心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2091-2100 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02091

主编特邀

心理学视角下的极端膜拜伤害问题

任定成1, 何晨宏1,2, 陈天嘉,1

1. 中国科学院大学膜拜现象研究中心

2. 中国科学院大学人文学院, 北京 100049

Physical and mental harm caused by participation in cults from a psychological perspective

REN Dingcheng1, HE Chenhong1,2, CHEN Tianjia,1

1. Center for Cult Studies, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

2. School of Humanities, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

通讯作者: 陈天嘉, E-mail: chentianjia@ucas.ac.cn

责任编辑: 李纾

收稿日期: 2018-05-28   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

Received: 2018-05-28   Online: 2018-12-15

作者简介 About authors

任定成,北京大学博士,中国科学院大学科学史与科学哲学教授、博士生导师、膜拜现象研究中心首席专家,享受国务院政府津贴专家,全国优秀科技工作者曾任北京大学科学与社会研究中心主任和教授、中国科学院大学人文学院执行院长、中国科学技术协会全民科学素质行动计划制定工作专家组副组长、科技部-发展改革委-教育部-中国科协创新方法部际联席会议顾问,曾受聘斯坦福大学访问教授、佛光大学客座教授、日本学术振兴会研究员以动物行为学原理重构了中国传统斗蟋博戏中的动物争斗知识,提出从领地行为和资源占有方面重新理解三国叙事的概念框架,带领团队从多学科视角研究极端膜拜现象,团队成员参加极端膜拜现象研究国际学术会议20余人次 。

摘要

对极端膜拜团体造成身心伤害现象的科学研究, 集中在对极端膜拜伤害的界定、测量和机制三个方面。本文的目的, 是梳理这三个主题上的研究脉络, 明晰其中的争议之处和取得的成绩。文本分析表明, 对极端膜拜伤害的界定从“洗脑”转向了“心理虐待”, 对这类伤害的经验观察由个体症状转向了群体行为和经历的描述, 测量方法由传统心理测试工具变成了新型团体心理虐待量表, 膜拜伤害的心理机制研究在综合环境和个人精神特质两种因素的基础上建立了二者交互的病理模型, 表观遗传学和人际神经生物学用于极端膜拜伤害的生理机制研究已见端倪。但是, 迄今对于极端膜拜伤害的学术研究尚未形成范式。

关键词: 极端膜拜团体 ; 身心伤害 ; 洗脑 ; 团体心理虐待量表 ; 群体依赖障碍理论

Abstract

Scientific research on the phenomena of the physical and mental injury caused by participation in cults focuses on three aspects: definition, measurement and mechanism. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues, analyses, and findings on these three topics, and to clarify the field’s controversies and achievements. Our literature survey indicates that a) the terminology regarding the harm caused by cults has changed from “brainwashing” to “psychological abuse”; b) the focus of observation has changed from individual behavior to group experiences; c) the measurement of harm has shifted from traditional psychometric tools to group psychological abuse scales; and d) for psychological mechanisms, an interactive pathology model based on cult milieu factors and personal vulnerability has been established, and epigenetics and interpersonal neurobiology are also primarily used in the study of physiological mechanisms. However, a new research paradigm on cult harm has not yet been formed.

Keywords: cult ; physical and mental injury ; brainwashing ; the group psychological abuse scale ; group dependence disorder

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本文引用格式

任定成, 何晨宏, 陈天嘉. (2018). 心理学视角下的极端膜拜伤害问题. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2091-2100

REN Dingcheng, HE Chenhong, CHEN Tianjia. (2018). Physical and mental harm caused by participation in cults from a psychological perspective. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2091-2100

编者按:

膜拜团体(邪教)对其成员及他人造成的身心伤害, 在世界范围内引起广泛关注。心理学界自1970年代起对之开展科学研究, 已在伤害现象的确认、概念的澄清、心理测度技术的开发和伤害机制研究等方面取得了进展, 并在膜拜成员的脱教和帮辅工作中发挥了积极作用。本期主编特邀文章着重介绍了该领域有影响的研究成果和有争议问题。作者任定成教授及其团队自1999年起一直从事膜拜现象研究, 2012年以来每年参加国际膜拜团体研究会年会并报告团队工作, 主要关注方向包括膜拜团体的社会特征、传播方式、治理方略、反主流社会策略及其对策。

1 极端膜拜伤害:一个需要开展科学研究的领域

极端膜拜团体(cult)是“不同于传统宗教、与主流文化关系高度紧张、由克里斯玛(charisma)式领袖领导并具有怪异信仰和越轨实践的类宗教团体。” (陳天嘉, 任定成, 2012) 1970年代后期, 世界各地频繁发生的极端膜拜团体活动引起了广泛关注, 以美国琼斯镇集体自杀事件、日本奥姆真理教东京地铁投毒事件、乌干达恢复上帝十诫惨案等极端事例为典型的各类恶性暴力事件, 严重危害了极端膜拜团体参与者甚至普通民众的身心安全。如何防范和杜绝类似事件的重演, 成为人类社会共同面对的紧迫问题。

学术界对现代极端膜拜活动伤害现象的认识始于1970年代的北美。极端膜拜团体成员的精神异常在此时引起心理学界广泛重视。一些学者认识到这种现象显示了此类活动的危害性特征, 并尝试从机制、预防和治疗三方面展开研究, 随后逐渐形成了一个以心理学、社会学和宗教学为基础的交叉研究领域, 在概念、测量和机制解释等方向不断取得进展。

