区别于其他应用领域的调节因素, 如个体对环境的关注程度(Newman, Howlett, Burton, Kozup, & Tangari, 2012)以及美国的政治党派归属(Wiest et al., 2015)。Wiest等(2015)发现强调环境改变对当地影响的框架(vs强调环境改变对全球影响的框架)会使个体感受到更严重的威胁, 将提高其参与解决环境问题的意愿及应对环境问题政策的支持, 但这种影响也会因个体的党派倾向而变。Xu等(2015)发现, 个体的环境意识及政治倾向可调节框架效应对节能行为的影响, 对环境保护具有中等关注程度的政治自由主义者而言, 强调环境效益的框架比强调经济效益的框架更有助于提高其节能态度及行为, 而强调经济效益的框架可引发环境意识低者最强的节能态度及行为。

3 框架效应的应用技巧

框架效应的应用关键在于如何选择适合的信息呈现方式, 这主要涉及语言及数量信息的表达。其中语言信息集中体现在积极与消极框架的选择上, 即选项的关键特征可分别从积极或消极方面加以阐述。例如, 一项医疗措施可描述为有80%的成功率或20%的失败率, 一种药物可描述为80%的病人没有出现副作用或20%的病人出现副作用。目前对于语言类的特征框架效应, 研究者基本认同:积极框架(如80%的牙医推荐Trident无糖口香糖)比消极框架(如只有20%的牙医不推荐Trident无糖口香糖)会更有助于提高个体对目标对象的偏好度。数量信息的表达则更为多变:风险信息是决策中的一种常见数字信息, 其不同的表达方式可影响个体的决策与判断; 数量信息的表达也需权衡数量单位的选择; 如果采用图形表达数量信息, 则会涉及图形的物理属性设计, 如坐标轴的长度及图形的颜色选择。

3.1 风险信息的呈现方式

实践者通常需要向目标对象传达风险信息, 不同的风险呈现方式可影响个体的风险感知。首先, 相对于大分母形式, 概率相同的信息以小分母呈现时, 被试会把风险判断得更小, 研究者称其为“分母忽视”现象或“比率偏误”。例如, 10/200与1/20虽然表示的实际概率相同, 但前者会使被试感知到更大的风险(Reyna & Brainerd, 2008); 其次, Siegrist (1997)发现, 与概率格式(如“死亡率为0.06%”)相比, 使用频率格式呈现风险信息(如“1000000人中有600人将会死”)会导致更强的风险回避行为; 再次, 在绝对发生率很低的情况下, 用相对形式表达风险信息(如“改良产品将爆胎率降至未改良产品的一半”)比用绝对形式(如“改良产品的爆胎率为15/5000, 未改良产品的爆胎率为30/5000”)更能减少人们的风险行为(Stone, Yates, & Parker, 1994); 最后, 风险信息通常会被表示为实际受害人数(前景信息)在潜在风险人群(背景信息)中所占的比例。对于小概率风险事件, 只突显前景的图形(如人物杆形图、条形图)比数字通常会使被试产生更强的风险回避行为(Stone et al., 1997, 2003)。

在绝对风险小的情况下如果要提高人们对风险信息的知觉以及风险回避行为, 可考虑采用大分母的频率格式来表达风险, 或使用数字来表达相对风险, 也可考虑用只突显前景信息的条形图、人物杆形图或星号图等来表达风险。

3.2 数量单位的选择

当呈现数量信息时, 实践者通常面临数量单位的选择。例如, 对于时间而言, 可以用天、周、月或年来表示, 而重量、长度、金钱数额的呈现也面临着单位的选择。以往研究发现, 信息单位的选择会影响个体的判断与决策。有研究发现, 用小单位表示数量信息时, 决策者会感知到更大的差异, 从而会加强该特性对决策的影响力(Burson et al., 2009; Pandelaere et al., 2011)。例如, 用小单位(7~21天)表示延迟时间会比用大单位(1~3周)激发个体更大的差异感受, 因为从7到21比从1到3的变化更大。但Monga和Bagchi (2012)提出决策者的思维方式会改变其对数字信息和单位信息的相对关注, 例如, 当消费者提早为夏天做旅行规划时, 会采用抽象性思维方式, 此时将更关注单位信息, 而当消费者做即兴的旅行规划时, 则会采用具体的思维方式, 此时会更关注数字信息。

当需要表达数量信息时, 单位或数量信息哪个更为突显依赖于决策者的思维形式, 即近期决策会使数字更为突显, 而远期决策会使单位更为突显。如果单位更为突显时, 则实践者需要用大单位去强化积极特性(如膳食纤维的含量), 或应使用小单位弱化消极特性(如发货的延迟时间), 如果是数字更为突显, 则实践者的选择应相反(Monga & Bagchi, 2012)。

3.3 图形的设计

通过操纵图形表征在不同维度的相对突出性, 研究者发现即使在表达信息不变的情况下, 人们的判断和决策也会受到图形表征的影响, 即出现图形框架效应(李晓明, 刘心阁, 2013; 孙彦等, 2012)。例如, Sun等(2012)让被试设想从2个品牌的MP3中选择自己更中意的, 各选项会在返修率和存储能力这2个维度上有所差异。通常, 人们会更偏好于具有高存储能力及低返修率的品牌。商品信息分别采用图1图2两种方式呈现, 结果发现, 虽然两种条件下的数字信息相同, 但图1条件下, 人们会偏好B, 在图2条件下, 人们会更偏好A, 表现出偏好反转。研究者也发现条形图及星号图的长度及大小也可改变个体的风险回避行为(李晓明, 刘心阁, 2013)。另外, 图形表征中还有一个很重要因素是图形的颜色, 研究发现, 红色通常比蓝色更具警示效果(李晓明等, 2016; Kliger & Gilad, 2012)。

