心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2161-2169 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02161

研究前沿

未来自我连续性及其对个体心理和行为的影响

刘云芝, 杨紫嫣, 王娱琦, 陈鋆, 蔡华俭,

中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室; 中国科学院心理研究所人格与社会心理研究中心, 北京 100101

中国科学院大学, 北京 100049

The concept of future self-continuity and its effects

LIU Yunzhi, YANG Ziyan, WANG Yuqi, CHEN Jun, CAI Huajian,

Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Center for Personality and Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

通讯作者: 蔡华俭, E-mail: caihj@psych.ac.cn

收稿日期: 2017-10-23   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *本文系2017年度国家社会科学基金重大招标项目“中国社会变迁过程中的文化与心理变化” 的阶段性成果.  17ZDA324

Received: 2017-10-23   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

一个人将现在自我和未来自我联系在一起的紧密程度反映了他/她在时间维度上自我连续性的强度, 即未来自我连续性。个体如何看待其现在自我与未来自我之间的连续和一致程度对个体的心理和行为有重要的影响, 特别是在跨期决策、储蓄和消费、学业成就领域、社会行为和健康领域等方面。未来研究可深入探讨未来自我连续性的神经基础及其影响因素, 并进一步拓展未来自我连续性相关的应用研究。

关键词: 未来自我连续性 ; 跨期决策 ; 时间折扣

Abstract

Future self-continuity refers to the degree of perceived connectedness between one’s present self and future self. A large body of research has demonstrated the significant role of future self-continuity in influencing temporal decision making, saving and consuming behaviors, academic achievements, social behaviors and exercise behavior. Future research may examine the neural basis of future self-continuity, explore its factors, and expand its potential applications.

Keywords: future self-continuity ; intertemporal decision making ; temporal discounting

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本文引用格式

刘云芝, 杨紫嫣, 王娱琦, 陈鋆, 蔡华俭. (2018). 未来自我连续性及其对个体心理和行为的影响. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2161-2169

LIU Yunzhi, YANG Ziyan, WANG Yuqi, CHEN Jun, CAI Huajian. (2018). The concept of future self-continuity and its effects. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2161-2169

1 引言

科学心理学对自我的探索和研究始于心理学之父威廉·詹姆斯(William James)。在他的名著《心理学原理》中, 詹姆斯将自我分成主体我(I)和客体我(me), 进而又将客体我分为物质自我(material self)、社会自我(social self)和精神自我(spiritual self)。此后的一个多世纪, 心理学家从不同的视角对自我进行了进一步的区分和大量的研究, 比如:真实自我(true self)和虚假自我(false self) (Winnicott, 1965); 现实自我(actual self)和理想自我(ideal self) (Rogers, 1961); 个体自我(individual self)、关系自我(relational self)和集体自我(collective self) (Sedikides & Brewer, 2002); 独立的我(independent self)和相依的我(interdependent self) (Markus & Kitayama,1991); 外显自我(explicit self)和内隐自我(implicit self) (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998)等等。其中, 一个重要的区分是以时间维度为基础, 将自我分为过去自我(past self)、现在自我(present self)和未来自我(future self) (Parfit, 1971; Welch-Ross,2001)。近年来, 这种基于时间维度区分的自我得到了研究者越来越多的关注。例如, 研究者们发现个体对未来自我的加工不同于现在自我, 对未来自我的加工属于抽象的、高层次的加工; 而对现在自我的加工属于具体的、低层次的加工(Wakslak, Nussbaum, Liberman, & Trope 2008; Liberman & Trope, 2014; Trope & Liberman, 2003)。Hershfield及其团队则指出个体倾向于将未来自我加工成与现在自我关系不大的陌生人, 在加工未来自我时激活的脑区也与现在自我不同(Hershfield, Wimmer, & Knutson, 2009)。虽然个体对不同时间维度上自我的加工存在差异, 但是将未来自我看作是现在自我在时间维度上的连续对个体具有重要的意义。研究者们发现个体对其现在自我与未来自我之间的连续和一致程度(即未来自我连续性, future self-continuity)的认识对个体与时间维度有关的决策行为(例如时间折扣, temporal discounting, Hershfield et al., 2009b)、学业成就方面(Adelman et al., 2016)、社会行为(如不道德行为, Hershfield et al., 2012; Sheldon, & Fishbach, 2015)和健康行为方面(Rutchick, Slepian, Reyes, Pleskus, & Hershfield, 2018)等有重要的影响作用。有关未来自我连续性的研究正成为自我研究领域的一个前沿热点。本文主要介绍未来自我连续性的概念内涵, 揭示未来自我连续性对个体心理和行为的影响, 并基于此提出未来可能的研究方向。

2 什么是未来自我连续性?

2.1 未来自我连续性的概念内涵

2.1.1 概念的提出

早在1971年, 哲学家Derek Parfit就提出个体的自我认同可以延伸至过去和未来(Parfit, 1971)。一个人过去的经历会影响其对自我的认识, 而个体过去的经历和对过去自我的认识会慢慢被个体内化, 成为自我认同的一部分; 同样, 个体对未来的自己的看法以及对未来生活的想象也会影响个体现在的心理和行为, 并被纳入自我认同当中(D°Argembeau, Lardi, & Van der Linden, 2012)。据此, Chandler (1994)将自我连续性(self-continuity)定义为个体在时间维度上将过去自我、现在自我和未来自我知觉为一个整体的程度。当个体感受到过去、现在和将来的自我是同一个自我时, 他/她的自我认同在时间维度上就是连续、一致的(Chandler, Lalonde, Sokol, & Hallett, 2003)。与Chandler不同, Hershfield等(2009b)更关注个体对现在自我和未来自我的看法, Hershfield等人于2009年提出未来自我连续性的概念, 用其描述个体对其现在自我与未来自我之间连续和一致程度的认识, 同时提出了未来自我连续性假设(future self-continuity hypothesis), 指出个体倾向于将未来的自己看作是与现在的自己毫无关联的陌生人。他们采用功能性磁共振成像(fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging)的技术, 让被试判断所呈现的特质词是否可以用来描述其现在的自己和未来的自己, 发现个体加工现在自我时前喙扣带皮质(rostral anterior cingulate cortex, rACC)出现了较为显著的激活, 而加工未来自我时大脑激活的区域与加工陌生人时更为相似。