中国类似现代极端膜拜团体的民间秘密宗教早在唐代就有文献记载, 清代官方正式将其中具有社会危害性的团体称作“邪教” (阎瑞雪, 2010)。中国语境中的“邪教”, 是与“破坏性膜拜团体(destructive cult)”最相近的概念。新中国成立后也将这些团体称作“会道门” (陈松涛, 2012)。1990年代, 中国邪教以“超科学”和气功的名义广泛传播(Ren, 2013), 一些极端暴力伤害行为及其严重后果不断见诸报端(Zhang, 2012), 引起中国社会和国际社会高度重视。由于文化环境和社会制度不同, 中国依托立法行政、传统文化和教育体系应对极端膜拜伤害的方式与西方的民间帮辅策略区别较大(Chen, 2015; Zhang, 2016), 中国学者对邪教的抵制和揭露源于对传统巫术文化、神秘主义和伪科学的反对态度(Chen, 2014), 对邪教危害的关注也集中于主观意愿下的身体伤害, 如拒医拒药、自残与故意伤害他人等行为(Li, 2017), 较少涉及心理学维度的学术观察, 这使反邪教帮辅在一定程度上步入实践困境, 同时也引起了国际社会的争议(Ren, 2009)。对极端膜拜团体及其伤害问题展开科学研究, 可减轻甚至消除意识形态偏见, 提高预防和治理邪教伤害效果。本文拟系统考察学界对极端膜拜伤害的研究情况, 理出心理学研究成果和发展前景, 以期为今后的研究提供帮助。

2 从“洗脑”到“心理虐待”:极端膜拜伤害概念的形成

在开展极端膜拜团体研究之前, 心理学界已长期关注正常宗教与生理、心理和社会的关系(Marks, 2005)。许多研究者指出, 正常宗教对健康的影响以积极作用为主(Baetz & Toews, 2009; Koenig, King, & Carson, 2012; Park & Slattery, 2013), 表现为信教与抗压、自尊、乐观等积极情绪之间的正相关性(Van Cappellen, Toth-Gauthier, Saroglou, & Fredrickson, 2016), 与抑郁、焦虑、药物成瘾等精神问题之间的负相关性(Bonelli & Koenig, 2013), 以及治疗如精神分裂症(Grover, Davuluri, & Chakrabarti, 2014)、癌症(Jim et al., 2015)等特殊疾病的辅助作用等等。尽管也有少量研究发现了精神异常方面的消极影响(Ellison & Lee, 2010), 但正常宗教整体表现出的正面效应与极端膜拜团体存在较大差异, 促使研究者着重关注后者的高伤害特性。

2.1 早期临床观察及其争议

1970年代, 北美地区受极端膜拜团体伤害者中, 在亲属介入下接受心理治疗和脱教咨询者逐渐增多。心理咨询师和帮辅人员发现这些人普遍具有典型的心理症状, 包括分离性障碍(dissociative disorder)、认知缺陷(cognitive deficit)、抑郁(depression)和焦虑(anxiety)等等。随后, 心理学和医学领域工作者开始广泛搜集极端膜拜团体成员精神状况材料, 为他们受到的身心伤害提供间接例证。不过, 大部分早期文献仅提供了临床诊断结果和统计数据, 没有提出明确的问题和合理的理论预设。随着材料的积累, 学界对这些人心理异常的原因形成了两类看法, 一类认为极端膜拜活动是造成精神问题的直接原因, 另一类则认为精神问题是许多因素共同作用的结果。这两类看法之间的差异, 使早期的临床观察和研究争论不断。

为澄清这一差异, 研究者分析了极端膜拜团体成员在入教前(pre-cult)、在教中(in-cult)和脱教后(post-cult)三阶段的精神状况, 发现大量参与者在加入极端膜拜团体之前就具有沮丧、抑郁、焦虑、自控力差等不良症状, 有些成员甚至有精神病史(Goldberg & Goldberg, 1988)。这样的研究结果支持了精神问题与极端膜拜活动没有直接关联的观点。不过, Martin, Langone, Dole和Wiltrout (1992)随后发现, 不同临床医师给出的入教前患病率差异很大, 患病者占总人数的比率从7%至62%不等。他们还发现, 平均约1/3患者寻求过心理咨询, 该数字与美国国家心理健康研究所(National Institute of Mental Health)的20%正常人群参与心理治疗差距不大。因此Aronoff, Lynn和Malinoski (2000)认为, 除非进行前瞻性对照实验, 否则很难得到极端膜拜团体成员在入教前就普遍患有心理疾病的判决性结论。

对于教中成员精神状况的研究有两种结果。Galanter和Buckley (1978)的心理学实验表明极端膜拜活动有助于成员形成良好的精神调节能力。然而Spero (1982)对极端膜拜团体成员进行精神分析治疗, 发现部分人确实有知觉困难和认知缺陷等所谓“退化现象” (regressive phenomena)。Weiss和Comrey (1987)也发现了高强迫性(compulsivity)和低社会信任(reduced trust in society)特征。关于这两类不同结果, Ayella (1990)认为存在以下可能:由于极端膜拜团体具有排外性, 自愿参与心理学实验者不能代表整个群体的特征, 其心理功能可能更正常, 从而降低了测试结论的可靠性。