图1

图1   突显存储容量维度的版本


图2

图2   突显返修率维度的版本


实践者可利用图形的物理特征, 如大小、长度来操纵相关维度的突显性, 如果想要提高某一维度在决策中的作用, 则可将表达该维度的坐标轴拉长或将图形扩大。另外, 如果为了突显危险及风险信息, 红色通常比其他颜色更有效。

4 应用研究展望

目前诸多应用研究表明, 为了提高框架效应的有效性, 应关注框架效应的适应条件, 即影响框架效应的调节变量, 如性别(Huang & Wang, 2010)、知识水平(Jin & Han, 2014)、惯用手(Jasper, Fournier, & Christman, 2014)、加工方式(Pavey & Churchill, 2014)、计算能力(Peters & Levin, 2008)、工作记忆(Corbin, McElroy, & Black, 2010)、自我调节取向(Cesario et al., 2013)、建构水平(Freling et al., 2014)等。未来应在此类研究的基础上, 继续拓展其他可能的调节变量, 如个体的情绪体验。另外, 在应用实践过程中, 实践者也应思考如何准确地把握个体的先前观点及个人特点, 选择与个人相匹配的差异化信息框架以提高框架效应的有效性。目前互联网、智能手机的普及为这种个体化测查提供了更为便捷的方式, 未来应注重思考此类技术的开发, 以提高框架效应的广告及规劝效果。其次, 无论从理论或是应用层面, 研究者虽在不同领域探讨了众多干扰框架效应的调节变量, 但对导致框架效应的中介变量及中介机制的探究却相对缺乏, 未来可引入具有普遍意义的认知评价和情绪因素以加强此方面的探讨。再次, 虽然实践者希望利用框架效应来影响人们的决策与判断, 但有时也需通过适宜的呈现方式来降低框架效应的影响, 以使某些特殊群体(如计算能力低者)可以做出更为客观的判断及选择。以往研究发现通过适当的图形视觉辅助技术可降低框架效应的影响(Gamliel & Kreiner, 2013; Garcia-Retamero & Cokely, 2011, 2014; Garcia-Retamero & Galesic, 2010), 未来应加强此领域的研究, 以帮助人们降低框架效应的干扰, 做出更加符合内心需求的决策。最后, 目前框架效应的研究主要集中在成人领域, 也有研究探讨了军人群体的框架效应(Haerem, Kuvaas, Bakken, & Karlsen, 2011), 未来更需要将相关研究拓展到其他具体的应用群体, 如青少年、成瘾者, 这也将有助于切实提高相关研究的应用性。例如, 青少年喜欢追求刺激, 具有较低的风险规避倾向(Knoll, Magisweinberg, Speekenbrink, & Blakemore, 2015), 如何利用框架效应来提高青少年对风险的感知, 并依据青少年的个体差异细化信息框架, 将具有重要的实践意义。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17( 3), 270-287.

URL     PMID:21942316      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)-including HIV/AIDS-are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health information brochure) in a large sample of sexually active young adults (n = 744). We assessed the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages, and visual aids, on affective reactions, risk perceptions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and reported behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of STDs. Results indicate that gain-framed messages induced greater adherence for prevention behaviors (e.g., condom use), whereas loss-framed messages were more effective in promoting illness-detecting behaviors (e.g., making an appointment with a doctor to discuss about STD screening). The influence of the framed messages on prevention and detection of STDs was mediated by changes in participants' attitudes toward the health behaviors along with changes in their behavioral intentions. Moreover, when visual aids were added to the health information, both the gain- and loss-framed messages became equally and highly effective in promoting health behaviors. These results converge with other data indicating that well-constructed visual aids are often among the most highly effective, transparent, fast, memorable, and ethically desirable means of risk communication. Theoretical, economic, and public policy implications of these results are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

Garcia-Retamero, R., &Cokely, E.T . ( 2014).

The influence of skills, message frame, and visual aids on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27( 2), 179-189.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In a large three week longitudinal study, we investigated the efficacy of framed messages for promoting condom use in sexually active young adults. We also investigated the influence of key risk literacy skills (i.e., numeracy and graph literacy) and visual aids (i.e., icon arrays) on the efficacy of framed messages. Finally, we investigated the underlying psychological mechanisms of behavioral change on the ability of icon arrays to improve message effectiveness. Results showed that framed messages including icon arrays increased adherence to self-reported condom use by giving rise to enduring changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions, which influenced behavior. Icon arrays were found to be most beneficial among young adults with relatively low numeracy as long as they had high graph literacy. These findings build on the previous research in risk communication and extend psychological theories of health-related decision making such as the theory of planned behavior. These findings also map the conditions under which well-constructed visual aids can be among the most effective, transparent, and ethically desirable means of risk communication. Implications for risk communication and informed medical decision making are discussed. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Garcia-Retamero, R., &Galesic, M . ( 2010).