2.1.2 未来自我连续性的涵义及模型

未来自我连续性1(1 也有一些研究者常把未来自我连续性操作为与未来自我的心理联结(psychological connectedness with future self) (Bartels & Rips, 2010; Urminsky, 2017)。)指个体将现在自我和未来自我联系在一起的紧密程度(Hershfield et al., 2009b; Hershfield, Garton, Ballard, Samanez-Larkin, & Knutson, 2009a)。未来自我连续性高的人认为其未来自我(如5年或10年后的自己)与现在自我之间有很多相似之处, 在想象未来的自己时会有更生动清晰的画面, 对未来的自己也有着更为积极的评价。Hershfield (2011)提出了未来自我连续性模型(见图1), 指出相似性(similarity)、生动性(vividness)和积极性(positivity)三个方面共同影响未来自我连续性, 并进而影响跨期决策。其中, 相似性主要指一个人眼中未来自我与现在自我之间的相似程度。相似性越高, 未来自我连续性越强。生动性主要指个体在加工未来自我时, 头脑中出现的画面的生动和形象程度。当一个人在想象未来某个时间点的自己时, 其想象出的画面越清晰、生动, 他/她越容易与未来自我感同身受(Klineberg, 1968)。积极性主要指个体在想象未来自我与现在自我之间的关系时感受到的未来自我的积极程度。个体将未来自我看得越积极, 就越容易将未来自我与现在自我联系在一起 (Zhang & Aggarwal, 2015)。虽然未来自我连续性模型对目前的有关研究有一定的指导作用, 但是此模型尚不够完善, 相似性、生动性和积极性三方面之间的关系还不够明确。例如该模型中仅指出相似性与生动性之间是相互影响的, 操纵个体想象未来自我的生动性可以增强现在自我与未来自我之间的相似性; 但相似性与积极性之间的关系, 生动性与积极性之间的关系, 以及三者之间是如何相互影响的目前均尚待检验。

图1

图1   未来自我连续性模型(其中虚线代表待检验的关系) (Hershfield, 2011)


2.2 未来自我连续性的操作性涵义

目前, 有关未来自我连续性的操作性涵义主要包括从测量出发和从操纵出发两个方面。从测量出发是将未来自我连续性看作是一种特质或个体差异, 主要关注如何对其准确测量; 从操纵出发是将未来自我连续性看作是一种状态, 主要关注如何对其进行有效操纵。

2.2.1 从测量出发

Hershfield等(2009a)在自我他人融合量表(Inclusion of the Other in the Self scale; Aron, Aron, & Smollan, 1992)的基础上编制的未来自我连续性问卷。如图2所示, 在每组圆中, 一个圆代表“现在的我”, 另一个圆代表“未来的我”, 两个圆的重合程度代表了“现在的我”和“未来的我”之间的连续性关系, 重合程度越大, 代表“现在的我”和“未来的我”之间的联系越紧密、连续性也越强。在施测时, 被试首先需要想象未来自我和现在自我之间的关系, 然后判断哪一组圆最能代表其“现在的我”和“未来的我”之间的相似和紧密联系程度。该问卷的测量结果可以反映不同的人在未来自我连续性上的个体差异。这一测量方法还可以在网络上进行施测, 被试可以通过鼠标拖动两个圆, 用两个圆之间的距离表示 “现在的我”和“未来的我”之间的重合程度(Kamphorst, Nauts, & Blouin-Hudon, 2009)。

图2

图2   未来自我连续性问卷图示(改编自Hershfield et al., 2009a)


2.2.2 从操纵出发

目前通常采用阅读任务、书写任务和互动任务来操纵未来自我连续性。

一些研究者通过让被试阅读一些文本材料来操纵被试感知到其未来自我和现在自我之间心理联结的强度, 以此来操纵未来自我连续性。例如, Bartels和Rips (2010)让实验组被试阅读一组人生经历变故较少的人物故事, 让控制组被试阅读人生经历曲折变化的人物故事, 借此使实验组被试感受到自己的现在自我与未来自我在时间维度上是连续一致的, 从而成功操纵了未来自我连续性。又如, Bartels和Urminsky (2011)让被试阅读一段关于自我认同是否会随时间改变的描述, 并对阅读材料进行总结概括。其中, 实验组被试阅读的材料指出个体的自我认同是一致不变的, 而控制组被试阅读的材料则指出自我认同是随时间不断变化的。这一方法也成功使被试感受到个体的自我在时间维度上是连续的, 成功操纵了被试的未来自我连续性。

采用书写任务操纵未来自我连续性主要是让被试根据要求进行论述或写作。例如, Hershfield,Cohen和Thompson (2012)让实验组被试想象并尽可能多得列出10年后的自己与现在的自己之间的相似点, 控制组的被试则想象并写出10年后的世界是什么模样, 通过描述现在的自己与10年后的自己之间的相似点增强了被试的未来自我连续性。Van Gelder, Hershfield和Nordgren (2013)则让被试给未来的自己写信, 借此增强被试想象未来自我时的生动性程度。Zhang和Aggarwal (2015)让实验组被试想象并具体描述现在自我与5年后的未来自我之间的相似之处, 控制组被试想象并描述现在自我与5年后的未来自我之间的不同之处。这种方式也有效地增强了被试现在自我与未来自我之间的紧密联系程度, 进而成功操纵了未来自我连续性。

科学家们还借用一些新兴技术或平台设计一些互动任务, 操纵心理学的变量。Hershfield等(2011)采用浸入式虚拟现实技术(immersive virtual reality), 让被试戴上特定的眼镜观看自己老年后的头像并与其进行互动, 从而增强了被试想象未来自我时的生动性, 进而增强其未来自我连续性。Blouin-Hudon和Pychyl (2016)借助音频材料, 采用心理想象(mental imagery)的干预方法, 让被试去听指定的音频材料并想象未来某个时间点的自己, 这一方法成功提高了被试想象未来自我时的生动程度, 增强了被试的未来自我连续性。Van Gelder及他的团队(2015)通过社交网站在现实生活情境中操纵被试的未来自我连续性。研究者让实验组的被试通过Facebook与未来的自己成为好友, 然后连续7天通过社交网站实现与未来自我之间的互动; 相反, 控制组的被试则与现在自我交流7天, 这一方法也成功操纵了被试的未来自我连续性(Van Gelder, Luciano, Weulen Kranenbarg, & Hershfield, 2015)。

3 未来自我连续性对个体心理和行为的影响

未来自我连续性对个体心理和行为的影响主要体现在跨期决策、储蓄和消费行为、学业成就领域、社会行为和健康领域等方面。

3.1 对跨期决策的影响

未来自我连续性对跨期决策的影响主要体现时间折扣方面。时间折扣指个体倾向于对当前的损益赋予更大的权重, 对未来的损益赋予较小的权重(Hershfield et al., 2009b; 阿不来提江 等, 2015)。当一个人将未来自我和现在自我紧密联系在一起时, 他/她会对未来自我的需求赋予较大的权重, 也深知自己当前的选择会影响未来的自己, 所以当需要在“现在获得100元”和“半年后获得150元”之间进行选择时, 更容易选择半年后获得更多的金钱, 即在跨期决策中表现出较低的时间折扣。Hershfield等人(2011)发现未来自我连续性可以预测跨期决策中的时间折扣, 操纵个体对未来自我的想象和关注可以降低被试在跨期决策中的时间折扣, 被试会为了得到更多的报酬而选择等待。Bartels和Rips (2010)发现个体与未来自我的心理联结程度可以预测其跨期决策的选择, 即与未来自我心理联结程度较强的被试, 更愿意在跨期决策中做出对未来自我有益的决策。Bartels和Urminsky (2011)也开展了一系列实验研究考察未来自我连续性对时间折扣的影响。他们发现:当被试将未来自我看得与现在自我越相似、联系越紧密, 他们越愿意选择让未来的自己获得更多的利益, 做出更多有耐心的选择, 从而表现出较低的时间折扣。