脱离极端膜拜团体者的表现较为复杂。除临床常见的人格障碍、认知缺陷和抑郁之外, Conway和Siegelman总结了7种异常情况, 包括飘忽(floating)、梦魇(nightmare)、失忆(amnesia)、念咒(mental- chanting)、幻觉(hallucinations/delusions)、自杀和暴力倾向 (引自Adams, 2008)。其他研究者也发现了病理性重现(flashbacks)、注意力不集中(difficulty concentrating)等临床症状(Martin et al., 1992)。1980年代末, 半结构化访谈(semi-structured interviews)和美国《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》推进了精神诊断的客观性。调查显示, 大量脱离极端膜拜团体者初期具有明显的精神问题, 需要心理帮辅甚至入院治疗。不过, 仍有许多研究者认为, 仅凭临床经验无法确定疾病症状是由极端膜拜活动所引起。也有学者强调脱离极端膜拜团体、回归正常社会生活时经历的调节困难才是病因(Lewis & Bromley, 1987)。

从初步临床数据和诊断结果来看, 极端膜拜团体成员精神问题的产生和变化情况复杂, 心理学家和医务人员本身的立场对诊断结果也有影响。研究人员逐渐意识到, 极端膜拜活动与参与者的精神异常之间确实存在相关性, 但并非直接的因果关系。因此, 如何准确判断并为这些相关性提供合理的解释就成为解决争议、推动极端膜拜伤害研究发展的关键。

2.2 “极端膜拜团体”和“洗脑”概念的重新审视

研究者力图找到极端膜拜伤害不同于一般伤害的特征, 起初把这个特征归结于“洗脑”, 继而归结于“心理虐待”。“洗脑(brainwashing)”被某些心理学家用于指代极端膜拜团体或类似组织在招募或教化成员时使用的技术, 同时将之看作精神疾病的重要成因。“强制劝服(coercive persuasion)”、“精神控制(mental manipulation)”、“思想改造(thought reform)”等都类似于“洗脑” (Richardson, 2015)。1970年代, 基于这种定义的极端膜拜参与和伤害理论成为主流, 在大众传媒和一些心理学家的支持下广泛传播, 影响至今。

1980年代, 一些学者尤其是实际接触极端膜拜团体的社会学家质疑“洗脑”假说(Coleman, 1984), 某些反邪教运动采取强制措施进行反洗脑(deprogramming)的合法性随之也受到学者和宗教自由人士批评(Giambalvo, Kropveld, & Langone, 2016)。之后, 不依赖“反洗脑”而自行脱教的前极端膜拜团体成员逐渐增多, 极端膜拜团体采用“洗脑”控制成员这一观点受到广泛质疑, 促使研究者重新审视此概念的恰当性。

首先, 一些研究者认为应放弃“极端膜拜团体”以及更激进的词汇, 以避免学术界受到主观偏见的影响。宗教社会学者提出使用中立的“新宗教运动” (New Religious Movement, NRM)概念来代替(Barrett, 2001), 然而许多从事脱教咨询的专家、受害成员家属却认为这一术语未提供明确界线, 无法将侵犯他人权利和自由意志的极端团体与不造成危害的普通组织加以区别(West, 1990)。持所谓“客观中立”态度的学术界与反邪教帮辅专家和家属对邪教态度的对立使争论延续至今。从应用域来看, “极端膜拜团体”术语的非中立性源于对伤害特征的描述, 正如中国立法方向是“事实有害”而非“宗教”本身一样(Ye, 2014)。这是研究极端膜拜问题的概念基础, 所谓“中立术语”的引入实际上是对内涵和研究边界的模糊。因此, 许多研究者仍然使用“极端膜拜团体”这一概念。

其次, 极端膜拜团体成员事实上极少因被“洗脑”、“思想改造”、“强制劝服”等因素参与相关活动。中国的实践也发现脱教无法通过外界干预彻底达成(Wu & Ye, 2016)。Dole和Dubrow-Eichel (1985)的研究表明, 极端膜拜团体具有危险性的原因并非是与主流宗教不符或具有不当的心理干预, 而是可证实的“虐待” (abuse)行为。这启发长期从事极端膜拜观察的心理咨询专家Langone和Chambers提出了“心理虐待”概念。

2.3 “心理虐待”概念的提出

Langone和Chambers (1991)调查了大量前极端膜拜团体成员脱教的原因以及对极端膜拜研究中运用的各类概念的看法, 发现前成员并不同意“精神控制”、“强制劝服”等说法, 而是更支持“虐待”、“伤害”等用法, 许多成员表示这些才是其脱离极端膜拜团体的主要原因。因此, Langone认为用虐待和伤害作为衡量标准划分研究对象更合适, 随即基于伤害现象与虐待行为的联系提出“心理虐待” (psychological abuse)概念, 为极端膜拜伤害提供了较为清晰的定义。遵循这一思路, Langone (1992)又以临床经验和Hart-Brassard青少年心理虐待研究为基础, 给出了“心理虐待”的基本定义:将人类个体当作物品操纵和使用, 不尊重、忽视甚至损害其心智(mind)、自主性(autonomy)、人格(identity)和尊严(dignity)的行为。同时, 他将“心理虐待”的实施方式分为四种:(1)以操纵他人的思想和判断能力为目的进行信息控制; (2)操控和强制个人选择; (3)粉碎或改造个体人格; (4)系统地降低个人对自我价值的认同。

