心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1807-1817 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01807

研究前沿

禅修对创造性思维的影响

束晨晔1, 沈汪兵,1,2,3, 赵源1

1 河海大学公共管理学院暨应用心理研究所, 南京 211100

2 河海大学商学院, 南京 211100

3 荷兰莱顿大学社会与行为科学学部, 莱顿, 2333 AK

The effect of ZEN on creative thinking

SHU Chenye1, SHEN Wangbing,1,2,3, ZHAO Yuan1

1 School of Public Administration and Institute of Applied Psychology, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China

2 Business School, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China

3 Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, The Netherlands

通讯作者: 沈汪兵, E-mail: wbshenhhu@126.com

收稿日期: 2017-06-28   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *国家自然科学基金.  31500870
中央高校基本科研业务费项目.  2017B14514
中国博士后基金.  2017M6216 03
国家留学基金.  201706715037
江苏高校哲学社会科学基金的阶段性成果.  2017SJB0649

Received: 2017-06-28   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

禅修是一种能够对人类心理有广泛影响的训练工具。作为两种重要、相似但又不同的禅修方式, 冥想和正念对创造性思维中的发散思维和聚合思维产生了不同影响。在发散思维方面, 冥想主要通过对注意调控和无意识激活影响以及对解题动机和情绪的有效调控两方面显著增强了发散思维, 尤其是认知灵活性; 在聚合思维方面, 正念和冥想的影响相当复杂, 主要是通过聚合思维所需的执行功能和可能涉及表征重构来促进定势转移或功能固着的消除。就机制而言, 禅修对创造性思维的影响总体上不仅得益于走神时的无意识关联加工, 而且受禅修中诱发的情绪效应的调节。基于这些, 对未来研究的趋势进行了展望。

关键词: 禅修 ; 创造性思维 ; 发散思维 ; 聚合思维

Abstract

It is known that as a training tool, ZEN has an extensive influence on human’s mental processes. In terms of divergent thinking and convergent thinking, the two important, similar but different ways of ZEN show significant differences. Meditation improves divergent thinking mainly based on cognitive flexibility and other factors such as attention strategies, the unconscious activation, the problem-solving motivation and emotion regulation; in terms of convergent thinking, by means of regulating executive function and possible cognitive restructuring, mindfulness can promote the transformation of set or functional fixedness. In terms of the mechanism, enhancing effect of ZEN on creative thinking not only benefits from the unconscious associative processing when the mind wanders, but also is adjusted by emotion effect induced by ZEN. This article sorts out the above-mentioned questions systematically, then points out the deficiencies of previous studies and prospects several future research directions.

Keywords: Zen Training ; creative thinking ; divergent thinking ; convergent thinking

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本文引用格式

束晨晔, 沈汪兵, 赵源. (2018). 禅修对创造性思维的影响. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1807-1817

SHU Chenye, SHEN Wangbing, ZHAO Yuan. (2018). The effect of ZEN on creative thinking. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1807-1817

1 引言

禅修(ZEN)是一种源自古印度、传承于佛家的心灵修行(Zarrabian, 2010)。人们修行“八正道”、“四梵住”、“七觉支” (Sedlmeier et al., 2012), 观身、观受、观心, 继而参悟禅法, 达到“由静入定, 由定生慧”的境界。随着现代社会压力的不断增大, 禅修被作为一种改善人们生活质量的重要调节方式而越来越为人们所重视。仅近几年就有超过1500份研究报告揭示禅修对人类生理、心理具有广泛影响(Capurso, Fabbro, & Crescentini, 2013)。随着研究的深入, 学界对禅修的心理后效进行了诸多探讨。这其中一个颇受关注的领域便是禅修对创造性的影响(Capurso et al., 2013; Ding, Tang, Tang, & Posner, 2014)。该领域备受关注的一个重要原因在于创造性不仅同和谐的人与自然关系密不可分, 而且在人类文明、社会发展以及文化生活中扮演着关键作用。创造性作为推动社会进步和技术革新的原动力, 是指个体产生新颖、独特且适用的想法、理论或产品等的智慧品质(沈汪兵, 袁媛, 2015)。

禅修具有功能特异性。不同禅修技巧或方式针对的高级思维相关的心理官能(mental faculties)或心理过程并不相同, 而且对感觉、注意或推理等过程的效应也不一样(Sedlmeier et al., 2012)。大量实证研究从不同角度探讨了不同方式的禅修与创造性思维(沈汪兵, 袁媛, 2015)之间的关系。例如, Colzato, Szapora和Hommel (2012)从创意生成角度观察到冥想(meditation)可以增强创造性思维的认知灵活性; Zedelius和Schooler (2015)则从创造性加工角度揭示了正念(mindfulness)对创造性思维坚持性的提升作用(Zedelius & Schooler, 2015)。着眼于更广泛的层面, Müller, Gerasimova和Ritter (2016)观察到禅修对创造性思维的积极影响, 并发现较之正念, 只有聚焦式冥想(concentrative meditation)会显著增强语义流畅性的表现进而促进发散思维中的联想记忆成分(Müller et al., 2016)。上述研究提示, 不同方式的禅修对创造性思维不同侧面的影响并不同。

针对此, 我们尝试以冥想和正念这两种典型方式的禅修为切入点来论述禅修对创造性思维的影响。当前研究中, 正念虽有时候会与冥想联系在一起, 统称为正念冥想, 但正念与冥想管理注意的方式不同, 正念侧重监控注意, 而冥想强调注意力维持(Müller et al., 2016), 且冥想从意识上旨在引发放松状态, 正念则无该目标要求(Edenfield & Saeed, 2012)。于是, 正念和冥想无法整合起来讨论, 而应该区别开来进行研究。鉴于当前研究多基于创造性思维的二向性(bidirectionality)来将其划分为聚合思维(convergent thinking)和发散思维(divergent thinking; 沈汪兵, 刘昌, 施春华, 袁媛, 2015)。于是, 为了系统且有更针对性地分析不同类型的禅修方式对不同亚型创造性思维的具体过程及其潜在机制的影响, 本文将主要从冥想和正念对发散思维、聚合思维的影响及其潜在的机制三方面来展开讨论。

2 禅修影响发散思维

发散思维是创造性思维活动的核心(Sternberg & Lubart, 1996; 沈汪兵, 刘昌, 陈晶晶, 2010), 是一种颠覆传统、能够产生新想法的思维方式, 且对于一个问题往往能提供多种方案。针对禅修对发散思维的具体影响, 分别阐述冥想和正念的影响及差异。

2.1 冥想的影响

冥想是很多禅修训练的核心组成要素(Edenfield & Saeed, 2012), 被视为一种进入禅修境界的注意力策略(Horan, 2009)。个体通过时刻保持注意的调节能获得躯体放松(Edenfield & Saeed, 2012)或心智宁静。这种注意训练策略涵盖创造性思维过程中的多种注意要求。例如, Slagter等(2007)发现被试进行持续3个月的内观冥想不仅能使个体的注意范围更广, 注意瞬脱(attentional- blink)发生频次更低, 而且有助于个体应对两个或多个目标刺激间脑力资源的分配(Slagter et al., 2007)。无独有偶, Colzato等人(2012)实证揭示了冥想增强认知过程和促进注意资源分配的功效。随着冥想与注意关系的研究深入, 学界开始根据注意朝向差异将冥想区分为专注冥想(focused- attention meditation; FA meditation)和察觉冥想(open-monitoring meditation; OM meditation)两类(任俊, 黄璐, 张振新, 2010), 这两者各有侧重, 前者注重注意聚焦和维持, 后者强调注意监控。虽然这两种冥想形式侧重的心理过程和引发的特定神经功能(Lutz, Slagter, Dunne & Davidson, 2008)有差异, 但现实中通常因为它们的高度互融性而难以清楚分离(Davidson & Lutz, 2008)。故此处暂不对冥想形式细致区分, 而从综合角度来探讨冥想过程对发散思维的影响。

