心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1775-1786 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01775

研究前沿

编码如何预测提取?以相继记忆效应为证

聂爱情,, 李梦思, 潘如

浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028

How does encoding predict retrieval? Evidence from subsequent memory effects

NIE Aiqing,, LI Mengsi, PAN Ru

Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China

通讯作者: 聂爱情, E-mail: nieaiq@126.com

收稿日期: 2018-02-2   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *浙江省自然科学基金项目.  LY17C090003
教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目.  17YJA190010
中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助.  

Received: 2018-02-2   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

在记忆领域, 编码与提取之间的关系始终备受关注。近37年(1980至今)的研究显示, 随后记住信息与随后遗忘信息在编码阶段关联的神经机制明显不同(该差异被称为相继记忆效应), 表明编码能够从神经机制角度预测提取。过去10年间(2008~2017), 研究者在顺承先前研究的基础上另辟蹊径, 重点从编码任务中加工水平及目标导向对相继记忆效应的影响、提取任务对相继记忆效应的影响、不同年龄群体之间的相继记忆效应异同、情绪项目和情绪背景对相继记忆效应的影响等角度展开研究。本文从上述四方面对相关研究进行了详细梳理, 并从整合研究成果、完善理论模型、挖掘潜在社会因素、探究个体差异和群体差异以及加强应用推广等方面对今后研究进行展望。

关键词: 相继记忆效应 ; 编码任务 ; 提取任务 ; 年龄 ; 情绪

Abstract

Within memory research, the relation between encoding and retrieval has been under the spotlight. Research in the past 37 years (1980-present) has demonstrated that there are differences between the neural mechanisms activated by subsequently remembered information and subsequently forgotten information during encoding, which are labeled as subsequent memory effects. Such effects indicate that it’s possible to predict retrieval according to the neural activities during encoding. In the past decade (2008~2017), researchers have opened new paths on subsequent memory effects inspired by previous studies in this field, such as focusing on the influences of processing levels and orientating tasks during encoding, comparing the effects among different retrieval tasks, exploring the similarities and differences among different age groups, and examining the impacts of emotional items and emotional contexts. In this sense, detailed reviews were made from these aspects. Furthermore, we pointed out several possible directions for future studies: (a) integrating previous results, (b) improving theoretical models, (c) exploring more social factors, (d) focusing on individual and group differences, as well as (e) extending applications.

Keywords: subsequent memory effects ; encoding task ; retrieval task ; age ; emotion

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本文引用格式

聂爱情, 李梦思, 潘如. (2018). 编码如何预测提取?以相继记忆效应为证. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1775-1786

NIE Aiqing, LI Mengsi, PAN Ru. (2018). How does encoding predict retrieval? Evidence from subsequent memory effects. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1775-1786

1 引言

研究者通常采用相继记忆范式(subsequent memory paradigm)探究编码对提取的预测作用。该范式中:被试在编码阶段学习一系列项目(如, 项目A和项目B), 并在随后的提取阶段从新项目(如, 项目C和项目D)中辨别上述已学项目, 若被试将A正确判断为已学项目(又称记住项目)、将B错误判断为未学项目(又称遗忘项目), 则基于此结果, 对记住项目与遗忘项目进行比较, 若两类项目在编码阶段的神经活动明显不同, 说明编码可从神经机制角度预测提取结果(Kamp, Bader, & Mecklinger, 2017; Liu, Rosburg, Gao, Weber, & Guo, 2017; Paller, Kutas, & Mayes, 1987; Sanquist et al., 1980)。采用上述范式, Sanquist等人(1980)最早比较了记住项目与遗忘项目在编码阶段的神经活动, 结果显示, 前者较后者诱发的波形波幅更正, 该差异即为晚正成分(late positive complex, LPC)。此后, Paller等人(1987)记录到相似的LPC (400~800 ms), 并将随后记住项目与随后遗忘项目在编码阶段诱发的波形波幅差异称为“基于相继记忆绩效的差异” (difference based on subsequent memory performance)。上述两项早期ERP研究开创了比较记住项目与遗忘项目在编码阶段神经活动异同的先河, 并一致证明编码可从神经机制角度预测提取。

随后, ERP研究中记住信息与遗忘信息在编码阶段的神经机制差异受到高度关注, 大量研究将这一差异界定为相继记忆效应(subsequent memory effects), 并将该效应视为反映编码的神经标志(Bridger & Wilding, 2010; Kamp et al., 2017; Kiefer et al., 2007; Kuo, Liu, Ting & Chan, 2012; Liu et al., 2017; Martínez-Galindo & Cansino, 2015)。除ERP研究外, fMRI研究和EEG神经振荡(brain oscillation)研究同样记录到反映编码预测提取的相继记忆效应。fMRI研究中的效应表现为记住信息与遗忘信息在不同脑区激活程度的差异(Becker, Kalpouzos, Persson, Laukka, & Brehmer, 2017; Dolcos, LaBar, & Cabeza, 2004; Kim, 2011; Shing, Brehmer, Heekeren, Bäckman, & Lindenberger, 2016); EEG神经振荡研究中的效应表现为两方面:两类信息在不同频段振荡强度的差异和两类信息在不同频段振荡同步性的差异(Fellner, Bäuml, & Hanslmayr, 2013; Gärtner & Bajbouj, 2014; Hanslmayr & Staudigl, 2014; Osipova et al., 2006)。