随后心理学家从应用范畴、研究对象、分类和程度评估等多方面细致研究了心理虐待。Chambers, Langone, Dole和Grice (1994)首先划定了研究范围, 提出基于群体分析的团体心理虐待(group psychological abuse, GPA)进路。西班牙学者Almendros, GÁmez-Guadix, Carrobles和Rodríguez- Carballeira (2011)将GPA与“精神操控团体(psychologically manipulative groups)”联系起来, 认为人们警惕后者的主因是这些团体中可能有虐待, 包括“团体心理虐待”, 从而确定了研究对象是实施操纵虐待等犯罪行为、具有社会危害的团体, 分辨这类团体的关键是其成员的信仰影响其身心健康和正常生活。随着GPA应用成果的积累, Almendros与其同事进一步提供了更精确的定义及新分类方法, 并且评估了虐待行为的严重程度(Rodríguez-Carballeira et al., 2015), 发现情绪虐待(emotional abuse)、孤立(isolation)和信息操控(control and manipulation of information)是GPA中最严重的三种虐待方式。

“心理虐待”是极端膜拜伤害的第一个明确定义, 尽管该术语忽略了极端膜拜团体的宗教特征, 但有效避免了不同立场学者的争议, 并将考察重心转移到分析伤害行为。Langone指出, 宗教学背景或心理学背景的研究者可根据学术背景或个人习惯使用“心理虐待(psychological abuse)”和“精神虐待(spiritual abuse)”两个术语。也有学者指出, 后者可应用于非心理学领域, 从而扩展“心理虐待”概念的内涵(Barner, 2017)。

3 从症状观察到行为确认:极端膜拜伤害的测量

为了精确掌握极端膜拜群体的心理状况, 除了直接观察外, 还有学者采用心理测量工具考察极端膜拜团体成员的智力、人格、精神状态和心理健康情况。

3.1 传统量表及其局限

研究初期缺乏针对性测量极端膜拜团体特征的工具, 采用传统量表存在分析局限且结果差异较大。

起初常用量表主要是韦氏成人智力量表(Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, WAIS)和明尼苏达多项人格测验(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, MMPI)。Ungerleider和Wellisch (1979)使用这两种工具, 并未发现极端膜拜团体成员的智力和人格异常。不过, 他们也指出现极端膜拜团体成员的MMPI谎言测试值高于常值, 影响数据可信度。随后, Spero (1984)对现极端膜拜团体成员应用了Witkin’s镶嵌图形测试(Witkin’s Embedded- Figures Test)并发现该群体的标准差低于正常人群, 可能有认知差异。

除了基本智力、人格和认知水平方面的考察外, 也有学者测量情绪和意识差异。Latkin (1990)采用自我意识量表(Self-Consciousness Scale)和加利福尼亚心理问卷(California Psychological Inventory, CPI)测量大量奥修组织成员(The Rajneeshees)的内在自我意识、公众自我意识、社交焦虑和其他人格特质, 发现测试结果与外界的常规看法不同, 被试者表现出强烈的自我意识并且难以诱导和劝服; 尽管其外界关注和社交倾向指数偏低, 却并未超出正常范围。不过, 有学者指出这项研究采用的两种测试工具均以外界环境为基准, 因此无法避免极端膜拜团体内部独特的群体关系对测定结果的影响(Aronoff et al., 2000)。

总体来看, 以上研究并未发现极端膜拜团体成员异常。不过Martin等(1992)采用米隆临床多轴问卷(Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, MCMI)、贝克抑郁自评量表(Beck Depression Inventory, BDI)、霍普金斯症状检查表(Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL)和工作倦怠问卷(The Staff Burnout Scale, SBS-HP)测试, 却发现极端膜拜团体成员有多种精神问题。这项研究的优势在于其结论并非基于单一类型的测量工具, 而是多种指标综合的结果, 这极大地提高了测量数据的信度。但由于缺乏可靠的理论依据, 这种运用传统方法得到的结果仍然缺乏针对性, 多种心理量表共用也使操作难度变得更高, 此后再未见其他类似研究。

3.2 “心理虐待”测量工具的开发与比较

“心理虐待”概念提出后, 极端膜拜伤害的定量分析聚焦于极端膜拜活动中心理虐待行为的分类、定性和严重程度的定量评估。Langone和Chambers在提出“团体心理虐待”时考虑到这是一个描述性概念, 在进行实践应用中需要对其操作方法和严重程度进行分类, 并且精确衡量其实施、后果和影响等各方面因素, 于是开发了首个测量工具“团体心理虐待量表(The Group Psychological Abuse Scale, GPAS)” (Chambers et al., 1994)。GPAS基于对308名前极端膜拜团体成员的因素分析而成, 其四个维度分别是顺从性(极端膜拜团体对成员服从规则的强制程度)、剥夺性(极端膜拜团体是否让成员进行损伤健康的活动)、焦虑性依赖(极端膜拜团体成员对群体环境的依赖性)和心理控制(群体领袖是否运用欺诈手段和操纵行为来控制其成员)。GPAS针对群体而非个人, 只调查特定的心理虐待相关事件和行为, 不仅可给心理虐待分类, 还能有效避免被试的情绪和主观体验的影响。

除GPAS外, 还有其他类似尝试, 如Winocur, Whitney, Sorenson, Vaughn和Foy (1997)开发的个人极端膜拜经历指数(Individual Cult Experience Index, ICE), 关注成员所经历过的极端膜拜事件, 并考察哪些事件发生后对经历者的不良情绪产生了影响, 再如Wolfson (2002)在女性心理虐待量表(Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory, PMWI)修订版的基础上开发的跨团体心理虐待与控制交互量表(Across Groups Psychological Abuse and Control Scale, AGPAC)等。