How to reduce the effect of framing on messages about health

Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25( 12), 1323-1329.

URL     PMID:2988162      [本文引用: 1]

BACKGROUND Patients must be informed about risks before any treatment can be implemented. Yet serious problems in communicating these risks occur because of framing effects. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of different information frames when communicating health risks to people with high and low numeracy and determine whether these effects can be countered or eliminated by using different types of visual displays (i.e., icon arrays, horizontal bars, vertical bars, or pies). DESIGN Experiment on probabilistic, nationally representative US ( n 65=65492) and German ( n 65=65495) samples, conducted in summer 2008. OUTCOME MEASURES Participants’ risk perceptions of the medical risk expressed in positive (i.e., chances of surviving after surgery) and negative (i.e., chances of dying after surgery) terms. KEY RESULTS Although low‐numeracy people are more susceptible to framing than those with high numeracy, use of visual aids is an effective method to eliminate its effects. However, not all visual aids were equally effective: pie charts and vertical and horizontal bars almost completely removed the effect of framing. Icon arrays, however, led to a smaller decrease in the framing effect. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties with understanding numerical information often do not reside in the mind, but in the representation of the problem.

Haerem T., Kuvaas B., Bakken B. T., & Karlsen T . ( 2011).

Do military decision makers behave as predicted by prospect theory?

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24( 5), 482-497.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Four experiments were conducted to explore the robustness of risky choice framing among military decision makers. In the first experiment the original version of the Asian disease problem was administered. In contrast to Tversky and Kahneman's (1981) original findings, military decision makers were not influenced by the gain and loss framing. They demonstrated risk-seeking behavior in both domains. In the second experiment, we administered a military version of the Asian disease problem. We found a significant framing effect, but it was unidirectional: The decision makers were risk seeking in both domains, but significantly more risk seeking in the loss domain. To explore the strength of this risk-seeking preference, we altered the problem in a third experiment, making the risky alternative 12.5% less attractive than the certain one. Again, we found risk-seeking behavior in both domains. Finally, we explored reasons for these deviations from prospect theory by comparing the responses of business students and military officers. In this analysis, we observed significantly higher levels of self-efficacy in the military sample, as compared to the civil sample, and that the self-efficacy influenced risk seeking only in the military sample. In a post hoc analysis we also found that years of education reduced risk-seeking preference. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Higgins, E.T. ( 1997).

Beyond pleasure and pain

American Psychologist, 52( 12), 1280-1300.

[本文引用: 1]

Hong F., Hossain T., & List J. A . ( 2015).

Framing manipulations in contests: a natural field experiment

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 118, 372-382.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Exploiting findings that losses loom larger than gains, studies have shown that framing manipulations can increase productivity of workers. Using a natural field experiment that exogenously manipulates wage bonuses within contests in a Chinese high-tech manufacturing facility, we show that how loss aversion affects worker behavior critically depends on the incentive scheme as well as the framing manipulation. Four sets of two identical teams competed against each other to win a bonus given to the team, within a set, with the higher average hourly productivity over the week. In each set, the bonus was framed as a reward or gain for one team and as a punishment or loss for the other. Average weekly productivity was slightly higher under the loss treatment, but this increase was statistically insignificant. However, the team under the loss treatment was at least 35% more likely to win the contest. As teams payoffs are based on relative productivity under a contest, framing effect is much stronger in terms of relative productivity. Finally, workers seemingly responded to the bonus by increasing the quality of production as well as quantity efect rate fell as productivity increased.

Huang, Y., &Wang, L . ( 2010).

Sex differences in framing effects across task domain

Personality and Individual Differences, 48( 5), 649-653.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigated how task domain moderated sex differences in framing effects. Five hundred and 86 participants (63.3% female) were randomly assigned to different frame valences (i.e., positive vs. negative) and different task domains (i.e., life-death vs. money vs. time). A participant finished all three framing task types: attribute, goal, and risky-choice frames. Results showed that in the life-death domain, females (vs. males) exhibited stronger responses to negative frames. In the monetary domain, males (vs. females) showed a greater response to negative frames. In the time domain, the patterns of sex differences were inconsistent across different framing tasks such that in the goal framing task, females were more willing to take actions under negative (vs. positive) frames while males were just the opposite; in the risk-choice task, female were more inclined to take risks under positive (vs. negative) frames while males did not show significant framing effects. These results indicated that the framing effect is sex-specific, varying according to the gender role in different task domains. The present research highlights the necessity to distinguish, rather than combine, individual judgments and decision-makings in different task domains when investigating framing effects.

Hurlstone M. J., Lewandowsky S., Newell B. R., & Sewell B . ( 2014).

The effect of framing and normative messages in building support for climate policies

Plos One, 9( 12), e114335-e114335.

URL     PMID:4266503      [本文引用: 1]

Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a "foregone-gain"--incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts--rather than as a "loss"--incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts.

Isaac, M.S., &Poor, M . ( 2016).