3.2 对储蓄和消费行为的影响

未来自我连续性还会影响个体的储蓄和消费行为。Hershfield等人(2009a)调查了现实生活中人们的资产分配行为, 结果发现未来自我连续性可以预测人们的储蓄金额, 未来自我连续性高的人会为以后的自己存储更多的资产。Hershfield等人(2011)进一步通过实验操纵了未来自我连续性, 结果发现提高被试的未来自我连续性可以增加被试为老年时的自己分配的退休储蓄金额。Bartels和Urminsky (2015)发现在操纵被试对金钱用途的认识后(例如提醒被试金钱有很多用途), 未来自我连续性高的人更少表现出只考虑现在、不考虑将来的消费行为, 也更愿意减少自己当前的花销, 例如选择购买较为便宜的商品, 从而将金钱分配到未来的其他花销上。同时, 他们还发现增强现在自我与未来自我之间的心理联结程度可以降低不理智的消费行为, 如购买热量高的巧克力等。此外, 未来自我连续性还会影响人们对某个商品或品牌的态度。通过操纵被试的未来自我连续性, Zhang和Aggarwal (2015)发现当被试与未来自我的心理联结较强时, 他们对将来(如5年以后)会拥有的商品持有更为积极的态度, 揭示了未来自我连续性对人们消费意向的影响作用。

3.3 对学业成就领域的影响

俗话说“少壮不努力, 老大徒伤悲”。当一个人认为未来的自己与当前的自己是不可分割、紧密相连的时候, 他/她更有可能现在 “努力”, 以免将来“徒伤悲”。Adelman等人(2016)发现:未来自我连续性高的大学生具有较高的自控力, 而且未来自我连续性对自控能力的影响作用可以被这些学生对未来结果的考虑(consideration of future consequences)所中介, 即未来自我连续性高的学生会更多的去考虑他们现在的行为对自己将来的影响, 而对未来的考虑可以进一步预测他们的自我控制能力, 拥有较高的自控能力有助于学生获得较高的学业成就。此外, 他们发现个体的家庭教育背景可以调节未来自我连续性对自控能力和学业成就的预测作用:这种预测作用在父母有受过大学及以上教育水平的学生(continuing-generation)中显著强于那些自己是家中第一代接受大学教育的学生(first-generation)。

除了自控能力, 拖延症(procrastination)也是影响学生学业成就的一个重要问题。现有研究发现未来自我连续性可以影响人们的拖延倾向。很多学生面对繁重的课业往往采取拖延的策略, 面对考试也是采取“临时抱佛脚”的态度, 将学业任务拖到截止日期或考试前才着手去做, 即“患有”所谓的拖延症。拖延症属于自我调节失败的范畴, 具有拖延症的人面对问题通常采用回避的应对策略, 虽然短时间内的拖延可能会缓解个体当下面对的压力和负面情绪, 但却会给未来的自己带去更多的压力和焦虑(Rozental & Carlbring, 2014)。Blouin-Hudon和Pychyl (2015)考察了大学生样本中未来自我连续性与拖延倾向之间的关系, 结果发现:未来自我连续性与拖延倾向之间存在显著负相关, 即未来自我连续性低的学生有更高的拖延倾向。而且他们发现未来自我连续性对拖延倾向的影响主要受生动性的影响。个体想象未来自我时越是生动形象, 越容易及时完成自己的任务, 较少拖延。此外, 研究者还发现让被试进行未来指向的心理想象也可以提高被试的未来自我连续性并降低他们的拖延倾向(Blouin-Hudon & Pychyl, 2016)。

3.4 对社会行为的影响

未来自我连续性会影响个体的不道德行为、社会不良行为(如欺骗和偷窃等)和亲社会行为等社会行为。

首先, 未来自我连续性可以预测不道德行为。具体表现在:当个体认为其未来自我与现在自我之间没有太多的相似之处时, 他/她更容易做出不道德行为, 比如为了给现在的自己谋取利益选择去撒谎, 而较少顾及这些行为对未来的自己造成的影响(Hershfield et al., 2012; Sheldon, & Fishbach, 2015)。其次, Van Gelder等(2013)的研究也发现:未来自我连续性低的被试更容易去做一些具有欺骗性的不良行为。通过增强个体现在自我与未来自我之间的心理联结程度可以增强被试的未来自我连续性, 降低其做出欺骗性行为的可能性。Van Gelder及他的团队(2015)采用互动任务进一步验证了未来自我连续性与青少年不良行为之间的关系。他们考察了两所中学中共133名高中生, 借助Facebook平台分别让学生与未来自我或现在自我进行互动。结果发现:相比于与现在自我交流的学生相比, 与未来自我交流的学生报告了较少的不良行为, 例如逃课和偷窃等。最后, 未来自我连续性还会影响人们的亲社会行为, 现有研究主要考察了与金钱有关的捐款行为, 但是目前有关未来自我连续性对捐款行为的影响作用的研究结果并不一致。Zhang和Aggarwal (2015)通过操纵被试的未来自我连续性发现:现在自我与未来自我联结程度高的个体有更多的亲社会行为, 例如为公益组织捐款。而Bartels, Kvaran和Nichols (2013)则发现与未来自我之间的心理联结程度较低的被试有更多的亲社会行为, 也更愿意为慈善组织捐款。

3.5 对健康领域的影响

未来自我连续性还可以影响与健康领域有关的行为。Rutchick等人(2018)新近的研究考察了未来自我连续性对个体锻炼行为的影响作用。他们首先通过相关研究揭示了未来自我连续性与个体自我报告的健康水平有关。然后通过具体的实验研究操纵未来自我连续性, 他们采用书写任务让实验组的被试给20年的未来自我写信, 控制组的被试给3个月后的未来自我写信, 并让被试完成一系列的日记记录任务, 其中包括每天锻炼身体的时长。结果发现增强个体的未来自我连续性增加了被试锻炼身体的行为。这意味着未来自我连续性可以促进有益于个体长期健康的行为, 对未来自我连续性进行干预具有重要的现实意义。