这些工具将开发思路从观察症状转向考察群体行为和个人经历, 在一定程度上提高了测量极端膜拜伤害的针对性。但迄今为止, 只有GPAS在大范围调查和一定时间间隔的测定中表现出相对一致的测试结果, 并且较少受文化环境差异影响, 具有较好的稳定性, 已被译成多种语言, 应用于全世界数十项研究(陈天嘉, 2016)。有学者尝试将其用于中国, 提出需要细化家庭和社会关系测量、慎重分析外界批评维度的初步调整方案(Li, 2013)。最新应用是Almendros团队(Saldaña, Rodríguez- Carballeira, Almendros, & Escartín, 2017)基于GPAS并在138位前极端膜拜团体成员的帮助下开发的团体心理虐待经历量表(Psychological Abuse Experienced in Groups Scale), 该量表在评估团体心理虐待的细微征兆上有所突破, 同时克服了先前量表的诸多局限, 体现出GPAS的良好可塑性。

4 从情感到基因:极端膜拜伤害的心理和生理机制

学界对极端膜拜伤害机制的探讨始于临床心理学家对相关心理疾病病因的解释。早期对极端膜拜伤害的了解仅停留于症状观察层面, 与极端膜拜团体成员接触的皆是临床心理学学者。1990年代以来, 生理学和医学专家逐渐参与, 脑科学和神经科学研究成果得到应用, 提出了具有生理基础的机制解释。

4.1 极端膜拜伤害的心理机制

对心理机制的早期解释通常将环境影响和个人精神特质两种因素分开讨论。Ash (1985)试图整合两类研究, 提出交互型精神病理模型, 从而构建极端膜拜伤害心理机制的综合框架。他指出, 极端膜拜相关的精神疾病与成员易受影响的性格特征和其改宗过程直接相关, 并概括出五种易受影响的个人精神状态, 分别是具有高度生活压力和极度不满情绪、对当下所处文化环境缺乏认同、缺乏稳固的价值观、出身于异常家庭环境以及具有依赖性人格特质。改宗过程中的特殊环境因素分为三部分:封闭环境隔离个人与外界联系, 减少其自主现实检验能力; 通过信息控制、情绪刺激、生理机能控制以及宗教仪式等手段, 使成员进入“分离(dissociative)”状态; 引导成员进入新的“亲密”关系, 使其以“去分化(dedifferentiation)”状态融入团体之中。Ash认为, 正是这种“隔离”和“去分化”最终导致具有易受性特征的极端膜拜团体成员表现出分离性人格障碍和创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)。不过, 他未解释为何具有上述精神特质者易受影响, 也未给出极端膜拜环境因素导致个体人格异常的具体机制, 使该模型应用受限。

West和Martin (1996)通过论述长期环境压力和非正常生活状态对个体人格整合功能的影响, 提出区别于分离型人格障碍的“伪人格(pseudo- identity)”概念, 用于描述个人应对极端膜拜环境压力时表现出的分离性症状, 并指出“伪人格”与常见分离性障碍在病因、病理、预后和治疗方面皆有不同。他们认为, “伪人格”不稳定, 会在特定情况下受干扰从而表现出人格转换、无意识类修炼行为和创伤闪回三种临床症状。这解释了早期研究发现的“飘忽”、“念咒”和PTSD的成因。Jenkinson (2008)认为, 格式塔心理学中的“心力投入(introjection)”支持“伪人格”状态描述。

由于极端膜拜团体内部复杂的人际结构, 教主、高级成员、普通成员之间的频繁互动、摩擦和分化会导致群体环境异变(Chen, 2017), 仅以极端膜拜团体成员个人状态作为分析对象显然并不全面, 因此有学者将极端膜拜团体成员的相互精神影响作为切入点。典型的有Perlado (2003)提出的“群体依赖障碍(group dependence disorder)”理论, 描述极端膜拜团体中个人、群体与教主三者互动过程中特殊心理状态的表现与形成机制。也有研究者(Burke, 2006)对教主具有反社会人格障碍(antisocial personality disorder)能够促使极端膜拜团体成员形成依赖性人格障碍(dependent personality disorder)的现象进行了心理机制分析。此外, 法国临床心理学家Rousselet, Duretete, Hardouin和Grall-Bronnec (2017)认为陷入极端膜拜活动与行为成瘾的表现具有相似性:(1)已知有害风险但无法控制行为(Goodman, 1990); (2)因行为损失重要社会关系(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)。通过分析31位前极端膜拜团体成员的半结构化访谈结果, 他们给出了“促使成员入教的易感因素(vulnerability factors)”和“防止成员入教的保护因素(protective factors)”两种量化特征, 前者包括“弥补不安全依恋(insecure attachment)”、“缓解焦虑障碍和心理压力”等个人因素和“亲缘引导”、“家庭冲突”等环境因素, 与行为成瘾的形成原因类似; 后者多与个人对教主幻灭、团体内部分歧和家庭帮助相关。

极端膜拜团体教主一般具有自我神化、妄想和挑战社会道德等行为特征(Chen & Xu, 2016)。还有学者关注其他更极端的精神状态, 及其潜在的心理异常现象。美国精神病学家Anderson (1999)是这方面的早期研究者, 他撰写的摩门教创始人Joseph Smith的心理传记, 详细探讨了其童年不幸与其自恋症、谎言癖等心理问题形成之间的相关性。另外, 由于无法直接接触到教主本人进行临床诊断, 还有一些学者将教主精神疾病情况的间接材料作为分析依据, 并强调心理学家、社会学家和历史学家所撰写的教主心理传记在科学、司法方面同样具有参考价值。例如, Holoyda和Newman (2016)分析了8起美国邪教谋杀案件, 认为涉案教主和教徒患有自恋、偏执和反社会特征, 以及严重精神障碍。