相继记忆效应的极性不完全相同:大量研究发现, 记住信息较遗忘信息在编码阶段的波形波幅走向更正或脑区激活程度更强; 少量研究则得出记住信息较遗忘信息在编码阶段的波形波幅更负或脑区激活程度更弱的结果(Bridger & Wilding, 2010; de Chastelaine et al., 2015; de Chastelaine, Wang, Minton, Muftuler, & Rugg, 2011; Geng, Canada, & Riggins, 2018; Kamp, Potts, & Donchin, 2015; Kiefer et al., 2007; Maillet & Rajah, 2014b; Park, Kennedy, Rodrigue, Hebrank, & Park, 2013)。基于此, 本文统一将前一类效应称为正性相继记忆效应, 将后一类效应称为负性相继记忆效应; 若无特殊说明, 此后提及的效应均指正性相继记忆效应(简称相继记忆效应)。

自被提出以来, 相继记忆效应一直备受关注, 且成果层出不穷。国内外研究者已在2007年之前(含2007年)从不同角度较为全面地回顾了围绕该效应的有关研究, 并发表多篇综述(Friedman & Johnson, 2000; Wagner, Koutstaal, & Schacter, 1999; Wilding & Sharpe, 2003; 秦绍正, 韩布新, 罗劲, 2007)。近10年来(2008~2017), 研究者们在顺承先前研究的基础上另辟蹊径, 将围绕相继记忆效应的研究推进到一个新阶段:一方面, 针对编码任务和提取任务的研究不断推陈出新; 另一方面, 针对被试年龄和情绪的研究异军突起(Brehmer, Shing, Heekeren, Lindenberger, & Bäckman, 2016; Bridger & Wilding, 2010; de Chastelaine & Rugg, 2015; Geng et al., 2018; Martínez-Galindo & Cansino, 2015; Park, Uncapher, & Rugg, 2008)。鉴于此, 本文将重点结合近10年来的最新研究成果及相关趋势, 围绕编码任务、提取任务、被试年龄和情绪对相继记忆效应的影响进行回顾和总结, 并结合有关理论加以解释, 以期为今后研究指明方向。

2 编码任务对相继记忆效应的影响

编码任务对相继记忆效应的影响主要体现在加工水平(levels of processing)和目标导向任务(orientating task)两方面, 本节将分别从这两方面加以论述。

2.1 加工水平对相继记忆效应的影响

探究加工水平对相继记忆效应影响的研究思路有:将深编码(deep encoding)与浅编码(shallow encoding)进行比较或在不同深编码条件间进行比较。深编码一般需要被试对学习材料进行更深层次的语义加工, 又称语义编码(semantic encoding); 浅编码通常仅涉及对学习材料知觉特征的加工。加工水平理论指出, 与浅编码相比, 深编码条件的刺激编码痕迹更强且更持久, 从而导致后一条件的相继记忆效应更强(de Chastelaine & Rugg, 2015; Kuo et al., 2012; Park et al., 2008); 不同深编码条件由于语义加工存在差异, 因而诱发的相继记忆效应也不尽相同(Fellner et al., 2013; Kamp et al., 2017; Maillet & Rajah, 2014b)。

比较深编码与浅编码条件的ERP研究为加工水平对相继记忆效应的影响提供可靠证据(de Chastelaine & Rugg, 2015; Kuo et al., 2012; Park et al., 2008)。例如, Kuo等人(2012)比较判断刺激对应客体能否发声(深编码)与判断汉字结构(浅编码)的ERP研究发现, 两种编码条件均记录到反映相继记忆效应的N3 (240~360 ms)、P550 (360~700 ms)和LPC (700~1000 ms)三个成分; N3和LPC在两种编码条件下的强度和头皮分布均有所不同:分布于左下部头皮的N3在浅编码条件更强, LPC在浅编码条件的头皮分布较广、深编码条件仅分布于额区, 且分布于额区的LPC在深编码条件更强。上述结果说明编码任务既可调节早期认知加工, 又有助于将信息整合进入长时记忆, 从而使得深编码条件的刺激痕迹更强更持久, 且深编码任务比浅编码任务对额区的依赖程度更强。