The sleeper framing effect: The influence of frame valence on immediate and retrospective judgments

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 26( 1), 53-65.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Prior research on attribute framing has documented a robust valence-consistent shift whereby positively valenced options (e.g., 75% lean beef) are preferred over equivalent negatively valenced options (e.g., 25% fat beef). However, this research has typically explored how labels influence judgments of prospective or hypothetical consumption. In contrast, we examine how frames interact with actual consumption experiences to influence both immediate and retrospective judgments. We find evidence of asleeper framing effectwherein a valence-consistent shift emerges for retrospective judgments even when absent immediately after consumption. We attribute this effect to differences in how consumers integrate the more cognitive information of the frame with the more affective information acquired during consumption. Specifically, three experiments show that consumers attend to and rely relatively more on affective information from experience when making immediate judgments, but relatively more on cognitive information from the frame when making retrospective judgments. In addition, we identify the valence of the experience as an important boundary condition, such that the sleeper framing effect is most pronounced when the experience is relatively neutral in valence.

Jasper J. D., Fournier C., & Christman S. D . ( 2014).

Handedness differences in information framing

Brain and Cognition, 84( 1), 85-89.

URL     PMID:24326298      [本文引用: 1]

Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1 3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97 99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed.

Jin, H.J., &Han, D.H . ( 2014).

Interaction between message framing and consumers’ prior subjective knowledge regarding food safety issues

Food Policy, 44, 95-102.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study analyzed the interaction between message frames and recipients’ prior knowledge. The hypothesis is that less prior consumer knowledge will result in a larger framing effect. That is, if the subjective knowledge of the public is low, then the controversy created by mass media regarding a specific food-related event will be larger. Empirical results show that message frame has an influence on college students’ purchasing intentions. College students showed distinct responses in purchasing intention based on different headlines and different amounts of information within articles. The results further suggest that the framing effect depends not only on message frames, but also on the prior knowledge of the message recipient. Those who have less knowledge have larger variation in their purchase intention when responding to different message frames. This suggests that people with less knowledge are more likely to panic due to mass media reports regarding a food hazard issue. More informed consumers have less dramatic responses to food safety issues compared to less informed people.

Kanner, M.D. ( 2004).

Framing and the role of the second actor: An application of prospect theory to bargaining

Political Psychology, 25( 2), 213-239.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

An actor's frame of reference significantly affects that actor's risk attitude. Although the frame of reference is often taken as a given, earlier work shows it to be the result of an actor's assumptions and beliefs, which can be manipulated by a second actor in a bargaining situation. As modeled here, confidence in selected assumptions can be manipulated by one of two means: changing the confidence of the actor about the future domain, and getting the actor to adopt a particular domain by discounting the utility of a course of action. Both methods force a change in the perceived domain and a shift in risk attitude. In addition to showing manipulation of an actor's frame, the model adds to our understanding of Kahneman and Tversky's original expression of prospect theory.

Khan, U., &Dhar, R . ( 2010).

Price-framing effects on the purchase of hedonic and utilitarian bundles

Journal of Marketing Research, 47( 6), 1090-1099.

[本文引用: 1]

Kliger, D., &Gilad, D . ( 2012).

Red light, green light: Color priming in financial decisions

The Journal of Socio-Economics, 41( 5), 738-745.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Colors are widely present in the financial decision making arena: at firms’ and data providers’ websites; television reports; newspaper publications; advertizements; security market displays, with colors such as red and green prominently employed. Our experimental analysis involves a between subject design exposing subjects to financial substance on colored backgrounds and exploring the effect on their investment decisions. We focus on financial decisions under uncertainty about probability, examining subjects’ investment valuations and the probabilities they assign to the possible outcomes. This study explores the role of color exposure as a priming factor in financial decision making. Priming is a process of activating particular connections or associations in memory prior to carrying out an action or task. The associations occur when a certain stimulus or event increases the availability of specific information categories and, as a result, affect decision making. The results indicate that red color priming emphasizes value losses of the underlying asset. To wit, subjects who were exposed to red (R) assigned higher valuations and probabilities to events involving the loss domain, than to events involving the gain domain, relatively to the valuations assigned by subjects who were exposed to green (G). The aggregated evaluation given by the R subjects when the investment payback was subject to negative (positive) underlying asset returns was higher (lower) than that of the G subjects by roughly 15% (19%) of the invested amount.

Knoll L. J., Magis-Weinberg L., Speekenbrink M., & Blakemore S. J . ( 2015).

Social influence on risk perception during adolescence

Psychological Science, 26( 5), 583-592.

URL     PMID:4426139      [本文引用: 1]

Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults.

Lee, A.Y., &Aaker, J.L . ( 2004).

Bringing the frame into focus: The influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86( 2), 205-218.

URL     PMID:14769079      [本文引用: 1]

This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal.

Levin, I. P, &Gaeth, G.J . ( 1988).

How consumers are affected by the framing of attribute information before and after consuming the product

Journal of Consumer Research, 15( 3), 374-378.

Levin I. P., Schneider S. L., & Gaeth G. J . ( 1998).

All frames are not created equal: A typology and critical analysis of framing effects

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76( 2), 149-188.

[本文引用: 4]

Li S., Su Y., & Sun Y . ( 2010).

The effect of pseudo- immediacy on intertemporal choices

Journal of Risk Research, 13( 6), 781-787.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

An interesting phenomenon, which we dub the ‘pseudo‐immediacy effect’, was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS) outcome to the larger but later (LL) outcome when a pseudo‐immediacy reward was framed, but a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL outcome to the SS outcome when the pseudo‐immediate format was removed. Such a shift violated the invariance principle which requires that the preference order between options does not depend on the manner in which they are described. With reference to the pseudo‐certainty effect reported by Kahneman and Tversky in 1984, our findings typically support the notion that risk and delay are psychologically equivalent and that the same psychological process underlies risk and intertemporal choice.