4.2 极端膜拜伤害的生理机制

很早就有学者试图应用睡眠循环理论和睡眠剥夺技术探讨极端膜拜伤害的某些可能成因(Valatx, 1994), 但未能涉及极端膜拜行为与睡眠障碍的生理联系。中国学者关于极端膜拜活动引发脑部生理结构变化的脑电检测研究也曾引起国际学者关注(Cowan & Moore, 2008), 但未见进一步研究。不过, 从儿童发育和表观遗传学研究第二代成年极端膜拜成员受影响的机制, 从人际神经生物学解释极端膜拜团体成员精神创伤的形成, 开启了新的视野。

最早的生理机制观察样本是SGAs (Second Generation Adults)群体, 即极端膜拜团体成员的子女, 在极端膜拜环境影响下成长的第二代成年人。田野调查显示该群体常遭遇来自极端膜拜团体和家庭内部的精神虐待(Zhang, 2018), 并且普遍有自卑、孤独或社交障碍等心理特征(Hong, 2015)。Whitsett (2006)结合儿童发育早期经受高压环境与幼儿大脑和神经系统发育受损的神经生理学研究, 以此解释SGAs的精神疾病, 认为早期压力与SGAs的经历具有一致性, 高压环境导致一系列生理心理问题, 例如HPA轴应激障碍、海马发育异常和功能紊乱、激素分泌异常、边缘系统、前额叶系统和新皮层损伤以及PTSD和分离性障碍等等。这就初步解释了不同环境中SGAs的相似性精神疾病(Young, Sachs, Braun, & Watkins, 1991)。基于儿童发育异常这一思路, Blackwell (2015)在国际膜拜团体研究会(International Cultic Studies Association)2015年年会上提出的表观遗传学观点引起与会者关注。根据表观遗传学基本原理, 个体性状除了受基因序列所含信息的影响外, 还与基因表达情况有关, 而且并非只有先天遗传会影响基因的表达, 母系遗传、饮食情况和生活习惯等许多因素都可调控基因表达。他以小鼠实验为例, 解释母体的不同情绪影响子代发育造成生理后果的原理, 这与SGAs成长环境中亲代的情绪影响具有相似性, 从而将表观遗传学原理与SGAs心理病态形成二者联系起来。

人际神经生物学(interpersonal neurobiology)是解释成人人际关系对个体影响的新领域, 近期也被引入了极端膜拜伤害领域, 为成年极端膜拜团体成员的受害机制提供解释。根据精神病学家Siegel (2001)的研究, 人脑的垂直整合与左右半球的水平综合需要依靠连动(linkages)和变异(differentiation)两者结合来维持, 反映在行为层面则是个体与他人在思考和行动上存在联系和区别, 而极端膜拜团体维持成员之间的连动但禁止任何变异。这种状况虽然可使群体成员在控制下维持表面和谐, 但个体却缺乏内在综合和人格稳定; 伴随极端膜拜行为对人脑整合功能的抑制, 参与者逐渐形成创伤性记忆, 最终形成精神疾病(Whitsett, 2014)。随后, Land, Starnino和Whitsett (2017)应用Cozolino (2017)的人脑可塑性理论进一步解释创伤性记忆的成因。根据该理论, 人脑的可塑性使其具有生理易损性, 极端压力和强制行为等有害环境能够重塑大脑基础部位, 因此, 极端膜拜团体成员在身体遭遇强迫行为时会经视觉、听觉直接在下丘脑和杏仁核等边缘系统形成内隐记忆, 长期以往会导致记忆、语言和行为的失调, 形成创伤和精神障碍。

5 结语

对极端膜拜现象及其伤害的科学研究已持续40余年, 关注焦点集中于从心理学维度对极端膜拜团体活动造成的虐待和身心创伤(trauma)进行科学确认, 以及考察“极端膜拜现象是否造成伤害”、“造成何种伤害以及程度如何”等问题。

目前, 极端膜拜伤害的科学研究仍然方向分散且亟待深入, 研究范式尚未形成。可以预见, 极端膜拜伤害的生理机制研究将成为有前景的研究领域, 甚至有可能在这个领域产生新的学科生长点。SGAs概念促进了生理学和社会学视角的扩展, 这为创伤经历对儿童记忆和神经系统的影响在极端膜拜环境的应用提供了参考(Perry, 2013)。前极端膜拜团体成员精神障碍的治疗和预后处置也是重要的研究方向, 除了叙事疗法、瑜伽、游戏和神经反馈训练以外, 还有采用EMDR疗法并取得了良好效果的案例(DeYoung, 2009), 为帮辅邪教受害者提供了借鉴。这些工作都有值得深入开展和继续推进的前景。

伴随中国后气功热时代邪教活动的转型、互联网传播手段的进步(Chen, 2018)、国外另类身心修炼组织的传入(Chen, 2013) 以及“超科学”和类气功团体的复兴(Li & Fu, 2015), 极端膜拜团体不断以各种形式持续渗入中国社会。加强对极端膜拜伤害的心理学研究将为前成员的身心康复、回归社会提供必要的科学支持, 更好地服务于邪教问题治理与救助工作。虽然迄今对于极端膜拜伤害的学术研究尚未形成范式, 中国学者仍然可以通过调试和细化已有极端膜拜伤害分类与测量标准开发适合中国国情的测量工具, 以弥补现有研究的不足。极端膜拜团体招募策略的心理机制、行为异常的脑科学和神经科学解释以及医学治疗技术等课题同样是有价值的研究方向。

值得注意的是, 为了抵制主流社会对于受极端膜拜伤害者的社会救助工作, 一些极端膜拜团体甚至把帮辅工作指责为主流社会对其成员的身心迫害(Ye, Ren, & Wu, 2018)。除了通过基于确凿证据澄清极端膜拜团体的反向指责外, 研究者也需要对这种反向指责及其传播机制开展心理学研究。

致谢:

李纾先生和两位匿名审稿者对拙文提出了宝贵的修改建议, 谨此致谢。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality( 2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.