实际上, 早期研究所揭示的冥想与发散思维之间的关系是混杂或含糊的, 并非清一色的“有关”或者“无关”, 而且有些文献显示冥想对发散思维有促进作用(Orme-Johnson & Granieri, 1977), 另一些研究报告了相反的结论(Domino, 1977; Otis, 1974)。总体而言, 多数研究支持冥想对发散思维的正向促进作用。例如, Cowger (1974)将27名禅修学院学生随机分成冥想组和放松组, 研究禅坐式冥想。实验采用托伦斯创造性思维测验(Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking; TTCT)评估发散思维水平, 结果冥想组的TTCT分数并不显著高于放松组(Cowger, 1974), 这似乎表明冥想对发散思维无显著积极影响。与此相悖, 有研究者(1982)却发现冥想能显著提升本科生在词汇和图形测试(verbal and figural tests)中的发散思维独特性表现, 且能有效促进发散思维所需的专注力和综合推理能力等(参见Horan, 2009)。这种不一致可能是由于冥想对发散思维的不同要素有不同的作用所致。

在不同冥想经验水平的个体中, 发散思维表现为比较一致的积极作用。Colzato等(2012)选择资深冥想者作为被试, 通过被试内实验设计比较了不同冥想类型下创造性思维表现的差异。首先, 被试进行35分钟的止禅(一种冥想方式), 完成10分钟的替代用途测验(Alternate Uses Task, AUT)和远距离联想测验(Remote Association Test, RAT), 其次被试被安排进行觉察冥想, 然后完成新的AUT任务和RAT任务。实验采用拉丁方设计, 以抵消顺序效应。结果显示, 比起控制组, 觉察冥想显著促进了被试的发散性思维表现(Ostafin, Robinson, & Meier, 2015)。其中, 当冥想诱发自上而下(top- down control processes)的加工较弱时, 有利于心理表征的转换和认知灵活性的增强, 继而对发散思维新颖观点的生成产生积极影响。随后, 该课题组在非资深的冥想者身上发现类似的认知改变, 这意味着对于个体而言, 冥想可以作为认知训练工具, 培养个体的认知控制, 甚至具备特定的心理状态偏好(Colzato, Szapora, Lippelt, & Hommel, 2014)。由此推测, 无论是短期冥想还是长期冥想, 都可以增强认知灵活性, 形成弱的自上而下加工, 促进发散思维表现。

与此同时, Ding等(2014)招募40名没有任何冥想或放松训练经验的大学生, 随机分配一半学生到整体身心训练组(Integrative Body-Mind Training; IBMT, 涉及多种冥想元素), 另一半到放松组。19名学生在7天里完成平均每天半小时的冥想训练, 20名学生进行同等强度的放松训练。之后通过TTCT评估发散思维的水平, 发现身心训练组的学生发散思维表现更好, 且通过PANAS量表测出IBMT组伴随着积极情绪。该研究主张冥想可以通过调节情绪促进不同注意视角之间的切换(Ding et al., 2014), 进而增强发散思维中的酝酿效应。Lyubomirsky, King和Diener (2005)也指出, 积极情绪有利于激发个体在已有经验里产生更多元的联想, 从而推动创造性思维的灵活性(Lyubomirsky et al., 2005)。

上述研究提示冥想对发散思维有促进作用。其中, 冥想过程中的注意调节要素有利于改善创造性思维所依赖的注意资源分配方案; 冥想中弱的自上而下加工则有利于表征转换, 显著增强了认知灵活性和激活更多的联想记忆, 并对发散思维的流畅性产生积极影响。冥想过程中增强的专注与综合推理能力有利于发散思维中的心理整合, 促进发散思维的独特性表现。冥想诱发的积极情绪则可以增强酝酿效应。同时, 有研究提示冥想初期会走神(Sedlmeier et al., 2012), 且这种冥想过程中尤其是冥想初期产生的走神会诱发注意焦点抽离(Zedelius & Schooler, 2015)和弥散注意, 进而易化酝酿过程(Baird et al., 2012)。

2.2 正念的影响

正念是一种对当下体验无偏见的觉知(awareness)、注意与记住(remembering)的方式(汪芬, 黄宇霞, 2011; Chiesa & Malinowski, 2011)。虽在早期佛教文献中正念并不被视为心理功能或特征(Grossman & van Dam, 2011), 但随着正念概念的心理学化, 正念开始演化成一种复杂的多维系统。正念的界定虽仍有争议——有些学者倾向于视其为心理状态或特质, 也有的学者将其理解为一种涉及注意维持、切换和精细加工抑制(Ovington, Saliba, & Goldring, 2017)等复杂自我调节方式的认知训练(Zeng, Oei, Ye, & Liu, 2015), 但普遍认为正念包含“接纳” (Acceptance)和“不评判” (Nonjudgment)两大要素(段文杰, 2014)。

一些研究显示正念对发散思维产生潜在或直接的积极影响。例如Wenk-Sormaz (2005)分别从耶鲁大学、加州大学筛选出120名和90名本科生, 将其分配到正念组与休息组中参与系列实验并进行前后测。正念组学生在持续20分钟的Stroop任务上表现显著优于休息组, 更少受到干扰且产生了更多的新颖表达, 提示短期正念有助于减少容易造成发散思维认知僵化的惯性反应(Wenk- Sormaz, 2005)和增加新颖替代性反应出现的机率。与此一致, Kudesia等(2013)也观察到正念训练对发散思维认知灵活性的促进作用。他们要求参与者尽可能多地列举出日常物品的用途, 发现未经正念训练者所列的答案彼此相似, 然而那些经过正念训练的参与者的回答则发散性较好, 能涉及到多个不同类别1(1发散思维测验中, 例如经典替代用途测验和非常规用途测验中都是通过统计所列物品用途的类别来计算思维流畅性得分的。)。这意味着, 在减少惯性反应之后, 正念训练组被试在发散任务中改善了功能固着, 产生了更多的类别转换和更高水平的类别转换, 并最终形成了更多的原创思路或方案(参见Kudesia, 2015)。

正念对发散思维的影响除了通过认知灵活性的作用外, 还存在其他方式。研究揭示, 正念可以通过增加个体对问题的兴趣(Baas, Nevicka, & Ten Velden, 2014)来增强发散思维过程中的坚持性(persistence); 或是通过提升流体智力来诱发高水平的发散思维(Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011); 又或是通过影响注意来改变个体的发散思维表现。例如, Jha等(2007)通过8周的正念课程项目发现了正念与注意之间的联系(Jha, Krompinger, & Baime, 2007)。研究者将被试分为3组:一组为正念新手组, 另两组分别为有经验的正念组和控制组。通过注意网络作业评估了3种注意差异(Moore & Malinowski, 2009), 发现正念训练显著增强有经验者的警觉(Zeidan, Gordon, Merchant, & Goolkasian, 2010)和新手的定向注意, 且前者较新手能更有效地进行冲突监控(Moore & Malinowski, 2009)。上述研究表明正念可以多元化地提升特定的认知功能来改善发散思维。