除ERP研究外, fMRI研究同样比较了深编码与浅编码条件下的相继记忆效应异同(de Chastelaine & Rugg, 2015; Park et al., 2008)。比较判断单词是否有生命(深编码)与判断单词音节数(浅编码)两种任务条件下来源提取(source retrieval, 即提取项目的编码背景)的研究显示, 两种条件下腹侧纹外视觉皮层的相继记忆效应相似; 深编码条件的效应还分布于海马、左后侧梭状皮层、内侧和外侧枕叶皮层以及右侧颞-顶皮层等区域, 浅编码条件的效应还分布于右侧枕叶皮层和后侧梭状皮层; 可见, 深编码与浅编码任务存在共享的加工过程, 但深编码任务还关联于与语义加工相关的脑区, 浅编码任务还关联于基于视觉特征进行记忆表征的脑区(Park et al., 2008)。另有研究发现, 指示加工水平的编码线索会影响相继记忆效应的极性, 尽管深编码与浅编码两类线索条件均在双侧前海马记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 但深编码线索在该区域记录到正性相继记忆效应, 浅编码线索则在该区域记录到负性相继记忆效应(de Chastelaine & Rugg, 2015)。

研究还发现, 不同深编码条件的相继记忆效应同样存在差异(Fellner et al., 2013; Kamp et al., 2017; Maillet & Rajah, 2014b)。Kamp等人(2017)比较关系编码(即将两个给定词汇填入句子)与一体化编码(即用两个词汇定义出一个新概念)条件下相继记忆效应的ERP研究发现, 关系编码条件记录到顶区P300 (300~600 ms)和额区慢波(slow wave, 1200~2000 ms)两个成分, 一体化编码条件仅记录到额区慢波成分。Fellner等人(2013)采用EEG神经振荡技术比较生存性编码(即想象自己在荒无人烟且无生存物资的场景下判断每一项目与自身生存的相关性)与生命性编码(即判断每一项目是否有生命)条件下相继记忆效应的研究显示, 生命性编码在alpha (800~2000 ms, 8~12 Hz, 额区、顶区和枕区)、beta1 (300~2000 ms, 15~19 Hz, 中央区和后部区域)和beta2 (0~1500 ms, 23~28 Hz, 后部区域)三个频段记录到反映相继记忆效应的振荡强度减弱, 生存性编码则在alpha (500~1000 ms, 8~12 Hz)和beta1 (0~1000 ms, 15~19 Hz)频段记录到反映相继记忆效应的振荡同步性增强; 由于振荡同步性指示广泛的头皮网络同时参与当前活动, 因此, 上述结果说明生存性编码比生命性编码需要更广泛的头皮网络参与。Maillet和Rajah (2014b)采用fMRI技术比较自我参照编码(即判断词汇是否令人愉悦)与非自我参照编码(即判断词汇是否为人造的)的研究发现, 两类编码条件均在左内侧前额区和左侧角回记录到正性相继记忆效应, 并在后扣带回、右侧前扣带回和右侧颞-顶联合区记录到负性相继记忆效应, 自我参照编码还在左侧前扣带回和双外侧颞叶皮层记录到正性相继记忆效应; 作者认为, 由于上述区域均位于默认模式网络(default mode network), 因此该网络各区域在成功编码过程中的贡献有所不同, 各区域的参与形式依赖于编码任务。

2.2 目标导向任务对相继记忆效应的影响

目标导向任务研究主要通过控制编码的有意性来改变记忆效果。例如, 有意编码与无意编码条件的记忆效果明显不同(Becker et al., 2017), 定向遗忘范式(directed forgetting paradigm)中不同目标导向线索条件的记忆效果也存在差异(Hsieh, Hung, Tzeng, Lee, & Cheng, 2009)。有意编码会让被试明确知道随后将进行记忆测验, 无意编码则并不告知被试随后有相应测验(Becker et al., 2017; Kontaxopoulou et al., 2017)。研究显示, 有意编码(Geng et al., 2018; Liu et al., 2017; Rollins & Riggins, 2018)和无意编码(Fellner et al., 2013; Ghetti, DeMaster, Yonelinas, & Bunge, 2010; Vogelsang et al., 2016)条件均可记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 然而, 近10年来直接比较两类编码条件相继记忆效应的研究并不多。仅有的一项研究比较了两种条件下反映关联再认(associative recognition, 即判断两个或多个不同项目在学习阶段是否共同出现过)的相继记忆效应, 结果显示, 有意编码条件在左前海马和左侧梭状回记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 同时海马与右侧额下回、右侧颞上叶、右侧脑岛间的功能性连接增强也能预测提取结果, 无意编码条件则未记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 说明有意编码条件下海马的激活及海马与其它区域的功能性连接增强可预测关联再认结果(Becker et al., 2017)。

另有研究发现, 在编码项目后呈现的目标导向线索同样可影响相继记忆效应(Hsieh et al., 2009)。Hsieh等人(2009)采用定向遗忘范式以使被试对学习项目形成不同的编码目标, 即在编码阶段逐一呈现项目后, 给出“记住”或“遗忘”提示线索, 以引导被试对给出“记住”线索的项目进行有意编码, 对给出“遗忘”线索的项目进行有意遗忘。结果显示, 尽管两类提示线索下与项目关联的相继记忆效应相似, 但与两类线索关联的相继记忆效应不完全相同:两类线索条件下在线索呈现后200~500 ms的中央区和右半球的相继记忆效应相似, 600~900 ms仅在“记住”线索条件记录到头皮分布较广的相继记忆效应, 说明目标导向线索也可调节相继记忆效应的头皮时空分布。