为了更清晰的展示上一章节中未来自我连续性的操纵方法和本节中的行为研究结果, 我们把常见的操纵方式和相关的结果变量整理在表1中, 供感兴趣的研究者参阅。

表1   未来自我连续性的操纵及结果

参考文献 操纵方式 关键结果 结果测量
Bartels & Rips (2010) 阅读任务
实验组:阅读曲折变化的人物经历
控制组:阅读变化较少的人物经历
时间折扣 跨期决策任务
Bartels & Urminsky (2011) 阅读任务
实验组:自我认同是不变的
控制组:自我认同随时间变化
时间折扣 跨期决策任务
Hershfield et al. (2012) 书写任务
实验组:想象并描述现在自我与10年后的未来自我之间的相似处
控制组:想象并描述10年后的世界
不道德行为 自我报告不适当谈判策略量表
(Self- reported inappropriate
negotiation strategies scale II,SINS II, Lewicki, Saunders, &Barry, 2007)
Van Gelder et al. (2013) 书写任务
实验组:给20年后的自己写信
控制组:给3个月后的自己写信
社会不良行为 情景想象任务
Zhang & Aggarwal (2015) 书写任务
实验组:想象并描述现在自我与5年后的未来自我之间的相似处
控制组:想象并描述未来自我与现在自我之间的不同
亲社会行为 为公益组织捐款
Rutchick et al. (2018) 书写任务
实验组:给20年后的自己写信
控制组:给3个月后的自己写信
健康行为 日记记录的锻炼时长
Hershfield et al. (2011) 互动任务
实验组:采用浸入式虚拟现实技术, 让被试与老年时的自己互动
控制组:与现在的自己互动
时间折扣储蓄 时间折扣任务
(Kirby & Marakovic, 1996)
Blouin-Hudon & Pychyl (2016) 互动任务
实验组:跟随音频材料进行未来想象
控制组:跟随音频材料进行关注现在的冥想
拖延行为 拖延的多维测量
(Haghbin’ Multidimensional
Measure of Procratination, MMoP)
Van Gelder et al. (2015) 互动任务
实验组:在Facebook上与未来自我交流7天
控住组:在Facebook上与现在自我交流7天
社会不良行为 自我报告的不良行为, 如逃学

新窗口打开| 下载CSV


4 未来研究展望

4.1 开展未来自我连续性的神经基础的探讨

现有研究指出皮质中线结构(cortical midline structures, CMS)是自我加工的主要神经基础(Northoff et al., 2006)。皮质中线结构主要指位于大脑皮质中线的一些脑区结构, 包括:腹内侧前额叶皮质(ventral medial prefrontal cortex, vMPFC)、背内侧前额叶皮质(dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, dMPFC)、顶内侧皮质(medial parietal cortex, MPC)和压后皮质(retrosplenial cortex, RSC)等区域。而有关时间维度上的自我加工同样涉及皮质中线结构, 特别是内侧前额叶皮质(medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC) (D°Argembeau et al., 2010; D’Argembeau et al., 2008; 杨帅, 黄希庭, 傅于玲, 2012)。D’Argembeau等人(2010)采用自我参照任务考察被试对不同时间维度上自我的加工。他们发现:与判断过去的自己与未来的自己相比, 内侧前额叶皮质在加工现在自我时出现更为显著的激活, 而右顶叶下回皮质(right inferior parietal cortex)的激活程度在加工未来自我时显著强于现在自我。那么皮质中线结构应该也是未来自我连续性的神经基础。另外, 未来自我连续性高的个体与未来自我连续性低的个体相比, 二者在特定的心理过程中, 例如进行跨期决策时, 在神经基础上是否存在差异呢?未来研究可对此进行探究。

此外, 现有的认知神经研究不仅发现个体在加工现在自我和未来自我的神经基础上存在差异, 还发现大脑在加工未来不同时间距离上的自我时神经基础也存在差异。采用事件相关电位(Event-Related Potential, ERP)技术的研究发现时间距离会影响个体对未来自我的加工(Luo, Jackson, Wang, & Huang, 2013)。被试判断自我参照任务中的特质词是否可以描述未来近距离的自我(例如1个月后的自己)时, 消极的特质词比积极的特质词诱发了更多的晚正电位成分(550和800 ms之间); 而在判断是否可以描述未来远距离的自我(例如3年后的自己)时, 消极特质词和积极特质词之间没有这种差异。这表明个体有关未来自我的负性情绪加工受到时间距离的影响。在对未来自我连续性进行测量和操纵时也可能会涉及到不同的时间距离, 例如研究者通常会要求被试去描述特定时间距离的未来自我(如5年后的自我)与现在自我之间的联系。探究不同时间距离上未来自我连续性的神经基础, 可以帮助研究者更好的理解未来自我连续性的内涵, 并有助于探究未来自我连续性影响个体心理和行为的潜在机制。

4.2 进一步探索未来自我连续性的影响因素

新近的横断研究发现, 年龄是影响未来自我连续性的重要因素(Rutt & Löckenhoff, 2016)。随着年龄的增长, 人们知觉到现在自我与未来自我之间的一致性程度更高(Hart, Fegley, & Brengelman, 1993), 老年人倾向于将现在自我与未来自我看得更为相似, 联系得也更为紧密(Rutt & Löckenhoff, 2016)。此外, Lewis Jr和Oyserman (2015)发现细化个体感知时间的刻度可以影响其感知到的时间的长短, 并进一步影响个体感知到的未来自我连续性的强度。与以“年”来描述未来自我相比, 以“天”来描述未来自我会让被试感知到更高的未来自我连续性, 从而提前为未来做准备, 例如以“天”来描述未来会使个体更早的为退休后的生活进行储蓄。除了时间刻度, 研究者发现操纵感知到的力量也会影响个体的未来自我连续性(Joshi & Fast, 2013; Pietroni & Hughes, 2016)。例如, 让被试想象自己有控制力的场景, 或者是给被试分配领导角色增强其感知到的力量感, 均可以提高被试的未来自我连续性。

未来研究可进一步探讨其他因素和未来自我连续性的关系, 例如文化有可能是影响未来自我连续性的重要因素。大量的跨文化研究表明, 人们看待自我的方式受到其所处的文化背景的影响(Kirmayer, 2007; Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。新近一项在33个国家55个文化背景下开展的有关时间维度上自我连续性的跨文化研究发现:人们对过去自我、现在自我和未来自我的看法受到其对个体身份认同的理解的影响。因为在有些文化下, 人们认为一个人的身份认同是随时间不断变化的, 而在另外一些文化下, 人们却认为个体的身份认同是不受时间影响的, 而认为个体身份认同不随时间变化的个体倾向于将现在自我和未来自我看得更为相似, 从而报告更高的未来自我连续性。此外, 在不同文化背景下, 人们看待其未来自我的方式可能未必一致, 未来自我连续性对个体心理和行为的影响也可能不尽相同。