正念对发散思维的影响受情绪调节影响。Zeidan等(2010)要求22名大学生(平均19岁)完成3个为期3天的实验训练, 并在实验开始与结束阶段进行正念测量。研究通过被试内设计比较了正念任务组、放松阅读任务组及数学任务组的差异, 发现正念能显著增强自上而下的认知控制(Zeidan et al., 2010), 且该认知控制对发散思维无明显促进作用。有趣的是, 4天的正念练习却可以有效缓解焦虑情绪、优化情感评价系统和改变不良心境(Ding et al., 2014), 进而优化发散思维表现。正念能改善或消退消极情绪的发现已得到了大量研究支持(见任俊等, 2010), 一般认为情绪的改善会促进认知敏感和优化注意资源分配以及利于创意的持续生成(Subramaniam, Kounios, Parrish, & Jung- Beeman, 2009)。正念引发的积极情绪间接拓宽了发散思维过程中涉及的分类广度, 且利于将对不良情绪的注意转换到任务目标上, 减少分心和促进发散思维(Subramaniam et al., 2009)。

综上可知, 正念对发散思维有显著影响, 且主要是通过各类认知或情绪调节过程的中介来实现。具体地, 正念能减少认知过程的惯性反应来改善功能固着, 有助于新颖的替代性方案的出现, 正念对个体兴趣、流体智力、注意控制等产生的影响亦间接预测了对发散思维的积极作用。正念所诱发的积极情绪则有助于增强认知过程, 且能改善认知僵化, 提升认知灵活性, 进而提升发散思维表现。

3 禅修影响聚合思维

聚合思维是解决问题时倾向寻求一种最好或最正确答案的思维方式, 往往是思维对现有资料提炼与再组织的过程, 注重解题过程中的思维速度、精度和逻辑等(Cropley, 2006)。目前禅修对创造性思维中聚合思维的影响多是探讨禅修对顿悟问题解决的影响。

3.1 冥想的影响

大量西方研究表明, 冥想是增强聚合思维的一种可操作方式(Ding, Li, & Tang, 2011; Ostafin & Kassman, 2012)。冥想有助于注意力的提升, 使个体将注意力转移到对当下念头和知觉的觉察上(Ding et al., 2015), 从而尽可能避免解题者陷入思维僵局(Fresco, Segal, Buis, & Kennedy, 2007)。冥想维持中的这种内省机制有利于创造性思维的深加工(Cayoun, 2011)、警觉维持及顿悟激发(Ren et al., 2011), 但该过程中的个体情绪和人格因素也可能影响顿悟效果。

在东方, Ren等(2011)研究者提出冥想对顿悟的积极作用。他们将48名无冥想经验的大学生随机分为3组:M10冥想组(每次10组深呼吸)、M100冥想组(每次100组深呼吸)和控制组(放松组), 并通过呈现10个经典的顿悟问题来观察20分钟的Susoku冥想(要求冥想者专心控制并聚焦他们的深腹式呼吸)能否对尚未解决的顿悟问题有所帮助(Ren et al., 2011)。结果显示, 两组冥想组均比控制组有更好的顿悟效果, 这与识别可解决与不可解决问题的元认知能力的增加有关。元认知参与了创造性问题的准备、酝酿以及启发等多个过程, 也被越来越多的研究者证明, 且元认知对创造性问题的解决具有显著促进作用, 提高了问题解决的效率和迁移能力(Puryear, 2015)。与此同时, Ren等人还观察到M10冥想组因其要完成的更频繁报告而要保持更多的警觉, 但M10冥想组较M100冥想组有更出色的表现。结合各参与者α波的变化, 他们认为主要是由于注意和警觉促进了顿悟(Ren et al., 2011)。

Ding等(2015)指出一些研究中提出的冥想无法有效促进顿悟问题解决的相反观点, 可能是由于测量误差, 也可能是受到诸如情绪, 人格的影响(Ding, Tang, Deng, Tang, & Posner, 2015)。例如, Colzato等(2012)以19名资深冥想者(平均经验2.2年)为被试, 专注冥想组与觉察冥想组互为对照, 观察到专注冥想对聚合思维的影响不显著。他们认为可能是由于冥想过程诱发了不利于聚合思维的积极情绪, 进而削弱了冥想的效果。Colzato等(2014)进一步证实冥想并未促进顿悟发生, 甚至观察到觉察冥想会暂时减少自上而下的加工, 这种认知控制损害了顿悟任务中包括分析思维在内的搜索认知策略(Ding et al., 2014)。

从认知神经科学视角, Ding等(2015)探讨了冥想对创造性顿悟过程及其脑机制的影响。研究招募32名无冥想经验的大学生为被试, 并将他们随机分到冥想组(IBMT)和放松组(RT), 前者进行为期10天每天30分钟的冥想练习, 后者给予匹配强度的肌肉放松。借助中国版远距离联想测验的顿悟表现评估, 研究结果显示冥想组的任务测验分数显著高于放松组(Ding et al., 2015), 且功能性磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI)结果显示右侧扣带回、额下回、双边额中回、下壁小叶和颞上回等区域显著激活。上述脑区中, 扣带回与认知控制有关, 在顿悟中参与了认知冲突的监控与思维定势的首次加工(Ding et al., 2014), 额下回参与了表征重构, 并且涉及认知、情绪调节的内省机制启动, 如错误检测、问题理解和注意控制, 在顿悟问题的深加工中起着关键作用(Ding et al., 2014)。

上述研究表明, 冥想对聚合思维的影响尚未形成定论。我们推测, 这些差异可能主要是由于冥想中的认知成分参与的是顿悟的不同阶段, 而这些研究并不都是集中“啊哈”体验阶段, 加之各研究的实验材料也大为不同。其中, Ren等(2011)使用的是经典顿悟问题, 注重的是认知重构(Ren et al., 2011); Colzato等使用的是远距离联想测验和复合远距离联想测验, 侧重的是自发顿悟全过程; 然而, Ding (2015)使用的是中文版远距离联想测验, 且主要考察的是答案诱发顿悟或者答案理解的过程(Ding et al., 2015)。不过, 上述研究也显示, 冥想中的走神现象不仅有利于发散思维, 而且有利于聚合思维。走神, 是无意识的, 也是清醒时自发出现的意识状态(宋晓兰, 王晓, 唐孝 威, 2010), 在本质上可看作一种动态的自动思维(Christoff, Irving, Fox, Spreng, & Andrews-Hanna, 2016)。当注意从外部转向内部, 减少了认知负荷, 一定程度上也促进了内部激活(Salvi & Bowden, 2016)。Baird等(2012)揭示走神现象增加了无意识关联加工, 且这种无意识加工在顿悟问题中起到重要促进作用。