Mittelman M., Andrade E. B., Chattopadhyay A., & Brendl C. M . ( 2014).

The offer framing effect: Choosing single versus bundled offerings affects variety seeking

Journal of Consumer Research, 41( 4), 953-964.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Choices of multiple items can be framed as a selection of single offerings (e.g., a choice of two individual candy bars) or of bundled offerings (e.g., a choice of a bundle of two candy bars). Four experiments provide strong evidence that consumers seek more variety when choosing from single than from bundled offerings. The offer framing effect shows that the mechanics of choosing—the ways consumers go about making choices of multiple items—affect variety seeking in a systematic manner. The data also suggest that the effect is largely due to the single offering frame. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Monga, A., &Bagchi, R . ( 2012).

Years, months, and days versus 1, 12, and 365: The influence of units versus numbers

Journal of Consumer Research, 39( 1), 185-198.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Quantitative changes may be conveyed to consumers using small units (e.g., change in delivery time from 7 to 21 days) or large units (1–3 weeks). Numerosity research suggests that changes are magnified by small (vs. large) units because a change from 7 to 21 (vs. 1–3) seems larger. We introduce a reverse effect that we term unitosity: changes are magnified by large (vs. small) units because a change of weeks (vs. days) seems larger. We show that numerosity reverses to unitosity when relative salience shifts from numbers to units (study 1). Then, arguing that numbers (units) represent a low-level (high-level) construal of quantities, we show this reversal when mind-set shifts from concrete to abstract (studies 2–4). These results emerge for several quantities—height of buildings, time of maturity of financial instruments, weight of nutrients, and length of tables—and have significant implications for theory and practice.

Newman C. L., Howlett E., Burton S., Kozup J. C., & Tangari A. H . ( 2012).

The influence of consumer concern about global climate change on framing effects for environmental sustainability messages

International Journal of Advertising, 31( 3), 511-527.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

It is becoming increasingly evident that current patterns of consumption are not sustainable in the long term. Clearly, the need to persuade consumers to adopt more sustainable lifestyles has never been more urgent. The present research contributes to our understanding of the effects of message framing by considering the potential moderating influence of consumer concern about global climate change within the context of sustainable consumption. The results of two experiments demonstrate that the US consumer level of concern for the message-specific issues moderates the strength of the framing effect; effects are larger when concern about climate change is low. In addition, when concern is low, more negative framing and a prevention focus have more favourable persuasive effects. The implications of these findings for consumer welfare and public policy are discussed. Sustainability is achieved when all people on Earth can live well without compromising the quality of life for future generations.(Jucker 2003) Sustainability is achieved when all people on Earth can live well without compromising the quality of life for future generations.

Orazi, D.C., Lei, J, &Bove, L.L . ( 2015).

The nature and framing of gambling consequences in advertising

Journal of Business Research, 68( 10), 2049-2056.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This research investigates the impact of the nature and framing of gambling consequences in responsible gambling advertisements. Two experimental studies are conducted to assess (1) the construal level of gambling consequences, and (2) the influence of the nature and framing of gambling consequences on advertising effectiveness for both recreational and problem gamblers. The results show that, compared to material consequences, social consequences are at a higher construal level and are more effective in reducing the propensity to gamble. This differential impact of social versus material consequences is stronger among problem gamblers (vs. recreational gamblers) and when the consequences are presented as losses (vs. gains). Implications for public health agencies and social marketers are discussed.

Pandelaere M., Briers B., & Lembregts C . ( 2011).

How to make a 29% increase look bigger: The unit effect in option comparisons

Journal of Consumer Research, 38( 2), 308-322.

[本文引用: 2]

Pavey, L., &Churchill, S . ( 2014).

Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks: Priming autonomy moderates message framing effects

Plos One, 9( 7), e103892.

URL     PMID:4117640      [本文引用: 1]

The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes.

Peters, E., &Levin, I.P . ( 2008).

Dissecting the risky-choice framing effect: Numeracy as an individual-difference factor in weighting risky and riskless options

Judgment and Decision Making, 3( 6), 435-448.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Using five variants of the Asian Disease Problem, we dissected the risky-choice framing effect by requiring each participant to provide preference ratings for the full decision problem and also to provide attractiveness ratings for each of the component parts, i.e., the sure-thing option and the risky option. Consistent with previous research, more risky choices were made by respondents receiving negatively framed versions of the decision problems than by those receiving positively framed versions. However, different processes were evident for those scoring high and low on numeracy. Whereas the choices of the less numerate showed a large effect of frame above and beyond any influence of their evaluations of the separate options, the choices of the highly numerate were almost completely accounted for by their attractiveness ratings of the separate options. These results are consistent with an increased tendency of the highly numerate to integrate complex numeric information in the construction of their preferences and a tendency for the less numerate to respond more superficially to non-numeric sources of information.

Reyna, V.F., &Brainerd, C.J . ( 2008).