3 提取任务对相继记忆效应的影响

研究显示, 项目再认(Martínez-Galindo & Cansino, 2015)、线索回忆(Liu et al., 2017)、关联再认(de Chastelaine, Mattson, Wang, Donley, & Rugg, 2016)、来源提取(Geng et al., 2018)以及记得/知道范式(remember/know paradigm) (Rollins & Riggins, 2018)等单一提取任务研究均可记录到显著的相继记忆效应。双重加工模型(dual-process model)指出, 记忆依赖于熟悉(familiarity)和回想(recollection)两种不同的加工过程:熟悉加工相对自动且更快, 无需对与事件关联的背景信息进行有意提取; 回想加工相对较慢, 且需要策略加工、计划和监控等过程参与(Malejka & Bröder, 2016; Ozubko & Seli, 2016; Yonelinas, Aly, Wang, & Koen, 2010)。项目再认和记得/知道范式中的“知道”判断, 更多地依赖于熟悉加工; 项目回忆、关联再认、来源提取和记得/知道范式中的“记得”判断则更多地依赖于回想加工(de Chastelaine et al., 2016; Geng et al., 2018; Martínez-Galindo & Cansino, 2015; Rollins & Riggins, 2018)。关注新/旧效应的研究发现, 熟悉加工与回想加工在提取阶段的神经活动明显不同(Dulas & Duarte, 2013; Hoppstädter, Baeuchl, Diener, Flor, & Meyer, 2015), 那么二者在编码阶段是否就已经产生分离?鉴于此, 本节将基于熟悉和回想加工, 通过总结分析不同提取任务间的相继记忆效应异同, 为上述问题提供肯定答案。

比较项目再认与来源提取条件相继记忆效应的研究得出不完全一致的结果(Geng et al., 2018; Rollins & Riggins, 2013)。Geng等人(2018)发现, 项目再认条件的相继记忆效应包含两个成分:250~700 ms分布于额区和中央区的负成分以及1000~1500 ms头皮分布较广的慢波成分; 来源提取条件仅在1000~1500 ms记录到头皮分布较广的慢波成分, 且前部头皮记录到正性相继记忆效应, 中央区和后部头皮则记录到负性相继记忆效应; 两类任务条件下的慢波成分在中央区和后部头皮极性的差异, 体现了熟悉加工与回想加工在编码阶段的分离(Geng et al., 2018)。Rollins和Riggins (2013)在400~600 ms记录到一个头皮分布较广的正成分, 但该成分仅在项目再认条件显著, 来源提取条件未记录到显著效应。上述研究结果的差异可能与提取的来源不同有关:Geng等人考察的来源是卡通图形, Rollins和Riggins考察的来源则是编码任务。

在同一实验中提取不同来源的研究同样为来源提取任务对相继记忆效应的影响提供可靠证据(Rollins & Wilding, 2010; Estrada-Manilla & Cansino, 2012)。例如, 比较位置来源与编码任务来源提取的研究发现:位置来源提取在300~500 ms和1100~1300 ms两时段记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 且前部头皮为正性效应, 后部头皮为负性效应; 编码任务来源提取在900~1300 ms记录到头皮分布较广的正性相继记忆效应, 作者认为两类来源提取条件在较晚时段的相继记忆效应极性差异说明两类条件的脑内源不同(Bridger & Wilding, 2010)。再如, 与仅成功提取图形颜色来源或仅成功提取图形纹理来源的项目相比, 两种来源均成功提取的项目在1100~2000 ms左侧前额区的相继记忆效应更弱, 说明尽管单来源与双来源提取均依赖于回想加工, 但双来源提取任务的难度更大, 需要更多认知努力和执行控制过程参与(Estrada- Manilla & Cansino, 2012)。

此外, 关联再认与其它提取任务间的相继记忆效应异同也受到关注(Kim, 2011; Wong, de Chastelaine, & Rugg, 2013)。fMRI研究发现, 与项目再认相比, 关联再认在双侧前运动皮层和后顶叶皮层的相继记忆效应更弱; 作者认为, 关联再认条件下的效应较弱是由于上述区域均位于注意网络结构, 当关联项目同时呈现时, 被试需分配注意资源到不同项目, 从而使得各关联项目获得的注意资源较少(Kim, 2011)。比较关联再认与来源提取的研究发现, 两种任务在左侧梭状皮层、左前部内侧颞叶以及左壳核的相继记忆效应相似, 但关联再认还在左额下回记录到相应效应, 位置来源提取则在右侧梭状皮层记录到相应效应, 说明关联再认与来源提取在编码阶段的神经机制不完全一致(Wong et al., 2013)。