3.2 正念的影响

需注意, 当前研究关注的正念虽有时候会与冥想联系在一起, 统称为正念冥想, 但正念与冥想管理注意的方式不同, 正念侧重监控注意, 而冥想强调注意力维持(Müller et al., 2016), 且冥想从意识上旨在引发放松状态, 正念则没有该目标要求(Edenfield & Saeed, 2012)。于是, 正念和冥想无法整合起来讨论, 而应该区别开来进行研究。学界对于正念与顿悟的关系研究, 围绕正念的不同界定, 进行了阐释。一方面, 从正念的认知过程而言, 正念有利于个体处理信息模式的转换, 克服挫败而坚持问题解决, 继而摆脱思维定势。基于此, 个体摆脱固着, 放宽限制进行认知重组, 在信息网络中寻找更远距离的关联, 最终获得顿悟(Ovington et al., 2017)。另一方面, 当正念练习经过一段时间后作为一种状态或正念特质, 由认知加工的信息处理过程转向了正念状态中注意的对象(Kudesia, 2015), 与注意自我调节密切相关, 并重视对当下发生的事情持续关注(Ovington et al., 2017)。

具体而言, 正念为其提供了多种有利要素。首先, 当顿悟处于思维僵局的阶段, 正念注重当下对自身与环境的觉知, 从而限制了自下而上的加工, 这实际上使个体由原先局部性和经验性地检索记忆序列的认知过程转向了与其他记忆序列的连接, 即转向远距离关联的思维模式(Ovington et al., 2017)。Lebuda, Zabelina和Karwowski (2016)发现正念与顿悟任务之间的显著相关, 其中有关正念成分的回归分析显示创造性表现提高主要源于正念的觉知成分(Lebuda et al., 2016)。该成分在本质上属于注意—觉知(attention-awareness)思维, 具有无评判性、去中心化、无依附特点(Frewen, Evans, Maraj, Dozois, & Partridge, 2008), 不会刻意过滤脑海中的已有信息。这表明正念觉知在顿悟中发挥着重要作用(Baird et al., 2012)——无关环境线索帮助促成顿悟问题搜索新答案时的散焦注意, 以及化解相应的认知冲突, 进而获得问题表征的认知重构(Ostafin & Kassman, 2012; Shen, Yuan, Liu, & Luo, 2016)。

其次, 正念有利于增强创造性思维中的坚持性。例如, Cahn和Polich (2006)等研究中被试提高了警觉与冲突监控, 释放对无关信息的认知评估(Cahn & Polich, 2006), 同时也改善了注意维持(Zeidan et al., 2010), 达到增强任务专注的作用(Baas et al., 2014)。加之, 作为创造性思维的重要角色工作记忆被证明在正念后显著扩展(Mrazek, Franklin, Phillips, Baird, & Schooler, 2013), 促进了个体顿悟问题的解题效率(Brefczynski-Lewis, Lutz, Schaefer, Levinson, & Davidson, 2007)。由此可见, 正念的认知过程中, 一旦信息处理模式转换, 伴随着时刻的注意调节, 信息处理的空间也得到延伸, 为专注解题提供了重要资源。

最后, 大量证据支持正念有利于打破顿悟中思维僵局和诱发“啊哈”体验。如Greenberg, Reiner和Meiran (2012)对比了有无进行正念练习的两组被试在解决经典的水罐问题任务上的表现, 结果显示8周的正念练习明显减少了认知僵化, 参与正念的被试思维并不局限于最初解决方案, 会根据情况适时调整, 继而促发了顿悟(Greenberg, Reiner, & Meiran, 2012)。与此同时, Ostafin和Kassman (2012)对86名大学生开展的两个实验研究也得到类似的结论。接受正念训练后, 过去知识经验对语义概念生成的限制显著较弱, 突出表现为被试在囚徒绳问题、古董硬币问题和倒转金字塔问题等经典顿悟问题上的解题效率显著提升, 产生了更好的顿悟表现(Ostafin & Kassman, 2012)。

表1所示, 现有研究显示, 正念的多种因素都对包括顿悟问题在内的聚合思维有积极作用, 正念有助个体转向全局思维, 借助线索实现认知重构, 且其觉知成分可以提高个体的元认知能力和扩充工作记忆容量, 帮助个体突破思维僵局和获得“啊哈”体验, 促成顿悟。

表1   不同禅修方式对创造性思维的影响方式 (↑为正向作用, ↓为负向作用)

类型 发散思维 聚合思维
效果 机制 效果 机制
冥想 促进 注意瞬脱↓(Hodgins & Adair, 2010) 促进 内省机制↑(Cayoun, 2011)
注意分配↑(Colzato et al., 2012) 深度加工↑(Cayoun, 2011)
自上而下加工↓(Colzato et al., 2012) 认知重构↑(Ren et al., 2011)
发散思维独特性↑(Horan, 2009) 元认知↑(Ren et al., 2011)
表征转换↑(Kudesia, 2015) 注意、警觉↑(Ren et al., 2011)
认知灵活性↑(Kudesia, 2015) 无意识的关联处理↑(Baird et al., 2012)
积极情绪↑(Ding et al., 2014) 积极情绪↑(Colzato et al., 2012)
注意切换↑(Ding et al., 2014) 损害 认知策略↓(Colzato et al., 2012)
弥散注意↑(Baird et al., 2012)
酝酿效应↑(Baird et al., 2012)
正念 促进 惯性思维↓(Wenk-Sormaz, 2005) 促进 知觉↑(Zeidan et al., 2010)
功能固着↓(Wenk-Sormaz, 2005) 元认知↑(Zeidan et al., 2010)
流体智力↑(Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011) 线索搜索↑(Ostafin & Kassman, 2012)
类别转换↑(Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011) 认知重构↑(Ostafin & Kassman, 2012)
兴趣↑(Baas et al., 2014) 注意监控↑(Lippelt, Hommel, & Colzato, 2014)
坚持性↑(Baas et al., 2014) 工作记忆↑(Brefczynski-Lewis et al., 2007)
注意控制↑(Moore & Malinowski, 2009) 思维僵局↓(Kudesia, 2015)
积极情绪↑(Ding et al., 2014) “啊哈”时刻↑(Kudesia, 2015)
认知敏感↑(Ding et al., 2014) 不确定 积极情绪↑(Colzato et al., 2014)
思维工作效率↑(Subramaniam et al., 2009)

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4 禅修影响创造性思维的潜在机制

目前, 就禅修对创造性思维的影响机制已有多种观点, 通过对现有文献的梳理归纳可知, 禅修后效主要有赖于其涉及的认知调控和情绪调节, 其对创造性思维的影响方式见表1

从认知过程看, 禅修对发散思维的影响机制是基于注意策略的一个基本假设, 即大脑皮层神经元网络可基于神经可塑性以及注意力的改变来实现大脑效能重构并形成新的神经连接(Horan, 2009)。初期, 走神带来与发散思维相关的弥散注意, 利于达到酝酿效应。注意调节参与其中, 并与注意觉知、调整与聚焦共同优化和调节发散思维所需的最小化的自上而下的控制和局部竞争(local competition)以及增强表征转换和认知灵活性以及创意观念的产生。工作记忆水平的改善有助于发散思维功能固着解除; 禅修中所诱发的其他要素或效应如兴趣和智力等则可以间接增强发散思维所需的坚持性。禅修中注意网络(Tang, Hölzel, & Posner, 2015)、突显网络(McMillan, Kaufman, & Singer, 2013)和默认模式网络(Dickenson, Berkman,Arch, & Lieberman, 2013)启动, 这些网络涉及的区域实际上也与创造性活动过程中的活跃区域大量重叠, 如扣带回参与了创造性活动中的认知控制, 顶下小叶、前额叶的激活程度与发散思维的流畅性有关(Ricard, Lutz, & Davidson, 2014; Beaty, Benedek, Silvia, & Schacter, 2016), 它们的显著激活也从侧面验证了禅修对发散思维的影响。