Numeracy, ratio bias, and denominator neglect in judgments of risk and probability

Learning and Individual Differences, 18( 1), 89-107.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

“Numeracy,” so-called on analogy with literacy, is essential for making health and other social judgments in everyday life [Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (in press). The importance of mathematics in health and human judgment: Numeracy, risk communication, and medical decision making. Learning and Individual Differences.]. Recent research on numeracy in health decision making has shown that many adults fail to solve simple ratio and decimal problems, concepts that are prerequisites for understanding health-relevant risk communications. In addition, adults exhibit a ratio bias, in which higher frequencies bias probability judgments, and denominator neglect, described by Reyna and Brainerd (e.g., [Reyna, V. F. (1991). Class inclusion, the conjunction fallacy, and other cognitive illusions. Developmental Review, 11, 317–336.; Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (1994). The origins of probability judgment: A review of data and theories. In G. Wright & P. Ayton (Eds.), Subjective probability. (pp. 239–272). New York: Wiley.]) and independently by Epstein (e.g., [Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist, 49, 709–724.]). Along with research in education and cognitive development, this work demonstrates that adults have difficulty with a broad range of ratio concepts, including fractions, proportions, risks and probabilities. The psychological mechanisms underlying this difficulty are characterized using dual-processes approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory, simple and effective interventions are described that eliminate common problem-solving errors, and implications for the effective use of numerical information in risk communication are discussed.

Rothman, A.J., &Salovey, P . ( 1997).

Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: The role of message framing

Psychological Bulletin, 121( 1), 3-19.

URL     PMID:9000890      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Health-relevant communications can be framed in terms of the benefits (gains) or costs (losses) associated with a particular behavior, and the framing of such persuasive messages influences health decision making. Although to ask people to consider a health issue in terms of associated costs is considered an effective way to motivate behavior, empirical findings are inconsistent. In evaluating the effectiveness of framed health messages, investigators must appreciate the context in which health-related decisions are made. The influence of framed information on decision making is contingent on people, first, internalizing the advocated frame and, then, on the degree to which performing a health behavior is perceived as risky. The relative effectiveness of gain-framed or loss-framed appeals depends, in part, on whether a behavior serves an illness-detecting or a health-affirming function. Finally, the authors discuss the cognitive and affective processes that may mediate the influence of framed information on judgment and behavior.

Schröder M., LÜer A., & Sadrieh A . ( 2015).

Pay-what- you-want or mark-off-your-own-price - a framing effect in customer-selected pricing

Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 57, 200-204.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We conduct a natural field experiment to test for the effect of framing on prices paid in two customer-selected price mechanisms. In two framing conditions, we sell a soft drink and provide customers with a reference price for this drink. In the pay-what-you-want (PWYW) condition, customers are told that they can pay much as they want. In the mark-off-your-own-price (MOYOP) condition, customers are told that they can reduce the price by as much as they want. We find that prices are significantly lower and that more customers choose a price of zero in the MOYOP compared to the PWYW condition. We conjecture that the explicit request to reduce the price in MOYOP is a strong signal for customers to adjust their perception of the appropriate price downwards.

Siegrist, M. ( 1997).

Communicating low risk magnitudes: Incidence rates expressed as frequency versus rates expressed as probability

Risk Analysis, 17( 4), 507-510.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The study investigated the effects of incidence rates stated as a probability (e.g., 0006) and incidence rate information expressed in terms of frequency (e.g., 600 in 1,000,000) on risk-avoidant behavior. Subjects were informed about the risks associated with an old and a new, improved medication. They were asked how much they were willing to pay for the safer medicine. Risk information was given either in a frequency or a probability format. The second factor manipulated was the level of risk, either high or low. As expected, analysis of variance yielded a significant interaction. Subjects confronted with high risk in the frequency format were willing to pay the highest prices for the improved medication. The choice between frequency or probability format can be made according to the goal of the communication of risk.

Spence A., Leygue C., Bedwell B., & O'Malley C . ( 2014).

Engaging with energy reduction: Does a climate change frame have the potential for achieving broader sustainable behavior?

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38( 3), 17-28.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61We examine energy engagement impacts on perceptions and behaviour intentions.61CO2 energy frames increase salience of climate change.61Climate change frames relate to increased environmental behaviour intentions.61Salience of climate change mediates spillover on environmental intentions.

Spence, A., &Pidgeon, N . ( 2010).

Framing and communicating climate change: The effects of distance and outcome frame manipulations

Global Environmental Change, 20( 4), 656-667.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Communications regarding climate change are increasingly being utilised in order to encourage sustainable behaviour and the way that these are framed can significantly alter the impact that they have on the recipient. This experimental study seeks to investigate how transferable existing research findings on framing from health and behavioural research are to the climate change case. The study ( N = 161) examined how framing the same information about climate change in terms of gain or loss outcomes and in terms of local or distant impacts can affect perceptions. Text on potential climate change impacts was adapted from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, alongside maps and images of potential flooding impacts. Participants then completed measures of various relevant socio-cognitive factors and questions assessing their responses to the information that they had received. Results indicated that, ceteris paribus, gain frames were superior to loss frames in increasing positive attitudes towards climate change mitigation, and also increased the perceived severity of climate change impacts. However, third variable analyses demonstrated that the superiority of the gain frame was partially suppressed by lower fear responses and poorer information recall within gain framed information. In addition, framing climate change impacts as distant (whilst keeping information presented the same) resulted in climate change impacts being perceived as more severe, whilst attitudes towards climate change mitigation were more positive when participants were asked to consider social rather than personal aspects of climate change. Implications for designing communications about climate change are outlined.