记得/知道范式研究中的判断依据是:当被试既能感到自己在编码阶段加工过相应项目又能回想出编码项目的细节信息(如来源信息)时, 即可做出“记得”判断; 当被试仅感到在编码阶段加工过相应项目时则做出“知道”判断(Rollins & Riggins, 2018; Voss & Paller, 2009)。Voss和Paller (2009)发现, “记得”判断比“知道”判断条件的LPC (700~ 900 ms)更强。最新一项研究也记录到类似的LPC (700~900 ms), 且该成分仅在“记得”判断条件显著(Rollins & Riggins, 2018)。上述研究一致表明, 两种条件下LPC的差异可为熟悉加工与回想加工在编码阶段的分离提供证据。

4 年龄对相继记忆效应的影响

双成分框架(two-component framework)指出:情景记忆需要策略成分和联结成分的参与, 两种成分的作用机制有所不同但又相互影响; 策略成分的作用是控制, 主要发生于前额区; 联结成分的作用是绑定不同刺激特征以形成统一表征, 主要发生于内侧颞叶。与成人相比, 儿童由于前额区尚未发育成熟, 策略成分的作用较弱, 因而编码效果较差; 与低龄成人相比, 老人则由于前额区和内侧颞叶功能均有所弱化, 策略成分和联结成分在老人中的作用均较弱, 导致他们的编码效果也较弱(Shing et al., 2010, 2016 )。双成分框架同样为年龄差异对相继记忆效应的影响提供合理解释。迄今为止, 年龄对相继记忆效应的影响研究主要从不同成长阶段的比较以及年龄老化两方面开展。

4.1 相继记忆效应在不同成长阶段的差异显著

ERP和fMRI研究均显示, 儿童与成人的相继记忆效应明显不同(Geng et al., 2018; Ghetti et al., 2010; Rollins & Riggins, 2013, 2018; Shing et al., 2016)。Rollins和Riggins (2013, 2018)通过两项ERP研究比较了儿童与成人的相继记忆效应异同, 但两项研究的结果不完全一致。第一项研究发现, 儿童(平均6.52岁)与成人(平均20.91岁)的相继记忆效应的头皮时空分布和极性均有所不同:儿童在700~900 ms的额区记录到一个负性效应, 成人则在400~600 ms记录到一个头皮分布较广的正性效应(Rollins & Riggins, 2013)。第二项研究采用记得/知道范式, 并选取儿童(平均7.84岁)、青少年(平均12.86岁)和成人(平均20.68岁)三组被试, 结果显示, 三组被试的“记得”判断项目均在700~900 ms记录到一个头皮分布较广的正成分, “知道”判断项目则未记录到任何效应, 说明三组被试在编码阶段预测回想加工的ERP成分相似(Rollins & Riggins, 2018)。Geng等人(2018)发现, 项目再认条件下, 4.0~6.7岁与6.7~8.0岁两组儿童均在250~700 ms的额区和中央区记录到一个负成分(negative component, Nc) (该成分反映记忆对注意的调节), 1000~1500 ms头皮分布较广的慢波成分仅在6.7~8.0岁儿童组出现(该成分反映记忆更新过程); 来源提取条件仅在6.7~8.0岁儿童组记录到头皮分布较广的慢波成分, 这些结果说明儿童编码的神经机制在童年早期就呈现出发展性变化趋势。

fMRI研究同样比较了儿童与成人的相继记忆效应异同(Ghetti et al., 2010; Shing et al., 2016)。例如, Shing等人(2016)发现, 10~12岁儿童与21~26岁成人的相继记忆效应在内侧颞叶相似, 但儿童在前额区的激活更弱, 说明前额区和内侧颞叶在儿童与成人群体成功编码中的贡献有所不同, 儿童需经历由浅入深、由死记硬背到精细编码的策略转变, 同时也需经历由主要依赖于内侧颞叶过渡到依赖于前额区与内侧颞叶协同作用的功能性转变, 符合双成分框架。Ghetti等人(2010)比较8岁儿童、10~11岁儿童、14岁青少年以及大学生的来源提取研究却得出不完全一致的结果:在4组被试的内侧颞叶均记录到与项目再认关联的相继记忆效应, 但仅有青少年和成人在该区域的激活对随后的来源提取具有预测作用, 说明内侧颞叶在成长中发生了结构性转变, 逐渐专职于回想加工, 但也可能是由于内侧颞叶与前额区的功能性连接随年龄增长而有所增强。

4.2 年龄老化对相继记忆效应的影响

总结分析可知, 青年与老人的正性和负性相继记忆效应均有所不同(de Chastelaine et al., 2015; Maillet & Rajah, 2014b; Park et al., 2013)。其中, 负性相继记忆效应通常位于包括内侧前额区、后扣带回、下顶叶和外侧颞叶皮层等在内的网络结构(统称默认模式网络), 该网络结构的激活指示与任务无关的加工, 因此该网络的负性相继记忆效应指示对任务无关加工的抑制, 从而使得认知资源高效应用于目标任务, 以促进成功编码(de Chastelaine et al., 2015; Maillet & Rajah, 2014b; Park et al., 2013)。