从情绪调节方面来看, 研究者通常会存在两方面的讨论。一方面, 短期禅修训练可以直接引发积极情绪, 而积极情绪有助于不同注意视角之间的切换, 过程中形成的弥散注意使得注意资源的分配更广泛, 继而促进了发散思维过程的类别转换, 利于酝酿效应的产生(见表1)。关于这种注意—情绪调节的假设均认为积极情绪扩展了注意广度(Rowe, Hirsh, & Anderson, 2007), 不同注意视角之间的切换有助于认知敏感并产生更丰富的联想(Ding et al., 2014), 有利于产生新颖而多元的观念。另一方面, Tang等(2015)提出对于新手而言, 积极情绪常常反映出前额叶激活的增强效应, 通过克服惯性思维和固有的情感反应, 积极情绪会显示更大的前额叶激活。前额叶是参与创造性过程的重要脑区, 长期积累禅修经验后, 他们可能会以自下而上加工方式来自动接收信息(Tang et al., 2015), 这种认知控制也与发散思维所匹配。由此, 禅修后个体减弱甚至消退不良情绪, 将注意转换到当下目标, 执行更有效而发散的思维工作(Subramaniam et al., 2009)。

禅修对聚合思维的影响有多种途径。起初, 个体从走神到注意调节进入禅修状态, 注意觉知、调整和聚焦等注意调节技术(Ricard et al., 2014)参与了顿悟最初对不相关信息的预加工(Ding et al., 2014)。该过程通常会激活在顿悟相关的深度加工扮演关键角色(Cayoun, 2011)的额下回。不仅如此, 而且因禅修而开启的内省机制也有助于对顿悟问题解决过程的认知重评(Ding et al., 2014)。随后, 个体在禅修中增强的警觉与监控则是禅修助益于创造性的重要机制, 两者均通过启动扣带回来促进创造过程中的认知监控与思维定势的加工, 并继而推动随后对顿悟问题的信息整合加工。同时, 就创造性过程中的语义无意识激活而言, 禅修有助于减少过去经验中语义概念的影响(Ostafin & Kassman, 2012), 并以此在顿悟中的僵局破解过程中起着关键作用(Ding et al., 2014)。换言之, 禅修能够通过调控执行功能来 改善定势或功能固着, 促发顿悟的产生。此外, Baird等(2012)发现走神可以增强无意识关联加工(unconscious associative processing), 而这种无意识加工也是顿悟问题解决甚至其他创造性顿悟的重要认知过程。

禅修中的情绪调节, 对聚合思维具有两面性。Colzato的研究提出积极情绪的增加不利于聚合思维, Guglietti等(2013)则通过对GABAB的测量, 为相反观点提供了证据, 认为禅修主要通过自上向下调节兴奋性神经活动和改善大脑皮层的抑制来减少负面认知活动提高了创造性思维所需的有效的注意监控(Guglietti, Daskalakis, Radhu, Fitzgerald, & Ritvo, 2013)。不少的禅修全过程都可能会触发从呼吸到注意再到情绪的三阶段的变化, 而这一过程又能不同程度地增强这些方面的连接(参见图1):注意网络, 内省和情感的过程(Lippelt et al., 2014), 从而推动顿悟进程。值得一提的是, 多数脑电研究倾向于积极情绪本身增强了神经活动, 包括顿悟问题的解决。积极情绪强化了神经系统的激活, 如前额叶皮层以及大脑皮层, 却损害了参与分析思维的执行功能(Ovington et al., 2017), 但也有研究主张, 积极情绪除了促进全局思维, 也有利于局部思维。积极情绪增加了认知灵活性以及局部与全局转换能力, 以抑制惯性思维(Ovington et al., 2017), 因此研究中难以区分目标任务的问题解决是否完全经由顿悟而来, 也为情绪调节对聚合思维的研究增加了难度。

图1

图1   禅修影响创造性思维的潜在机制图

注:箭头代表作用的方向


5 总结与展望

无论是发散思维还是聚合思维, 都体现和凝结着人类的智慧, 并推动了科学技术变革与社会生产力发展。探讨禅修对创造性思维的影响, 不仅能为提升创造性思维效果提供具体可资借鉴的举措, 而且有助于禅修本质的阐明。从目前星罗棋布的实证证据可知, 不同形式的禅修对创造性思维有积极影响, 且主要是通过认知调控和情绪激活与调节来实现。前者主要涉及无意识加工、语义联结的激活和注意调控与选择等, 后者则与适宜情绪的激活、调节和控制有关。需注意, 禅修对创造性思维在某些条件下也可能会有些不利于创造性产生的影响, 如放松效应可能会弱化情感表达与幽默感, 进而导致禅修者的创造性思维绘画产品测验表现不佳等(Müller et al., 2016)。针对禅修对创造性思维的影响, 未来研究可从以下方面深入:

首先, 加强情绪调节对创造性思维的影响研究。从以往文献可知, 禅修带来情绪的变化, 尤其是积极情绪的产生, 这一重要变量影响了创造性思维中的认知过程。但因为禅修的多维复杂性, 情绪调节如何影响以及影响机制尚有待探讨。例如, 禅修中的积极情绪与中性及消极情绪的变化特点乃至带来的认知影响, 多大程度地影响创造性思维活动?另外, 研究者尚无法完全确定, 情绪是作为一个独立的变量直接对创造性思维产生作用, 这一作用与间接造成的认知影响的关系, 以及其余创造性思维三者的关系如何, 都有必要进行进一步深入探究。

其次, 重视规范性和科学性的实验设计。有关禅修与创造性思维之间的关系并不能简单地概念化, 心智游移、睡眠等因素都可能成为混淆因素增加积极效应(Müller et al., 2016), 因此需要在实验中严格控制额外变量(Wiggins & Bhattacharya, 2014), 关注被试是否在家有额外的禅修练习等潜在干扰因素, 并且延伸其对创造性在其他方面影响的研究, 如格式塔、幽默感、艺术性创造思维。未来研究需要加强对一些基本概念的界定, 以便更系统地评估不同禅修的本质、被试的个体差异, 尽可能地把握目前尚存的研究差别。