4.3 拓展未来自我连续性的应用研究

虽然目前的研究已经揭示了未来自我连续性对个体心理和行为的重要影响作用, 但是目前的研究大部分是基于实验室的研究, 研究样本也多是在校学生, 有关未来自我连续性的具体应用研究仍十分匮乏。例如, 现有研究已经揭示未来自我连续性对个体的储蓄和消费行为有重要的影响作用(Hershfield et al., 2011)。未来研究可以考虑将未来自我连续性的影响作用应用到个体理财的课程或项目中, 帮助人们减少冲动性消费行为, 促进人们做出更多有益于未来自我的理财、投资和储蓄行为。此外, 现有研究表明未来自我连续性高的人通常有更高的自控能力(Adelman et al., 2016)和较少的拖延倾向(Blouin-Hudon & Pychyl, 2016), 对个体的学业成就领域有重要影响。研究者未来可以考虑在学校中大规模地对学生的未来自我连续性进行操纵, 从而提高他们的自我控制能力、减少拖延行为, 最终促进他们的学业成绩。

已有研究还发现未来自我连续性可以促进对个体健康有益的锻炼行为(Rutchick et al., 2018), 但当前的研究只考察了被试的锻炼时长, 采用的指标也是个体自我报告的数据, 将来研究可以采用真实的锻炼或健身数据, 进一步检验未来自我连续性的影响作用。此外, 未来自我连续性对个体其他健康有关的行为应该也有影响, 例如暴饮暴食、抽烟、酗酒等不利于个体长远健康的行为。未来研究应重点关注如何将未来自我连续性的影响作用拓展到现实生活中, 帮助个体调节其未来自我连续性, 以减少其不良行为, 并促进有远见的健康行为(比如积极锻炼、控制饮食等)。

总之, 未来自我连续性作为自我领域一个新的研究前沿, 正得到越来越多的重视。未来自我连续性对个体的跨期决策、储蓄和消费行为、学业成就领域、社会行为和健康领域等方面有着重要的影响作用。开展未来自我连续性神经基础的探讨, 进一步探索其影响因素, 从而拓展对未来自我连续性的概念内涵的理解, 对未来自我连续性的研究具有重要的理论意义。了解未来自我连续性对个体心理和行为的重要影响作用, 拓展相关的应用研究, 并将未来自我连续性有利于个体决策行为、学业成就领域和健康等领域的影响拓展到人们实际的生活中具有重要的现实意义。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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URL    

61We tested if future self-continuity predicted lower procrastination.61We tested if mental imagery and Positive Affect predicted future self-continuity.61Future self-continuity can benefit from a broadened cognitive-affective scope.61Future self-continuity can be helpful for temporal decision-making.

Blouin-Hudon, E.-M.C., &Pychyl, T.A . ( 2016).

A mental imagery intervention to increase future self-continuity and reduce procrastination

Applied Psychology, 66( 2), 326-352.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Abstract This research examined how mental imagery practice can increase future self-continuity to reduce procrastination. A total of 193 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a present-focused meditation or to a future self-focused mental imagery condition. Participants in both conditions were asked to listen to their respective audio recording twice per week for four consecutive weeks and to complete a pre-intervention, half-point, and post-intervention questionnaire. At the four-week mark, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both future self-continuity and empathic perspective taking were significantly higher for the mental imagery condition than the meditation condition. While vividness of future self moderated change in future self-continuity, affective empathy for future self mediated the relation between vividness of future self and future self-continuity. Lastly, only empathic perspective taking was a significant moderator of change in procrastination across time. The influence of empathy and future self-continuity on procrastination is discussed.

Chandler, M. ( 1994).

Self-continuity in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents

New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 64, 55-70.

URL     PMID:7936350      [本文引用: 1]

A developmental account is given of the role of self-continuity in insulating adolescents against the risks of suicide.

Chandler M., Lalonde C. E., Sokol B. W., & Hallett D . ( 2003).

Personal persistence, identity development, and suicide: A study of native and non native North American adolescents

Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68( 2), vii-130.

URL     PMID:12951783      [本文引用: 1]

The cross-cultural program of research presented here is about matters of temporal persistence--personal persistence and cultural persistence--and about solution strategies for solving the paradox of "sameness-in-change." The crux of this paradox resides in the fact that, on threat of otherwise ceasing to be recognizable as a self, all of us must satisfy at least two constitutive conditions. The first of these is that selves are obliged to keep moving or die, and, so, must continually change. The second is that selves must also somehow remain the same, lest all notions of moral responsibility and any commitment to an as yet unrealized future become nonsensical. Although long understood as a problem demanding the attention of philosophers, we argue that this same paradox arises in the ordinary course of identity development and dictates the different developmental routes taken by culturally mainstream and Aboriginal youth in coming to the identity-preserving conclusion that they and others are somehow continuous through time. Findings from a set of five studies are presented. The first and second studies document the development and refinement of a method for parsing and coding what young people say on the topic of personal persistence or self-continuity. Both studies demonstrate that it is not only possible to seriously engage children as young as age 9 or 10 years in detailed and codable discussions about personal persistence, but that their reasoning concerning such matters typically proceeds in an orderly and increasingly sophisticated manner over the course of their early identity development. Our third study underscores the high personal costs of failing to sustain a workable sense of personal persistence by showing that failures to warrant self-continuity are strongly associated with increased suicide risk in adolescence. Study four documents this same relation between continuity and suicide, this time at the macrolevel of whole cultures, and shows that efforts by Aboriginal groups to preserve and promote their culture are associated with dramatic reductions in rates of youth suicide. In the final study we show that different default strategies for resolving the paradox of personal persistence and change--Narrative and Essentialist strategies--distinctly characterize Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth.

D'Argembeau A., Lardi C ., & Van der Linden, M. ( 2012).

Self-defining future projections: Exploring the identity function of thinking about the future

Memory, 20( 2), 110-120.

URL     PMID:22292616      [本文引用: 1]

The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person's sense of self and identity. Yet if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs), in grounding the self is now well established, the identity function of anticipated future events has received comparatively little attention. This article introduces the construct of self-defining future projection (SDFP) to address this issue. Two studies show that people can readily identify significant future events that they frequently think about and that convey core information about who they are as individuals. Furthermore, a person's particular style of constructing SDMs is similarly manifested in SDFPs, suggesting that both types of events can be used to ground the self. Notably, people who display a stronger tendency to extract meaning from their past experiences also reflect more about the potential implications of imagined future events. The results further demonstrate that SDMs and SDFPs both give rise to a strong sense of personal continuity over time and are meaningfully related to self-esteem. Together these findings lend support to the idea that a person's sense of self and identity is in part nourished by the anticipation of significant future events.

D'Argembeau A., Stawarczyk D., Majerus S., Collette F., Van der Linden M., & Salmon E . ( 2010).

Modulation of medial prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices when thinking about past, present, and future selves

Social Neuroscience, 5( 2), 187-200.