词汇研究发现, 青年在默认模式网络记录到负性相继记忆效应, 老人则记录到正性相继记忆效应(de Chastelaine et al., 2011)。de Chastelaine等人(2015)的后续研究发现, 默认模式网络的负性相继记忆效应在青年、中年和老人群体间呈现出随年龄增长而弱化的趋势。图形研究发现, 与视觉空间加工关联的双侧枕-颞-顶区网络的正性相继记忆效应在青年、中年和老人群体间差异显著, 表现出随年龄增长而逐渐弱化的趋势; 顶叶的负性相继记忆效应在前两组被试间相似, 老人群体的效应则明显弱化(Park et al., 2013)。Maillet和Rajah (2014a)的元分析表明, 老人在前额叶和顶叶记录到正性相继记忆效应, 青年则记录到负性相继记忆效应, 两组被试在内侧颞叶的效应相似。上述结果一致说明, 老人抑制任务无关加工的能力明显降低。与上述研究不同, 另有研究发现老人较青年在背内侧前额区的负性相继记忆效应更强, 引起上述差异的可能原因是该研究关注了来源提取条件, 对于老人而言, 来源提取任务更难, 因此需要付出更多努力以抑制任务无关加工; 此外, 青年群体在内侧眶额回记录到正性相继记忆效应, 中年和老人则无相应效应(Cansino et al., 2015)。另有研究发现, 老人与青年对具有社会情感价值信息的编码加工不同(Cassidy, Hedden, Yoon, & Gutchess, 2014)。Cassidy等人采用真假社会性陈述句作为实验材料(例如, 女性比男性的心跳更快, 为真; 男性是女性眨眼频率的两倍, 为假)的研究发现, 青年在背内侧前额区的相继记忆效应比老人更强, 说明青年更关注知识获取; 老人在腹内侧前额区和脑岛的效应更强, 说明老人更关注信息的社会情感价值。

研究还发现, 年龄对相继记忆效应的影响取决于被试的记忆能力(Brehmer et al., 2016; Duverne, Motamedinia, & Rugg, 2009; Park et al., 2013)。例如, 研究显示, 记忆能力均较好的儿童、中年人和老人三组被试的相继记忆效应相似(Brehmer et al., 2016); 记忆能力均较好的青年、中年人与老人的相继记忆效应相似, 但记忆能力均较差的青年、中年人与老人三组被试的负性相继记忆效应随年龄增长而减弱(Park et al., 2013)。青年与再认能力较好老人的相继记忆效应相似, 再认能力较差老人比青年在后扣带回的负性相继记忆效应更弱(Duverne et al., 2009)。

5 情绪对相继记忆效应的影响

情绪对相继记忆效应的影响主要通过如下两个途径实现:一是编码项目具有不同情绪效价, 二是编码背景具有不同情绪效价。

5.1 情绪项目对相继记忆效应的影响

采用词汇、图形和面孔等材料的研究均显示, 与中性项目相比, 情绪项目的相继记忆效应更强(Kamp et al., 2015; Righi et al., 2012; Watts, Buratto, Brotherhood, Barnacle, & Schaefer, 2014; Yick, Buratto, & Schaefer, 2015)。例如, Watts等人(2014)发现, 尽管消极图形和中性图形均在200~400 ms、400~800 ms和800~1500 ms三个时段记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 但消极图形的效应在上述时段的头皮分布均较广; Yick等人(2015)发现, 消极图形在400~1000 ms和1000~1500 ms均记录到头皮分布较广的正成分, 中性图形则无显著效应; Righi等人(2012)发现, 恐惧面孔比中性面孔在350~600 ms的中央区和顶区的相继记忆效应更强。上述研究一致说明, 情绪项目(尤其是消极项目)比中性项目在编码阶段捕获的加工资源更多。

与上述研究不同的是, Galli, Wolpe和Otten (2011)并未记录到情绪项目比中性项目更强的相继记忆效应。他们在编码阶段的所有图形前呈现提示图形情绪效价的线索:积极、中性或消极。结果显示, 三类情绪效价图形在200~600 ms、600~1000 ms和1000~1900 ms三个时段的前部头皮记录到相似的相继记忆效应。作者认为, 导致相继记忆效应不受情绪效价影响的可能原因是, 项目前呈现的提示线索对被试的反应起了诱发作用, 即提前诱发被试进行情绪加工, 导致线索与后续图形编码产生认知资源竞争, 从而削弱图形编码时的认知资源投入。