最后, 重视禅修对创造性的脑机制研究。现有研究显示禅修可能不同程度地启动了注意网络(Tang et al., 2015)、突显网络(McMillan et al., 2013)和默认模式网络(Dickenson et al., 2013)。已有创造性的成像研究也表明, 额叶、扣带回以及皮下白质或灰质浓度均与创造性有关(沈汪兵等, 2010)。然而, 对于特定创造性思维活动而言, 不同的禅修方式在脑机制研究中举足轻重, 对这一问题的研究有利于细化和澄清特定的禅修方式所能调动的心理官能, 帮助人们选用特定且适合自己的禅修方式来提高创造性思维活动。由此可见, 在这一领域应该深化对创造性的脑机制研究。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have increased in popularity. This is especially true for treatments that are related to exercise and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in the treatment of both mental and physical illness. MBIs, such as Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), which are derived from ancient Buddhist and Yoga philosophies, have become popular treatments in contemporary psychotherapy. While there is growing evidence that supports the role of these interventions in relapse prevention, little is known about the role that MBIs play in the treatment of acute symptoms of depression and anxiety. Even less is known about the importance of specific components of MBIs (eg, mindfulness meditation [MM]) and the overall impact that these interventions have on the experience or expression of psychological distress. Moreover, few studies have rigorously evaluated the dose-response relationship that is required to effect positive symptom change and the mechanisms of change that are responsible for observed improvements. This review will define meditation and mindfulness, discuss the relationship between stress and health and how MM relates to therapeutically engaging the relaxation response, and review the empirical findings that are related to the efficacy of MM in the treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms. Given the paucity of research that examines the applications of these treatments in clinical populations, the limitations of applying these findings to clinical samples will be mentioned. A brief review of the issues related to the possible mechanisms of change and the dose-response relationship regarding MBIs, particularly MM, will be provided. Finally, limitations of the extant literature and future directions for further exploration of this topic will be offered.

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest meditation practice improves attentional performance and emotional regulation. The process of meditation apparently increases activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and stimulates the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, implicating the production and delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have a central role in cortical inhibition (CI), modulating cortical excitability and neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Changes in CI, after completion of a single meditation session, were investigated and compared to a non-meditating control activity. METHODS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a non-invasive method of examining CI, was used to evaluate changes before and after a 60 min meditation session. Seventy right-handed healthy subjects (n = 35 meditators, n = 35 non-meditators) were assessed using TMS related measures of cortical silent period (CSP) and short intra cortical inhibition (SICI), with stimulation of the motor cortex coordinated with EMG recording of peripheral hand muscles. RESULTS: For the meditators, CSP and SICI were measured before and after meditation sessions while age-sex matched healthy control subjects were identically assessed after a non-meditating activity (television watching). The meditators showed a statistically significant increase in CSP after meditation compared to non-meditators after an equivalent period of television watching (P = 0.02) while no significant between-group differences were observed in the SICI. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate meditation processes are linked to GABAergic cortical inhibition, a mechanism previously implicated in improved cognitive performance and enhanced emotional regulation. Copyright 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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Prior investigations into a creativity editation connection involving diverse meditation strategies, proficiency levels, and creativity measurement instruments presented mixed results. These results are explained through evidence (primarily from EEG studies) supporting the hypothesis that meditation training variously enhances creative incubation and illumination via transcendence and integration, neuropsychological mechanisms common to both processes. Transcendence surpasses informational limits; integration transforms informational boundaries. In this respect, increased low-alpha power reflects reduced cortical activity and detached witnessing of multimodal information processing; theta indicates an implicit affect-based orientation toward satisfaction and encoding of new information; delta reflects neural silence, signal matching and surprise, and gamma indicates heightened awareness, temporal-spatial binding, and salience. Cortical intra-interhemispheric synchronization, within these EEG spectral bands, is essential to effective creativity and meditation. The relative impact on creativity of various meditation strategies (mindfulness, concentrative and combined) is discussed. Sanyama, an ancient yogic attentional technique embodying both transcendence and integration, provides a unique neuropsychological explanation for extraordinary creativity.

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Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, 7(2), 109-119.

URL     PMID:17672382      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or enhance specific aspects of attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but overlapping attentional subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring. Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the Attention Network Test. Two types of mindfulness training (MT) programs were examined, and behavioral testing was conducted on participants before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) training. One training group consisted of individuals naive to mindfulness techniques who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course that emphasized the development of concentrative meditation skills. The other training group consisted of individuals experienced in concentrative meditation techniques who participated in a 1-month intensive mindfulness retreat. Performance of these groups was compared with that of control participants who were meditation naive and received no MT. At Time 1, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated improved conflict monitoring performance relative to those in the MBSR and control groups. At Time 2, the participants in the MBSR course demonstrated significantly improved orienting in comparison with the control and retreat participants. In contrast, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated altered performance on the alerting component, with improvements in exogenous stimulus detection in comparison with the control and MBSR participants. The groups did not differ in conflict monitoring performance at Time 2. These results suggest that mindfulness training may improve attention-related behavioral responses by enhancing functioning of specific subcomponents of attention. Whereas participation in the MBSR course improved the ability to endogenously orient attention, retreat participation appeared to allow for the development and emergence of receptive attentional skills, which improved exogenous alerting-related process.

Kudesia R. S. ( 2015).

Mindfulness and creativity in the workplace. In Mindfulness in organizations: Foundations, research, and applications

(pp. 190-212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[本文引用: 6]

Lippelt D. P., Hommel B., & Colzato L. S . ( 2014).

Focused attention, open monitoring and loving kindness meditation: Effects on attention, conflict monitoring, and creativity-A review

Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1083.

[本文引用: 2]

Lyubomirsky S., King L., & Diener E . ( 2005).

The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success?

Psychological Bulletin, 131( 6), 803-855.

URL     PMID:16351326      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Numerous studies show that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. The authors suggest a conceptual model to account for these findings, arguing that the happiness-success link exists not only because success makes people happy, but also because positive affect engenders success. Three classes of evidence--crosssectional, longitudinal, and experimental--are documented to test their model. Relevant studies are described and their effect sizes combined meta-analytically. The results reveal that happiness is associated with and precedes numerous successful outcomes, as well as behaviors paralleling success. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that positive affect--the hallmark of well-being--may be the cause of many of the desirable characteristics, resources, and successes correlated with happiness. Limitations, empirical issues, and important future research questions are discussed.

Lutz A., Slagter H. A., Dunne J. D., & Davidson R. J . ( 2008).

Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12( 4), 163-169.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Lebuda I., Zabelina D. L., & Karwowski M . ( 2016).

Mind full of ideas: A meta-analysis of the mindfulness-creativity link

Personality & Individual Differences, 93, 22-26.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Mindfulness improves people's functioning in many areas, but its relationship with creativity is equivocal. To assess the link between mindfulness and creativity, we present a multilevel meta-analysis of 89 correlations obtained from 20 samples in studies published between 1977 and 2015 and demonstrate a statistically significant, but relatively weak correlation (r=.22) between these two constructs. This effect was moderated by the type of mindfulness, being significantly lower in case of the awareness aspect of mindfulness, than in the case of the open-monitoring aspect. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

Moore A., & Malinowsk, P. ( 2009).

Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility

Consciousness and Cognition, 18( 1), 176-186.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Müller B. C., Gerasimova A., & Ritter S. M . ( 2016).

Concentrative meditation influences creativity by increasing cognitive flexibility

Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10( 3), 278-286.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Given the great importance of creativity in society, it is worth investigating how creative thinking can be enhanced. The link between meditation and enhanced creativity has been proposed by a number of authors; however, the reason why meditation leads to an increase in creativity is not clear. The current study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms of different meditation styles on creative performance. A nonstudent sample was used and the experiment took place outside of the lab environment to maximize external validity. Two groups of experienced meditation practitioners performed a meditation session (either mindfulness or concentrative meditation). Participants creativity and cognitive flexibility were assessed before and after the meditation session. The current findings demonstrate that meditation increases creative performance, irrespective of meditation style. Interestingly, only concentrative meditation led to an increase in cognitive flexibility. Possible explanations are discussed.