URL     PMID:19787547      [本文引用: 2]

Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that reflecting on representations of the present self versus temporally distant selves is associated with higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). In the current fMRI study, we investigated whether this effect of temporal perspective is symmetrical between the past and future. The main results revealed that the MPFC showed higher activity when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on past and future selves, with no difference between past and future selves. Temporal perspective also modulated activity in the right inferior parietal cortex but in the opposite direction, activity in this brain region being higher when reflecting on past and future selves relative to the present self (with again no difference between past and future selves). These findings show that differences in brain activity when thinking about current versus temporally distant selves are symmetrical between the past and the future. It is suggested that by processing degrees of self-relatedness, the MPFC might sustain the process of identifying oneself with current representations of the self, whereas the right inferior parietal cortex might be involved in distinguishing the present self from temporally distant selves.

D’Argembeau A., Feyers D., Majerus S., Collette F., Van der Linden M., Maquet P., & Salmon E . ( 2008).

Self-reflection across time: Cortical midline structures differentiate between present and past selves

Social Cognitive and Affect Neuroscience, 3( 3), 244-252.

URL     PMID:2566769      [本文引用: 1]

fMRI ; medial prefrontal cortex ; time ; self

Greenwald A. G., McGhee D. E ., & Schwartz, J. L. K.( 1998).

Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74( 6), 1464-1480.

URL     PMID:9654756      [本文引用: 1]

An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., flower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect & pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3 experiments, the IAT was sensitive to (a) near-universal evaluative differences (e.g., flower vs. insect), (b) expected individual differences in evaluative associations (Japanese + pleasant vs. Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects).

Haghbin, M. ( 2015).

Conceptualization and operationalization of delay: Development and validation of the multifaceted measure of academic procrastination and the delay questionnaire (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)

Retrieved from the Carleton University Research Virtual Environment (dc303d5d-aaae-4873-bd46-4d6f1aff24e6)

Hart D., Fegley S., & Brengelman D . ( 1993).

Perceptions of past, present and future selves among children and adolescents

British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11( 3), 265-282.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Children's and adolescents' projections of the self into the future and memories of the self in the past were compared with their current self-conceptions. In Study 1, 82 children and adolescents between the ages of 4 and 15 were asked to describe themselves and to describe themselves as they thought they would be in five years. The results indicated that, at all ages, subjects were more likely to think of their current selves than their future selves in terms of typical activities, personality characteristics and preferences. The future self was more likely to be described in terms of social relationships than the current self. In Study 2, perceptions of change and continuity in the self were examined by asking 88 children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 18 to describe themselves as they were two and four years in the past, as they are now, and as they will be two and four years in the future. Subjects also estimated the similarity between their present selves and their past and future selves. Similarity between the present self and future selves was perceived to be higher than between past and present selves. Children and adolescents assert that with time they become more capable and physically attractive, develop better personalities and mature intellectually and emotionally, while simultaneously shedding undesirable personality, cognitive and emotional characteristics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for personal narratives and social cognitive approaches to personality.

Hershfield, H.E. ( 2011).

Future self-continuity: How conceptions of the future self transform intertemporal choice

Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 1235( 1), 30-43.

URL     PMID:22023566      [本文引用: 4]

With life expectancy dramatically increasing throughout much of the world, people have to make choices with a longer future in mind than they ever had to before. Yet, many indicators suggest that undersaving for the long term often occurs: in America, for instance, many individuals will not be able to maintain their preretirement standard of living in retirement. Previous research has tried to understand problems with intertemporal choice by focusing on the ways in which people treat present and future rewards. In this paper, the author reviews a burgeoning body of theoretical and empirical work that takes a different viewpoint, one that focuses on how perceptions of the self over time can dramatically affect decision making. Specifically, when the future self shares similarities with the present self, when it is viewed in vivid and realistic terms, and when it is seen in a positive light, people are more willing to make choices today that may benefit them at some point in the years to come.

Hershfield H. E., Cohen T. R., & Thompson L . ( 2012).

Short horizons and tempting situations: Lack of continuity to our future selves leads to unethical decision making and behavior

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 117( 2), 298-310.

[本文引用: 4]

Hershfield H. E., Garton M. T., Ballard K., Samanez-Larkin G. R., & Knutson B . ( 2009 a).

Don’t stop thinking about tomorrow: Individual differences in future self-continuity account for saving

Judgment and Decision Making, 4( 4), 280-286.

URL     PMID:19774230      [本文引用: 5]

Some people find it more difficult to delay rewards than others. In three experiments, we tested a "future self-continuity" hypothesis that individual differences in the perception of one's present self as continuous with a future self would be associated with measures of saving in the laboratory and everyday life. Higher future self-continuity (assessed by a novel index) predicted reduced discounting of future rewards in a laboratory task, more matches in adjectival descriptions of present and future selves, and greater lifetime accumulation of financial assets (even after controlling for age and education). In addition to demonstrating the reliability and validity of the future self-continuity index, these findings are consistent with the notion that increased future self-continuity might promote saving for the future.

Hershfield H. E., Goldstein D. G., Sharpe W. F., Fox J., Yeykelis L., Carstensen L. L., & Bailenson J. N . ( 2011).

Increasing saving behavior through age-progressed renderings of the future self

Journal of Marketing Research, 48( SPL), S23-S37.

URL     PMID:3949005      [本文引用: 3]

Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

Hershfield H., Wimmer G. E., & Knutson B . ( 2009 b).

Saving for the future self: Neural measures of future self- continuity predict temporal discounting

Social Cognitive and Affect Neuroscience, 4( 1), 85-92.

URL     PMID:2656877      [本文引用: 4]

Despite increases in the human life span, people have not increased their rate of saving. In a phenomenon known as 'temporal discounting', people value immediate gains over future gains. According to a future self-continuity hypothesis, individuals perceive and treat the future self differently from the present self, and so might fail to save for their future. Neuroimaging offers a novel means of testing this hypothesis, since previous research indicates that self- vs other-judgments elicit activation in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we predicted and found not only individual differences in rACC activation while rating the current vs future self, but also that individual differences in current vs future self activation predicted temporal discounting assessed behaviorally a week after scanning. In addition to supporting the future self-continuity hypothesis, these findings hold implications for significant financial decisions, such as choosing whether to save for the future or spend in the present.

James W . ( 1891).

The Principles of Psychology

Vol.1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Joshi, P.D., &Fast, N.J . ( 2013).

Power and reduced temporal discounting

Psychological Science, 24( 4), 432-438.

URL     PMID:23404083      [本文引用: 1]

Decision makers generally feel disconnected from their future selves, an experience that leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future gains. This pervasive tendency is known as temporal discounting, and researchers across disciplines are interested in understanding how to overcome it. Following recent advances in the power literature, we suggest that the experience of power enhances one's connection with the future self, which in turn results in reduced temporal discounting. In Study 1, we found that participants assigned to high-power roles were less likely than participants assigned to low-power roles to display temporal discounting. In Studies 2 and 3, priming power reduced temporal discounting in monetary and nonmonetary tasks, and, further, connection with the future self mediated the relation between power and reduced discounting. In Study 4, experiencing a general sense of power in the workplace predicted actual lifetime savings. These results have important implications for future research.