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Perlado, M. ( 2003).

Clinical and diagnostic issues of cultism: Group dependence disorder

Cultic Studies Review, 2( 2), 90-97.

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An analysis of literature related to Falun Gong published in major international academic journals from 1999 to 2008. In Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Centre for the study of destructive cults

(Eds.), Research on Destructive Cults: Selected Papers of International Symposium (pp. 263-281). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press.

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Ren, D. ( 2013, July).

In the name of super-science: A missionary strategy of the Qigong-based groups in China

.Paper presented at the ICSA 2013 Annual Conference, Trieste, Italy.

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Rodríguez-Carballeira Á., Saldaña O., Almendros C., Martín-Peña J., Escartín J., & Porrúa-Garcíaa C . ( 2015).

Group psychological abuse: Taxonomy and severity of its components

European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 7( 1), 31-39.

URL    

The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the severity of the strategies through a Delphi study. Group psychological abuse was defined by the application of abusive strategies, their continued duration, and their ultimate aim, i.e., subjugation of the individual. The taxonomy showed adequate content validity. Experts judgments allowed for hierarchically organizing the strategies based on their severity, being the most severe those directed to the emotional area. Operationalizing, classifying, and organizing the strategies hierarchically contributes to a better delimitation of the phenomenon, which is useful for both the academic and applied fields.

Rousselet M., Duretete O., Hardouin J. B., & Grall- Bronnec M . ( 2017).

Cult membership: What factors contribute to joining or leaving?

Psychiatry Research, 257, 27-33.

URL     PMID:28711763      [本文引用: 1]

We assumed that, as in the case of addiction disorders, former cult members exhibit vulnerability and protective factors for cult commitment and membership. Thus, the aim of our study was to identify vulnerability factors that are involved in the commitment and in the retention in the group, as well as protective factors that are involved in the departure. We interviewed 31 former cult members, using semi-structured interviews to evaluate their clinical profile, characteristics of the cultic group and their experience in the group. Cult membership and addictive disorders share some characteristics: persistence despite damage, initial psychological relief, occupation of an exclusive place in the thoughts of members, high psychiatric comorbidity prevalence, high accessibility, leading to social precariousness and the importance of familial support when leaving. Three main axes of improvement were highlighted: regulations concerning cults in order to limit their social presence, which appears to be a vulnerability factor for commitment; social and therapeutic follow-up when a member leaves a group so that social precariousness does not become an obstacle to departure; and familial support to maintain a link with the member, as the intervention of a person from outside of the group is an important protective factor for leaving.

Saldaña O., Rodríguez-Carballeira Á., Almendros C., & Escartín J . ( 2017).

Development and validation of the psychological abuse experienced in groups scale

The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 9( 2), 57-64.

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The aim of this study is the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess the possible psychological abuse experienced in a group setting. The Psychological Abuse Experienced in Groups Scale was administered to 138 people who self-identified as former members of abusive groups. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a common factor, which showed appropriate reliability. The scale scores were correlated with a prior measure aimed to assess group abusiveness, providing evidence of external validity. Participants reported a higher degree of psychological distress than normative samples, and those who requested psychological counseling after leaving the group had suffered group psychological abuse to a greater extent. The scale covers a wide range of subtle and explicit abusive behaviors and overcomes the limitations of previous instruments, being useful in both research and applied settings.

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Abstract The literature dealing with the cult devotee has been primarily descriptive, offering phenomenological reports of psychological characteristics and symptomatology but few reports of specific assessment and psychotherapeutic procedures for management of this unique patient population. The present paper offers a brief review of previous literature and describes specific assessment and interventive procedures which have been successfully applied to an outpatient clinic population of 65 cult devotees. Diagnostic impressions based on psychological testing are reported. Discussion focuses on the contribution of diagnostic and clinical findings to the conceptualization of cultic religiosity as a regressive phenomenon.

Spero,M. H . ( 1984).

Some pre-and post-treatment characteristics of cult devotees

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URL     PMID:6473023      [本文引用: 1]

A summary of some test characteristics is presented. These were drawn from 51 religious cult devotees prior to and following 6 mo. of psychotherapy. Positive changes were attributed to increasing psychological differentiation.

Ungerleider,J. T., &Wellisch D.K . ( 1979).

Coercive persuasion (brainwashing), religious cults, and deprogramming

The American Journal of Psychiatry, 136( 3), 279-282.

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Abstract Psychiatric interviews and psychological testing were conducted with 50 members of former members of a variety of religious cults who contacted the authors about the issue of deprogramming. The subjects were divided into four groups: cult members who feared deprogramming, those who had returned to the cult after deprogramming, ex-cult members who had left after deprogramming, and those who had left without deprogramming. There were significant differences between these groups on length of time in the cult, perception of and resistance toward the deprogramming experience, status of parental marriage, and who became a deprogrammer. No evidence of insanity or mental illness in the legal sense was found.

Valatx, J.-L. ( 1994).

Sleep deprivation

Cultic Studies Journal, 11( 2), 211-216.