Mrazek M. D., Franklin M. S., Phillips D. T., Baird B., & Schooler J. W . ( 2013).

Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering

Psychological Science, 24( 5), 776-781.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

McMillan, R. L, Kaufman, S. B., & Singer, J. L . ( 2013).

Ode to positive constructive daydreaming

Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 626.

URL     PMID:24065936      [本文引用: 2]

Nearly 60 years ago, Jerome L. Singer launched a groundbreaking research program into daydreaming (Singer, 1955,1975,2009) that presaged and laid the foundation for virtually every major strand of mind wandering research active today (Antrobus, 1999;Klinger, 1999,2009). Here we review Singer’s enormous contribution to the field, which includes insights, methodologies, and tools still in use today, and trace his enduring legacy as revealed in the recent proliferation of mind wandering studies. We then turn to the central theme in Singer’s work, the adaptive nature ofpositive constructive daydreaming, which was a revolutionary idea when Singer began his work in the 1950s and remains underreported today. Last, we propose a new approach to answering the enduring question: Why does mind wandering persist and occupy so much of our time, as much as 50% of our waking time according to some estimates, if it is as costly as most studies suggest?

Nusbaum E. C., & Silvia, P. J . ( 2011).

Are intelligence and creativity really so different?: Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking

Intelligence, 39( 1), 36-45.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Otis, L. S . ( 1974).

The facts about transcendental meditation, Part 3. If well-integrated but anxious, try TM

Psychology Today, 7, 45-46.

[本文引用: 1]

Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Granieri, B.( 1977).

The effects of the age of enlightenment governor training courses on field independence, creativity, intelligence, and behavioral flexibility

In Scientific research on maharishi’s transcendental meditation and TM-Sidhi program (Vol. 1, pp. 713-718).New York: MERU Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Ostafin B. D., & Kassman, K. T . ( 2012).

Stepping out of history: Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

Consciousness and Cognition, 21( 2), 1031-1036.

URL     PMID:22483682      [本文引用: 6]

Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal–conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at “nonconceptual awareness” which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal–conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate insight problem solving. This hypothesis was examined across two studies (total N=157). Participants in both studies completed a measure of trait mindfulness and a series of insight and noninsight problems. Further, participants in Study 2 completed measures of positive affect and a mindfulness or control training. The results indicated that (a) trait mindfulness predicts better insight but not noninsight problem solving (both studies), (b) this relation is maintained when controlling for positive affect (Study 2), (c) mindfulness training improves insight but not noninsight problem solving (Study 2) and (d) this improvement is partially mediated by state mindfulness (Study 2). These findings are the first to document a direct relation between mindfulness and creativity.

Ostafin B. D., Robinson M. D., & Meier B. P . ( 2015).

Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation

New York: Springer.

[本文引用: 1]

Ovington L. A., Saliba A. J., & Goldring J . ( 2017).

Dispositions toward flow and mindfulness predict dispositional insight

Mindfulness, 8, 1-12.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

No Abstract available for this article.

Puryear, J. S . ( 2015).

Metacognition as a moderator of creative ideation and creative production

Creativity Research Journal, 27( 4), 334-341.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Recent theoretical work has called for exploration of the moderating effects of cognitive factors on the relationship between creative ideation and creative production. The Cognitive-Creative Sifting model suggests skills in processing and transforming information influence the association. This study used the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale, Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, and Creative Behavior Inventory to test the moderating effect. Medium to large moderator effects (f2= .015 tof2= .041) were observed across previous theoretically proposed aspects of metacognition. A large, statistically significant moderator effect was observed for overall metacognition (f2= .031). Observed differences across subcomponents of metacognition paralleled theoretical connections between metacognition and creativity. Further studies are suggested using more diverse creativity measures, as well as tests for other cognitive sifters. Implications for educational practice, particularly regarding the creatively gifted, are offered.

Ren J., Huang Z. H., Luo J., Wei G. X., Ying X. P., Ding Z. G., .. Luo F . ( 2011).

Meditation promotes insightful problem-solving by keeping people in a mindful and alert conscious state

Science China Life Sciences, 54( 10), 961-965.

URL     [本文引用: 9]

Rowe G., Hirsh J. B., & Anderson A. K . ( 2007).

Positive affect increases the breadth of attentional selection

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104( 1), 383-388.

URL     PMID:17182749      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The present study examined the thesis that positive affect may serve to broaden the scope of attentional filters, reducing their selectivity. The effect of positive mood states was measured in two different cognitive domains: semantic search (remote associates task) and visual selective attention (Eriksen flanker task). In the conceptual domain, positive affect enhanced access to remote associates, suggesting an increase in the scope of semantic access. In the visuospatial domain, positive affect impaired visual selective attention by increasing processing of spatially adjacent flanking distractors, suggesting an increase in the scope of visuospatial attention. During positive states, individual differences in enhanced semantic access were correlated with the degree of impaired visual selective attention. These findings demonstrate that positive states, by loosening the reins on inhibitory control, result in a fundamental change in the breadth of attentional allocation to both external visual and internal conceptual space.

Ricard M., Lutz A., & Davidson R. J . ( 2014).

Mind of the meditator

Scientific American, 311( 5), 38-45.

URL     PMID:25464661      [本文引用: 2]

Not Available

Salvi C., & Bowden, E. M . ( 2016).

Looking for Creativity: Where do we look when we look for new ideas?

Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 161.

URL     PMID:4753696      [本文引用: 1]

Recent work using the eye movement monitoring technique has demonstrated that when people are engaged in thought they tend to disengage from the external world by blinking or fixating on an empty portion of the visual field, such as a blank wall, or out the window at the sky. This ‘looking at nothing’ behavior has been observed during thinking that does not explicitly involve visual imagery (mind wandering, insight in problem solving, memory encoding and search) and it is associated with reduced analysis of the external visual environment. Thus, it appears to indicate (and likely facilitate) a shift of attention from external to internal stimuli that benefits creativity and problem solving by reducing the cognitive load and enhancing attention to internally evolving activation. We briefly mention some possible reasons to collect eye movement data in future studies of creativity.

Sedlmeier P., Eberth J., Schwarz M., Zimmermann D., Haarig F., Jaeger S., & Kunze S . ( 2012).

The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis

Psychological Bulletin, 138( 6), 1139-1171.

URL     PMID:22582738      [本文引用: 3]

In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost of an initially identified 595 studies had to be excluded. Most studies appear to have been conducted without sufficient theoretical background. To put the results into perspective, we briefly summarize the major theoretical approaches from both East and West. The 163 studies that allowed the calculation of effect sizes exhibited medium average effects (r = .28 for all studies and r = .27 for the n = 125 studies from reviewed journals), which cannot be explained by mere relaxation or cognitive restructuring effects. In general, results were strongest (medium to large) for changes in emotionality and relationship issues, less strong (about medium) for measures of attention, and weakest (small to medium) for more cognitive measures. However, specific findings varied across different approaches to meditation (transcendental meditation, mindfulness meditation, and other meditation techniques). Surprisingly, meditation experience only partially covaried with long-term impact on the variables examined. In general, the dependent variables used cover only some of the content areas about which predictions can be made from already existing theories about meditation; still, such predictions lack precision at present. We conclude that to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of why and how meditation works, emphasis should be placed on the development of more precise theories and measurement devices.