研究还显示, 积极项目与消极项目的相继记忆效应有所不同(Kamp et al., 2015; Righi et al., 2012)。Kamp等人(2015)的词汇研究发现, 积极和消极词汇均在中央区记录到反映语义加工的N400, 且积极词汇的相继记忆效应为正性、消极词汇的效应为负性; 消极词汇还记录到促进情绪性加工的P300, 说明消极词汇通过促进情绪性加工和语义加工增强编码, 积极词汇则仅通过促进语义加工增强编码。另有研究显示, 恐惧面孔比愉悦面孔在350~600 ms的中央区和顶区的相继记忆效应更强, 说明与积极项目相比, 具有威胁性的项目在编码时能捕获更多加工资源, 从而得到更好的编码(Righi et al., 2012)。

5.2 情绪背景对相继记忆效应的影响

总结分析可知, 情绪背景较中性背景条件下编码项目的相继记忆效应更强(Gärtner & Bajbouj, 2014; Martínez-Galindo & Cansino, 2015), 且积极背景较消极背景条件的相继记忆效应更强(Martínez- Galindo & Cansino, 2015)。情绪等价信息假说(affect-as-information hypothesis)为积极背景较消极背景条件下相继记忆效应更强的结果提供合理解释。该假说认为, 情绪作为一种信息可直接影响个体的编码策略:积极背景可促进关系编码, 使得个体关注目标事件之间的关系; 消极背景则促进项目编码, 易导致被试采用项目特异性加工策略, 更关注目标事件的独特信息(Gärtner & Bajbouj, 2014; Schwarz, 2010)。有关研究为情绪等价信息假说提供可靠证据(Gärtner & Bajbouj, 2014; Martínez- Galindo & Cansino, 2015)。

Gärtner和Bajbouj (2014)通过影片诱发情绪背景, 并比较积极背景与消极背景条件下编码词汇的EEG神经振荡活动, 结果显示:积极背景下, 记住项目较遗忘项目在delta (0~760 ms, 2~8 Hz, 广泛分布)频段的振荡同步性增强; 消极背景下, 记住项目较遗忘项目在beta (360~1480 ms, 16~29 Hz, 额叶)频段的去同步性增强。作者认为, 由于编码阶段神经振荡的同步性与整合不同皮层的输入信息有关, 去同步性则与局部脑区的专门化活动有关, 因此, 上述结果说明积极背景可促进被试采用更精细的关系编码策略, 消极背景则促进被试采用刺激驱动的项目特异性编码策略。

与上述情绪背景诱发方式不同, Martínez- Galindo和Cansino (2015)通过游戏形式诱导被试对编码项目关联出不同的情绪背景, 进而探究背景效价对相继记忆效应的影响。他们首先在编码阶段呈现中性面孔, 随后让被试与每一面孔进行赌博游戏, 即将面孔作为与被试竞争的虚拟对手, 主试通过操纵游戏任务中被试赢或输的概率诱导被试生成与每一面孔关联的积极或消极背景; 同时, 研究还设置了非游戏的中性背景。结果发现, 由于赢了游戏而与积极背景关联的面孔在枕区记录到反映相继记忆效应的N170 (140~200 ms)和P300 (200~500 ms)两个成分, 之后在额区记录到慢波成分(500~1100 ms), 上述三个成分分别反映对面孔的结构加工、知觉加工和精细加工; 由于输了游戏而与消极背景关联的面孔和中性背景条件的面孔均无显著效应。

6 总结与展望

本文通过梳理近10年来的相关研究, 重点回顾了编码任务、提取任务、被试年龄和情绪对相继记忆效应的影响, 进一步为编码能预测提取的观点提供可靠证据, 取得的丰硕成果令人欣喜。然而, 现有研究仍存在诸多不足, 鉴于此, 本文试图从如下几方面对后续研究进行展望。

6.1 整合研究成果

尽管我们已试图对近10年的研究进行全面梳理, 但研究结果的整合并非易事, 其原因有三。第一, 研究结果存在一定差异。例如, 项目再认与来源提取条件的比较研究得出不完全一致的结果(Geng et al., 2018; Rollins & Riggins, 2013), 儿童与成人的比较研究结果也存在差异(Rollins & Riggins, 2013, 2018)。造成不同研究间结果差异的可能原因是多方面的, 除本文重点提及的编码任务、提取任务、被试年龄和情绪外, 提示线索(de Chastelaine & Rugg, 2015; Galli et al., 2011; Hsieh et al., 2009)、刺激材料特性(Kamp et al., 2015; Righi et al., 2012; Yick et al., 2015)等均可影响实验结果。第二, 就ERP研究而言:(1)不同研究关注的成分不完全一致, 仅本文回顾的文献就提及LPC、N170、N3、N400、P300、P550和慢波等多个成分, 另有研究则简单地将相关成分称为正成分和负成分; (2)即便对于同一成分, 各项研究关注的时段也不完全相同, 以LPC为例:Kuo等人(2012)关注了700~1000 ms、Voss和Paller (2009)Rollins和Riggins (2018)则关注了700~900 ms; 以慢波成分为例:Geng等人(2018)关注了1000~ 1500 ms、Kamp等人(2017)关注了1200~2000 ms、Martínez-Galindo和Cansino (2015)则关注了500~1100 ms。第三, fMRI研究涉及的脑区众多, 且相关脑区在编码中的作用迥异; 如默认模式网络包含内侧前额区、后扣带回、下顶叶和外侧颞叶等区域, 且该网络中不同区域在成功编码时的贡献依赖于编码任务(Maillet & Rajah, 2014b)。基于上述分析, 今后研究应秉承求同存异的原则, 通过实验验证先前研究结果差异产生的原因, 进一步梳理ERP研究中各成分的意义及其时段, 并区分fMRI研究中涉及的脑区及其功能。