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Van Cappellen P., Toth-Gauthier M., Saroglou V., & Fredrickson B. L . ( 2016).

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Journal of Happiness Studies, 17( 2), 485-505.

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Research has consistently shown that endorsing a religion or spirituality is to some extent related to one well-being. Common studied explanations tap into the social and cognitive aspects of religion and spirituality. The present research aims at understanding how religiosity and spirituality exert their impact on well-being and investigates the role of a surprisingly neglected mechanism: positive emotions. Two cross-sectional studies using a quantitative approach are presented. In two different contexts (churchgoers in a European country and US university employees interested in meditation), results showed that the relation between religion (Study 1), spirituality (Study 2) and well-being is mediated by positive emotions. Distinguishing between more and less relevant positive emotions in a religious/spiritual context, it was found that the effect was mediated by self-transcendent positive emotions (awe, gratitude, love, and peace) but not by other positive emotions (amusement and pride).

Weiss,A. S., &Comrey A.L . ( 1987).

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Journal of Personality Assessment, 51( 3), 399-413.

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Cultic Studies Journal, 7( 2), 126-149.

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ABSTRACT The persuasive techniques used by totalist cults to bind and exploit their members are powerful and effective enough to assure recruitment of a significant percentage of those approached, and retention of a significant percentage of those enlisted. Such cults are a menace to society because they harm persons, families, and the community. Whatever good done by cults could be done as well or better by other organizations that do not pose the same risks to individuals and the public. The extent of cult-related harm done during the past 20 yrs is sufficient to justify describing cult activity as an epidemic. A public health approach to the problem of cults should reduce their numbers and power, and thus reduce the amount of harm done. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

West,L. J., &Martin, P.R . ( 1996).

Pseudo-identity and the treatment of personality change in victims of captivity and cults

Cultic Studies Journal, 13( 2), 125-152.

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Abstract Prolonged environmental stress can disrupt the normal integrative functions of personality. Prisoners of war, civilian prisoners of Chinese Communist captors, political prisoners (e.g., J. C. Mindszenty, 1974), victims of the "Stockholm Syndrome," hostages, concentration camp inmates, and members of totalist cults often adapt to prolonged environmental stress by means of dissociation, that is by generating an altered persona, or pseudo-identity. When internal defense mechanisms break down, pseudo-identity can become destabilized, producing 1 or more of 3 clinical pictures: the "floater," the "contemplator," and the "survivor." The goal of treatment is to relieve clients' induced psychopathology and thus restore their precult personality. Treatment, which varies somewhat with the 3 clinical pictures, should examine preabuse factors and the nature of the environmental stress, which is unique to thought-reform systems. This approach helps clients come to understand that their symptoms are largely responses to stress. Case examples and specific treatment strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Whitsett, D. ( 2006).

The psychobiology of trauma and child maltreatment

Cultic Studies Review, 5( 3), p 351.

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Whitsett, D. ( 2014).

Why cults are harmful: Neurobiological speculations on interpersonal trauma?

ICSA Today, 5( 1), 2-5.

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Winocur N., Whitney J., Sorenson C., Vaughn P., & Foy D . ( 1997).

The individual cult experience index: The assessment of cult involvement and its relationship to postcult distress

Cultic Studies Journal, 14, 290-306.

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Wolfson,L. B . ( 2002).

A study of the factors of psychological abuse and control in two relationships: Domestic violence and cultic systems

(Unpublished doctorial dissertation). The University of Connecticut.

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Wu, M.,&Ye, Q . ( 2016, June).

Survey on exit counseling with community help and education

.Paper presented at the 2016 ICSA Annual Conference, Dallas,Texas.

Ye, Q. ( 2014, July).

Parallel legislation and disposal: How the Chinese government defines and controls cults

.Paper presented at the 2014 ICSA Annual Conference, Washington DC.

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Ye Q., Ren D. , & Wu, M. (2018, July).

Who harms whom: The offensive and defensive strategy in the Chinese cult movement

Paper presented at the 2018 ICSA Annual Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from

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Young W. C., Sachs R. G., Braun B. G., & Watkins R. T . ( 1991).

Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. report of 37 cases

Child Abuse & Neglect, 15( 3), 181-189.

URL     PMID:2043970      [本文引用: 1]

Se describen treinta y siete adultos con trastornos disociativos que reportaron abuso ritual en la ni09ez por parte de cultos satÁnicos. Los pacientes vinieron de diferentes tipos de clínicas y localidades y reportaron un número de abusos similares. Se describen los tipos de abuso ritual reportados con mayor frecuencia, y se prÉsenta un síndrome clínico que incluye estados disociativos con aspectos satÁnicos, trastornos severos de stress post-traumÁticos, sentimientos de culpa del sobreviviente, auto-abuso bizarro, miedos extra09os, sexualizaciÓn de los impulses sÁdicos, creencias por adoctrinamiento, y abuso de sustancias. Se analizan a fondo los problemas de fiabilidad, credibilidad y verificabilidad, y se comentan los resultados y sus implicaciones.

Zhang, Z. ( 2012, July).

Media coverage of "evil cults" in China newspapers

.Paper presented at the 2012 ICSA Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada.

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Zhang, Z. ( 2016, June).

A comparative study in the helping strategies and means for recovery from cults between China and the United States: A study of People's Daily and the New York Times

.Paper presented at the 2016 ICSA Annual Conference, Dallas,Texas.

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Zhang, Z. ( 2018 2018, July).

Family involved in cultic groups influence on young people: an analysis based on media coverage and interviews

Paper presented at the 2018 ICSA Annual Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from

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