Subramaniam K., Kounios J., Parrish T. B., & Jung- Beeman M . ( 2009).

A brain mechanism for facilitation of insight by positive affect

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21( 3), 415-432.

URL     PMID:18578603      [本文引用: 4]

Previous research has shown that people solve insight or creative problems better when in a positive mood (assessed or induced), although the precise mechanisms and neural substrates of this facilitation remain unclear. We assessed mood and personality variables in 79 participants before they attempted to solve problems that can be solved by either an insight or an analytic strategy. Participants higher in positive mood solved more problems, and specifically more with insight, compared with participants lower in positive mood. fMRI was performed on 27 of the participants while they solved problems. Positive mood (and to a lesser extent and in the opposite direction, anxiety) was associated with changes in brain activity during a preparatory interval preceding each solved problem; modulation of preparatory activity in several areas biased people to solve either with insight or analytically. Analyses examined whether (a) positive mood modulated activity in brain areas showing responsivity during preparation; (b) positive mood modulated activity in areas showing stronger activity for insight than noninsight trials either during preparation or solution; and (c) insight effects occurred in areas that showed mood-related effects during preparation. Across three analyses, the ACC showed sensitivity to both mood and insight, demonstrating that positive mood alters preparatory activity in ACC, biasing participants to engage in processing conducive to insight solving. This result suggests that positive mood enhances insight, at least in part, by modulating attention and cognitive control mechanisms via ACC, perhaps enhancing sensitivity to detect non-prepotent solution candidates.

Sternberg R. J., & Lubart, T. I . ( 1996).

Investing in creativity

American Psychologist, 51( 7), 677-688.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Slagter H. A., Lutz A., Greischar L. L., Francis A. D., Nieuwenhuis S., Davis J. M., & Davidson R. J . ( 2007).

Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources

Plos Biology, 5(6), e138.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Shen W. B., Yuan Y., Liu C., & Luo J . ( 2016).

In search of the 'Aha!' experience: Elucidating the emotionality of insight problem-solving

British Journal of Psychology, 107( 2), 281-298.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Tang Y. Y., Hölzel B. K., & Posner M. I . ( 2015).

Traits and states in mindfulness meditation

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17, 59.

URL     PMID:26631928      [本文引用: 3]

Personality is the collection of characteristic thoughts, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that impact how we view ourselves and what we believe about others and the world around us. In general, per

Wenk-Sormaz H., ( 2005).

Meditation can reduce habitual responding

Alternative Therapies, 11( 2), 42-58.

URL     PMID:15819448      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract CONTEXT: Although cognitive aspects of meditation underlie much of its clinical application, very little research has examined meditation's cognitive consequences. This investigation provides experimental support for the idea that meditation leads to a reduction in habitual responding using randomly selected subjects, a secular form of meditation, and a full experimental design. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that meditation leads to a reduction in habitual responding. DESIGN: Studies 1 and 2 each incorporated pre-test and post-test designs with a 20-minute intervening attention task (meditation, rest, or a cognitive control). SETTING: Yale University in New Haven, Conn, and the University of California, Berkeley. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and twenty and 90 undergraduates participated in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stroop and Word Production (category generation and stem-completion) tasks assessed habitual responding in Study 1. Galvanic Skin response measured arousal in Study 1. The category generation task assessed habitual responding in Study 2. Tellegen's Absorption Scale (TAS) measured attention ability. RESULTS: In Study 1, meditation participants showed a reduction in habitual responding on the Stroop task as compared to controls. Study 1 revealed no statistically significant effects in the word production task. Stroop task performance was not mediated by arousal reduction. In Study 2, meditation participants showed a reduction in habitual responding on the category production task. Specifically, when participants generated either typical or atypical items, on average, meditation participants produced more atypical items than controls. Category production performance was not mediated by Tellegen's Absorption Scale (TAS) scores. Overall, high TAS scores were related to atypical responding. CONCLUSION: Across cognitive tasks, when participants understood that the goal was to respond non-habitually, meditation reduced habitual responding.

Wiggins G. A., & Bhattacharya, J. ( 2014).

Mind the gap: An attempt to bridge computational and neuroscientific approaches to study creativity

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 540.

[本文引用: 1]

Zarrabian E., ( 2010).

The usefulness of meditation in the alleviation of self-reported depressive symptoms among women (Unpublished doctorial dissertation)

Saybrook University.

[本文引用: 1]

Zeidan F., Gordon N. S., Merchant J., & Goolkasian P . ( 2010).

The effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on experimentally induced pain

The Journal of Pain, 11( 3), 199-209.

URL     PMID:19853530      [本文引用: 6]

This study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on ratings of painful electrical stimulation. In Experiment 1, we used a 3-day (20 min/d) mindfulness meditation intervention and measured pain ratings before and after the intervention. Participants' numerical ratings of pain to “low” and “high” electrical stimulation significantly decreased after meditation training. Pain sensitivity, measured by change in stimulus intensity thresholds, also decreased after training. We investigated, in Experiment 2, how well relaxation and a math distraction task attenuated experimental pain. Math distraction but not relaxation reduced high pain ratings. There was no reduction in pain sensitivity in these participants. In Experiment 3, we directly compared the effects of meditation with math distraction and relaxation conditions. Our findings indicated significant effects of both meditation and math distraction. Consistent with what was observed in Experiment 1, these participants also demonstrated a decrease in pain sensitivity after meditation training. Changes in the mindfulness and anxiety assessments suggest that meditation's analgesic effects are related to reduced anxiety and the enhanced ability to focus on the present moment. Our findings indicate that a brief 3-day mindfulness meditation intervention was effective at reducing pain ratings and anxiety scores when compared with baseline testing and other cognitive manipulations. The brief meditation training was also effective at increasing mindfulness skills.

Zeng X. L., Oei T. P. S., Ye Y. Q., & Liu X. P . ( 2015).

A critical analysis of the concepts and measurement of awareness and equanimity in Goenka's Vipassana meditation

Journal of Religion and Health, 54( 2), 399-412.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Zedelius C. M., & Schooler, J. W . ( 2015).

Mind wandering “Ahas” versus mindful reasoning: Alternative routes to creative solutions

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 834.

URL     PMID:4469818      [本文引用: 2]

Based on mixed results linking both mindfulness and its opposing construct mind wandering to enhanced creativity, we predicted that the relationship between mindfulness and creativity might depend on whether creative problems are approached through analytic strategy or through “insight” (i.e., sudden awareness of a solution). Study 1 investigated the relationship between trait mindfulness and compound remote associates problem solving as a function of participants’ self-reported approach to each problem. The results revealed a negative relationship between mindfulness and problem-solving overall. However, more detailed analysis revealed that mindfulness was associated with impaired problem solving when approaching problems with insight, but increased problem solving when using analysis. In Study 2, we manipulated participants’ problem-solving approach through instructions. We again found a negative relationship between mindfulness and creative performance in general, however, more mindful participants again performed better when instructed to approach problems analytically.

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