Steinhorst J., Klöckner C. A., & Matthies E . ( 2015).

Saving electricity - for the money or the environment? Risks of limiting pro-environmental spillover when using monetary framing

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 43( 9), 125-135.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Both environmental and monetary appeals increase electricity saving intentions.61Environmental appeals promote intentions for further climate-friendly behaviour.61Monetary appeals do not change further climate-friendly intentions.61This study discovers mediating mechanism for framing and environmental spillover.61Effects of environmental appeals are mediated by personal norm and self-efficacy.

Stone E. R., Sieck W. R., Bull B. E., Yates J. F., Parks S. C., & Rush C. R . ( 2003).

Foreground: Background salience: Explaining the effects of graphical displays on risk avoidance

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90( 1), 19-36.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The purpose of this research was to determine the mechanisms underlying the graphical effect identified by Stone, Yates, and Parker (1997), in which graphical formats for conveying risk information are more effective than numerical formats for increasing risk-avoidant behavior. Two experiments tested whether this graphical effect occurred because the graphical formats used by Stone et al. highlighted the number of people harmed by the focal hazard, causing the decisions to be based mainly on the number of people harmed (which we label the “foreground”) at the expense of the total number of people at risk of harm (which we call the “background”). Specifically, two graphical formats were developed that displayed pictorially both the number of people harmed and the total number at risk, and use of these display formats eliminated the graphical effect. We thus propose that the previously discussed graphical effect was in fact a manifestation of a more general foreground:background salience effect, whereby displays that highlight the number of people harmed at the expense of the total number of people at risk of harm lead to greater risk avoidance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Stone E. R., Yates J. F., & Parker A. M . ( 1994).

Risk communication: Absolute versus relative expressions of low-probability risks

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 60( 3), 387-408.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

According to most prescriptive decision rules, formally equivalent methods of communicating risk information should have identical effects on risk-taking behavior, even if the pertinent displays are different. The present work takes two methods commonly employed in epidemiology, incidence rates and relative risks, and examines their comparative effects on risk-avoidant behavior. In Experiment 1, we presented 108 undergraduates with information about risks associated with different brands of tires and toothpaste and displayed that information either as incidence rates or as a relative risk ratio. For the tires product, subjects given the relative risk format were willing to pay more money for a safer product than were subjects given the incidence rate format. There were, however, no differences between the two conditions for the toothpaste product. Experiment 2 evaluated two potential explanations for the difference in findings between the two products. The majority of the data supported an "editing" hypothesis, which suggests that extreme low-probability risks, such as those associated with tire blowouts, are edited to "essentially nil risk," while more moderate risks, such as those associated with periodontal disease, are considered to be small but significant. These findings are discussed in the context of fuzzy trace theory and related models, which suggest that people reason on the basis of simplified representations rather than on the literal information available.

Stone E. R., Yates J. F., & Parker A. M . ( 1997).

Effects of numerical and graphical displays on professed risk taking behavior

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 3( 4), 243-256.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT In 3 experiments, the authors examined alternative formats for displaying low-probability risk information and the effects of these formats on professed risk-taking behavior. In Experiment 1, participants who were presented with numerically displayed risk information stated that they would be willing to pay less money to reduce a risk than were participants given the identical information by means of stick figures. Experiments 2 and 3 evaluated 3 potential explanations for this finding by including additional formats where the risk information was displayed as asterisks, bar graphs, or faces. The data did not support explanations focusing on the discrete character of stick figures or their possible humanizing nature but instead suggested that the graphical nature of stick figures increased risk avoidance. These results suggest that depicting risk information graphically as opposed to numerically is a potentially useful technique for decreasing risk-taking behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Sun Y., Li S., & Bonini N . ( 2010).

Attribute salience in graphical representations affects evaluation

Judgment and Decision Making, 5( 3), 151-158.

[本文引用: 1]

Sun Y., Li S., Bonini N., & Su Y . ( 2012).

Graph-Framing effects in decision making

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 491-501.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This study manipulated the graphical representation of options by framing the physical characters in figures and found that preferences could be affected even when the words and numbers of the problem were constant. Based on attribute substitution theory and an equate-to-differentiate approach, we proposed a two-process model of graph-framing effects. In the first mental process, the graph-editing process, the physical features (e.g., distance, size) represented in the graph are visually edited, and the perceived numerical difference between the options is judged based on its physical features. The second mental process, the preferential choice process, occurs by an equate-to-differentiate approach in which people seek to equate the difference between options on the dimension on which the difference is smaller, thus leaving the greater other-dimensional difference to be the determinant of the final choice. Four experiments were tested for graph-framing effects. Experiment 1 found a graph-framing effect in coordinate graphs resting on the (de)compression of the scales employed in the figures. Experiment 2 revealed additional graph-framing effects in other question scenarios and showed that preference changes were mediated by perceived numerical distances. Experiment 3 further confirmed the presence of graph-framing effects in sector graphs similar to those found in coordinate ones. Experiment 4 suggested that such graph-framing effects could be eliminated when logical processing (e.g., introducing a mathematical operation before a choice task) was encouraged. This paper discusses related research and a possible substrate basis for graph-framing effects. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sun, Y., &Mellers, B . ( 2016).

Trade-upgrade framing effects: Trades are losses, but upgrades are improvements

Judgment and Decision Making, 11( 6), 582-588.