Kamphorst B. A., Nauts S., & Blouin-Hudon E.-M . ( 2009).

Introducing a Continuous Measure of Future Self-Continuity

Social Science Computer Review, 35( 3), 417-421.

[本文引用: 1]

Kirby, K. N. & Maraković, N . ( 1996).

Modeling myopic decisions: Evidence for hyperbolic delay-discounting within subjects and amounts

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 64 ( 1), 22-30.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

No abstract is available for this item.

Kirmayer, L.J. ( 2007).

Psychotherapy and the cultural concept of the person

Transcultural Psychiatry, 44( 2), 232-257.

URL     PMID:17576727      [本文引用: 1]

Psychotherapies are distinguished from other forms of symbolic healing by their emphasis on explicit talk about the self. Every system of psychotherapy thus depends on implicit models of the self, which in turn, are based on cultural concepts of the person. The cultural concept of the person that underwrites most forms of psychotherapy is based on Euro-American values of individualism. This individualistic and egocentric concept of the person can be contrasted with more sociocentric, ecocentric or cosmocentric views, which understand the person in relation to the social world, the environment, and the cosmos. Intercultural psychotherapy must consider the cultural concept of the person implicit in therapeutic discourse and practice to determine how well it fits or conflicts with the concepts, values and way of life of the patient.

Klineberg, S.L. ( 1968).

Future time perspective and the preference for delayed reward

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8( 3), 253-257.

URL     PMID:5645229      [本文引用: 1]

Klineberg SL.

Lewicki R. J., Saunders D. M., & Barry B . ( 2007).

Negotiation: Readings, exercises, and cases

(5th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill/Irwin

[本文引用: 1]

Lewis Jr, N. A., &Oyserman, D . ( 2015).

When does the future begin? Time metrics matter, connecting present and future selves

Psychological Science, 26( 6), 816-825.

URL     PMID:25907059      [本文引用: 1]

People assume they should attend to the present; their future self can handle the future. This seemingly plausible rule of thumb can lead people astray, in part because some future events require current action. In order for the future to energize and motivate current action, it must feel imminent. To create this sense of imminence, we manipulated time metric-the units (e.g., days, years) in which time is considered. People interpret accessible time metrics in two ways: If preparation for the future is under way (Studies 1 and 2), people interpret metrics as implying when a future event will occur. If preparation is not under way (Studies 3-5), they interpret metrics as implying when preparation should start (e.g., planning to start saving 4 times sooner for a retirement in 10,950 days instead of 30 years). Time metrics mattered not because they changed how distal or important future events felt (Study 6), but because they changed how connected and congruent their current and future selves felt (Study 7).

Liberman, N., &Trope, Y . ( 2014).

Traversing psychological distance

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18( 7), 364-369.

[本文引用: 1]

Luo Y. M., Jackson T., Wang X. G., & Huang X. T . ( 2013).

Neural Correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: An event-related potential study

PloS One, 8( 12), e84332.

URL     PMID:3869860      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men) made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now) and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now). Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component) within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

Markus, H.R., &Kitayama, S . ( 1991).

Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation

Psychological Review, 98( 2), 224-253.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

It is suggested that perceptions of the self, of others, and of the relationship between self and others are very powerful and that this influence is clearly reflected in culture. The independent view of the self, represented in Western culture, is contrasted with the interdependent view in many other cultures. (SLD)

Northoff G., Heinzel A., de Greck M., Bermpohl F., Dobrowolny H., & Panksepp J . ( 2006).

Self-referential processing in our brain—A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self

Neuroimage, 31( 1), 440-457.

Parfit, D. ( 1971).

Personal identity

Philosophical Review, 80( 1), 3-27.

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Pietroni, D., &Hughes, S.V . ( 2016).

Nudge to the future: Capitalizing on illusory superiority bias to mitigate temporal discounting

Mind & Society, 15( 2), 247-264.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Policymakers and institutions have developed an increasing interest in applying principles from cognitive science to encourage individuals to adopt behaviors, attitudes and perspectives that enable them to reach higher levels of personal and collective well-being. We focused on the value of nudging people to adopt a broader farsighted view when making their day-to-day decisions, overcoming the temporal discounting bias which leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future rewards. Following recent advances in the literature, we tried to mitigate this myopia promoting the connection that individuals feel between their present and future selves through a nudge which capitalizes on their natural tendency to illusory superiority. We defined and tested a paradigm to exploit persuasively this optimistic bias to mitigate temporal discounting through the mediation of an increased future self-continuity. Implications for well-being and public policies are discussed.

Rogers, C.R. ( 1961).

On becoming a person

Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

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Rozental, A., &Carlbring, P . ( 2014).

Understanding and treating procrastination: A review of a common self- regulatory failure

Psychology, 5( 13), 1488-1502.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Procrastinationis a pervasive self-regulatory failure affecting approximately one-fifth of theadult population and half of the student population. It is defined as one voluntarily delay of an intended course of action despite being worse off as aresult of that delay. Procrastination has a negative impact on performance andis associated with poorer mental health. Stress, worry, and feelings of guiltare common among those who procrastinate recurrently. In addition,procrastination is associated with fewer mental health-seeking behaviors andincreased treatment delay, leading to greater distress and the exacerbation ofillness. The current paper seeks to provide a theoretical and clinicalunderstanding of procrastination by reviewing prior research. Procrastinationcan be understood using different motivational theories, learning theory,self-efficacy theory, as well as biases and heuristics. Temporal motivationaltheory is proposed as an integrated explanation for procrastination, consistingof the interaction of four different variables: expectancy, value,impulsiveness, and time, each of which affects the tendency to procrastinate. Ageneral implication is that procrastination should be regarded as anidiosyncratic behavioral problem that requires a cognitive caseconceptualization or a functional analysis in order to guide therapists intheir work. A number of treatment interventions might be used in relation toprocrastination or example, efficacy performance spirals, automaticity,stimulus control, stimulus cues, learned industriousness, and cognitiverestructuring. Furthermore, the current paper explores the evidence on usingcognitive behavior therapy for procrastination, discussing the scarcity ofrandomized controlled trials and the lack of validated outcome measures, and highlightingthe need for further research.

Rutchick A. M., Slepian M. L., Reyes M. O., Pleskus L. N., & Hershfield H. E . ( 2018).

Future self-continuity is associated with improved health and increases exercise behavior

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 24( 1), 72-80.

URL     PMID:29595304      [本文引用: 3]

Hindsight bias occurs when individuals believe that events were more predictable after they have occurred than they actually were before they occurred. Although hindsight bias is a well-studied phenomenon, few studies have examined the role of expertise in this bias. Two experiments investigated the relation between the magnitude of hindsight bias and self-reported poker expertise (Experiment... [Show full abstract]

Rutt, J.L., &Löckenhoff C.E, . ( 2016).

From past to future: Temporal self-continuity across the life span

Psychology and Aging, 31( 6), 631-639.

URL     PMID:5014720      [本文引用: 2]

Although perceived continuity with one’s future self has attracted increasing research interest, age differences in this phenomenon remain poorly understood. The present study is the first to simultaneously examine past and future self-continuity across multiple temporal distances using both explicit and implicit measures and controlling for a range of theoretically implicated covariates in an adult life span sample (N = 91, aged 18–92, M = 50.15, SD = 19.20, 56% female). Perceived similarity to one’s self across 6 past and 6 future time points (1 month to 10 years) was assessed with an explicit self-report measure and an implicit me/not me trait rating task. In multilevel analyses, age was significantly associated with greater implicit and explicit self-continuity, especially for more distant intervals. Further, reaction times (RTs) in the implicit task remained stable with temporal distance for older adults butdecreased with temporal distance for younger adults, especially for future ratings. This points toward age differences in the underlying mechanisms of self-continuity. Multilevel models examined the role of various covariates including personality, cognition, future horizons, and subjective health and found that none of them could fully account for the observed age effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that chronological age is associated with greater self-continuity although specific mechanisms and correlatesmay vary by age.

Sedikides C. & Brewer, M. B.(2002)

Individual, relational and collective self: Partners, opponents, or strangers

In, C. Sedikides, & M. B. Brewer, (eds.) Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self . New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Sheldon, O.J., &Fishbach, A . ( 2015).

Anticipating and resisting the temptation to behave unethically

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41( 7), 962-975.

URL     PMID:26001580      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Ethical dilemmas pose a self-control conflict between pursuing immediate benefits through behaving dishonestly and pursuing long-term benefits through acts of honesty. Therefore, factors that facilitate self-control for other types of goals (e.g., health and financial) should also promote ethical behavior. Across four studies, we find support for this possibility. Specifically, we find that only under conditions that facilitate conflict identification-including the consideration of several decisions simultaneously (i.e., a broad decision frame) and perceived high connectedness to the future self-does anticipating a temptation to behave dishonestly in advance promote honesty. We demonstrate these interaction patterns between conflict identification and temptation anticipation in negotiation situations (Study 1), lab tasks (Study 2), and ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Studies 3-4). We conclude that identifying a self-control conflict and anticipating a temptation are two necessary preconditions for ethical decision making. 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

Trope, Y., &Liberman, N . ( 2003).

Temporal construal

Psychological Review, 110( 3), 403-421.

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Urminsky, O. ( 2017).

The role of psychological connectedness to the future self in decisions over time

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26( 1), 34-39.

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Van Gelder J-L., Hershfield H. E., & Nordgren L. F . ( 2013).

Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency

Psychological Science, 24( 6), 974-980.

URL     PMID:23592649      [本文引用: 4]

The tendency to live in the here and now, and the failure to think through the delayed consequences of behavior, is one of the strongest individual-level correlates of delinquency. We tested the hypothesis that this correlation results from a limited ability to imagine one's self in the future, which leads to opting for immediate gratification. Strengthening the vividness of the future self should therefore reduce involvement in delinquency. We tested and found support for this hypothesis in two studies. In Study 1, compared with participants in a control condition, those who wrote a letter to their future self were less inclined to make delinquent choices. In Study 2, participants who interacted with a realistic digital version of their future, age-progressed self in a virtual environment were less likely than control participants to cheat on a subsequent task.

Van Gelder J-L., Luciano E. C., Weulen Kranenbarg M., & Hershfield H. E . ( 2015).

Friends with my future self: Longitudinal vividness intervention reduces delinquency

Criminology, 53( 2), 158-179.

URL    

In a field experiment, we use a novel method to test whether instilling a greater sense of vividness of the future self motivates people to act in a more future‐oriented way and reduces their delinquent involvement. We manipulate vividness of the future self by having participants, a sample of high‐school youth (N = 133), “befriend” an avatar representing their future self on a social network website. For 7 days, they reply to short messages from their future self designed to trigger thinking about that distant self. Using repeated‐measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), we find that participants who had been linked to their future self report less delinquent involvement, whereas controls did not. Furthermore, the results of a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure show that this effect is mediated by changes in vividness of the future self, such that increases in vividness lead to lower self‐reported delinquency. We conclude that vividness of the future self holds promise not only as a cognitive explanation for the failure to make informed cost–benefit trade‐offs but also for interventions aiming to reduce delinquency.

Wakslak C. J., Nussbaum S., Liberman N., & Trope Y . ( 2008).

Representations of the self in the near and distant future

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95( 4), 757-773.

URL     PMID:18808258      [本文引用: 1]

Seven studies provide evidence that representations of the self at a distant-future time point are more abstract and structured than are representations of the self at a near-future time point and that distant-future behaviors are more strongly related to general self-conceptions. Distant-future self-representations incorporate broader, more superordinate identities than do near-future self-representations (Study 1) and are characterized by less complexity (Study 2), more cross-situational consistency (Study 3), and a greater degree of schematicity (Study 4). Furthermore, people's behavioral predictions of their distant-future (vs. near-future) behavior are more strongly related to their general self-characteristics (Study 5), distant-future behaviors are seen as more self-expressive (Study 6), and distant-future behaviors that do not match up with acknowledged self-characteristics are more strongly rejected as reflections of the self (Study 7). Implications for understanding both the nature of the self-concept and the way in which distance may influence a range of self-processes are discussed.

Welch-Ross, M. ( 2001).

Personalizing the temporally extended self: Evaluative self-awareness and the development of autobiographical memory. In C. Moore & K. Lemmon (Eds.), The self in time: Developmental perspectives

pp. 97-120). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Abstract Discusses the personalization of the temporally extended self during conceptual development as it relates to evaluative self-awareness and the development of autobiographical memory. Specifically, the author outlines a model that situates the development of an autobiographical self in social contexts and cognitive achievements of early childhood. First, representational abilities involved in social metacognition are discussed that may help children become active participants in conversations through which they learn how to organize representations of experience and remember the past. The author then emphasizes the importance of developing a personal and evaluative subjective perspective for interpreting experience and constructing an autobiographical self. The proposed model is also compared with other current views on the emergence of the temporally extended self and its relation to autobiographical memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Winnicott D. W. ( 1965).

Ego distortion in terms of true and false self

The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development . New York: International Universities Press, Inc:140-157.

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Zhang, M., &Aggarwal, P . ( 2015).

Looking ahead or looking back: Current evaluations and the effect of psychological connectedness to a temporal self

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25( 3), 512-518.

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This research examines how consumers evaluate a target in the present that is positively associated with them in the past or future. We suggest that such evaluations are affected by the perceived connectedness between their current self and temporal self, that is, the self at that particular point in time of association with the target in the past or future. A strong (vs. weak) connectedness will result in a more (vs. less) favorable evaluation of the target—be it a product, brand, or pro-social cause. Converging evidence supporting our premise is found in three studies.

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