[本文引用: 1]

Sun Y., Sarma E. A., Moyer A., & Messina C. R . ( 2015).

Promoting mammography screening among Chinese American women using a message-framing intervention

Patient Education and Counseling, 98( 7), 878-883.

URL     PMID:25858632     

This study examined the role of women's perceptions about the relative pros versus cons (decisional balance) of mammography in moderating Chinese American women's responses to gain- and loss-framed messages that promote mammography. One hundred and forty-three Chinese American women who were currently nonadherent to guidelines for receiving annual screening mammograms were randomly assigned to read either a gain- or loss-framed culturally appropriate print brochure about mammography screening. Mammography screening was self-reported at a 2-month follow-up. Although there was not a main effect for message frame, the hypothesized interaction between message frame and decisional balance was significant, indicating that women who received a framed message that matched their decisional balance were significantly more likely to have obtained a mammogram by the follow-up than women who received a mismatched message. Results suggest that decisional balance, and more generally, perceptions about mammography, may be an important moderator of framing effects for mammography among Chinese American women. The match between message frame and decisional balance should be considered when attempting to encourage Chinese American women to receive mammography screening, as a match between the two may be most persuasive.

Tversky, A., &Kahneman, D . ( 1981).

The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice

Science, 211( 4481), 453-458.

[本文引用: 3]

Updegraff, J.A., &Rothman, A.J . ( 2013).

Health message framing: Moderators, mediators, and mysteries

Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7( 9), 668-679.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Health message framing is an important aspect of health communication. Over the past 20 ears, researchers have sought to identify the contexts in which gain-framed and loss-framed health messages are most likely to motivate healthy behavior. Two major approaches have emerged: One approach focusing on matching the frame of the message to how people perceive the risks and uncertainties of the advocated health behavior and the other approach focusing on matching the frame of the message to the motivational orientation of the recipient. In this review, we describe these two major approaches to health message framing, identify the most likely psychological mediators that explain why these approaches motivate behavior, suggest a way to integrate these two approaches, and outline several key future directions for both basic and applied research in health message framing.

Uskul A. K., Sherman D. K., & Fitzgibbon J . ( 2009).

The cultural congruency effect: Culture, regulatory focus, and the effectiveness of gain- vs. loss-framed health messages

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45( 3), 535-541.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study contributes a cultural analysis to the literature on the persuasive effects of matching message frame to individuals’ motivational orientations. One experiment examines how members of cultural groups that are likely to differ in their regulatory focus respond to health messages focusing on either the benefits of flossing or the costs of not flossing. White British participants, who had a stronger promotion focus, were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas East-Asian participants, who had a stronger prevention focus, were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. This cultural difference in persuasion was mediated by an interaction between individuals’ self-regulatory focus and type of health message. Thus health messages framed to be culturally congruent led participants to have more positive attitudes and stronger intentions to perform the health behaviors, and the interaction between self-regulatory focus and message frame emerged as the pathway through which the observed cultural difference occurs. Discussion focuses on the integration of individual difference, socio-cultural, and situational factors into models of health persuasion.

Wettstein, M. ( 2012).

Frame adoption in referendum campaigns the effect of news coverage on the public salience of issue interpretations

American Behavioral Scientist, 56( 3), 318-333.

[本文引用: 1]

Wiest S. L., Raymond L., & Clawson R. A . ( 2015).

Framing, partisan predispositions, and public opinion on climate change

Global Environmental Change, 31, 187-198.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

We investigate how different framing of climate change impacts affects public opinion on the issue. Using an experimental design, we examine the influence of frames presenting local versus global climate impacts and frames discussing projected losses versus those also discussing possible benefits of climate change, on individual perceptions of the severity of climate change, behavioral intentions to address climate change, and attitudes toward climate change policies. The results indicate that our impact frames influence public opinion, although the effects sometimes differ based on individuals partisan predispositions. Specifically, our study shows that local frames increase perceptions of the severity of the problem and support for local (sub-national) policy action for all subjects, as well as behavioral intentions for subjects who are Independents or Republicans. Presenting subjects with information on the potential benefits and losses of climate change weakens perceptions of problem severity for all subjects at the local and national level, decreases support for local policy action among Democrats, and has no effect on behavioral intentions. Overall, these results are consistent with policy research suggesting that perceptions of local vulnerability are an important factor in the adoption of sub-national climate change policies. The findings also imply that the effectiveness of particular climate change impact frames will vary from one state to another depending on a state's partisan leanings.

Xu X., Arpan L. M., & Chen C. F . ( 2015).

The moderating role of individual differences in responses to benefit and temporal framing of messages promoting residential energy saving

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 44, 95-108.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

61We manipulated benefit and temporal framing of messages promoting energy saving.61Environmental framing led to more positive attitudes among those moderate in environmental concern.61Environmental framing led to more positive attitudes among political liberals.61Short-term economic framing led to more positive attitudes among low-CFC participants.61Short-term economic framing led to greater efficacy among low-CFC participants.

Zhao C. X., Jiang C. M., Zhou L., Li S., Rao L. L., & Zheng R . ( 2015).

The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 311.

URL     PMID:4376061      [本文引用: 1]

An interesting phenomenon called “hidden opportunity cost of time effect” was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS) option to the larger but later (LL) option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the ‘obvious’ opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals.

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