6.2 完善理论模型

本述评结合加工水平理论、双重加工模型和情绪等价信息假说, 分别为编码任务、提取任务及情绪背景对相继记忆效应的影响提供合理解释; 同时, 不同成长阶段相继记忆效应的发展变化以及年龄老化对相继记忆效应的影响均与双成分框架不谋而合。然而, 现有理论模型还不完善。第一, 研究变量复杂多样, 但相关理论还不够全面。例如, 加工水平理论仅对深编码和浅编码进行区分, 却忽视不同深编码及不同浅编码条件的差异, 因此, 尚不存在能全面揭示加工水平作用效果的理论模型(Fellner et al., 2013; Kamp et al., 2017; Maillet & Rajah, 2014b); 再如, 情绪研究将项目情绪性与背景情绪性割裂开来, 但二者的作用机制是否完全不同?目前尚无对该问题的完美解答。第二, 部分变量作用机制的理论模型仍为空白。例如, 尽管已有研究发现有意编码与无意编码条件的相继记忆效应明显不同(Becker et al., 2017)、情绪项目较中性项目的相继记忆效应更强(Kamp et al., 2015; Righi et al., 2012; Watts et al., 2014; Yick et al., 2015), 但尚未见针对上述目标导向任务和项目情绪性等变量作用机制的理论模型。可见, 围绕独立变量作用机制的理论模型尚显单薄, 且鲜见针对重要变量间交互作用的研究, 因而难以构建能统合所有变量作用效果的理论模型。未来研究应丰富各独立变量的理论解释, 关注变量间的交互作用, 进而从宏观角度构建能统合所有变量作用机制的理论模型。

6.3 挖掘潜在社会因素

近年来, 社会认知已成为认知神经科学领域的研究热点(Sliwa & Freiwald, 2017; Tsoi, Dungan, Waytz, & Young, 2016), 记忆的神经机制研究同样关注到社会因素的作用(Proberbio, La Mastra, & Zani, 2016; Wong et al., 2017)。在相继记忆效应领域, 目前仅有少量研究试图从社会因素角度切入(Cassidy et al., 2014; Martínez-Galindo & Cansino, 2015)。例如, Cassidy等人(2014)采用的研究材料具有一定的社会性, 但该研究并未直接比较社会信息与非社会信息间的相继记忆效应异同; Martínez- Galind和Cansino (2015)采用的面孔材料和游戏范式在一定程度上为探究社会因素对相继记忆效应的影响提供借鉴, 但该研究设置的赌博游戏与真实生活情景仍存在一定差距。鉴于此, 未来研究可从以下两方面展开:(1)扩充刺激材料类型, 如采用与社会图式、社会刻板印象等相关的社会信息为材料, 直接比较社会信息与非社会信息间的相继记忆效应异同; (2)扩充实验范式, 如可通过游戏等范式探究被试在合作和竞争等互动形式下的相继记忆效应。相信结合上述思路, 相继记忆效应研究在未来定能紧随当代认知神经科学的潮流。

6.4 探究个体差异和群体差异

根据前述回顾可知, 针对相继记忆效应的个体差异和群体差异研究多围绕年龄和记忆能力两方面展开(Brehmer et al., 2016; Duverne et al., 2009; Park et al., 2013), 病人等其他群体研究寥寥无几。一项比较健康被试与精神分裂症患者的研究发现, 健康被试在内侧颞叶和梭状皮层均记录到显著的相继记忆效应, 精神分裂症患者仅在梭状皮层记录到相应效应, 但患者在该区域的激活程度更强; 上述结果说明患者可将梭状皮层激活作为功能补偿, 以减少对内侧颞叶的依赖(Collier, Wolf, Valdez, Gur, & Gur, 2014)。主诉健忘(subjective memory complaints)老人与健康老人的比较研究发现, 主诉健忘老人在枕叶、顶上小叶、中央前回和中央后回记录到负性相继记忆效应, 健康老人则在上述区域记录到正性效应, 说明主诉健忘老人比健康老人在编码时将注意资源投入目标任务的能力更低(Hayes et al., 2017)。上述研究对于疾病的预防、诊断和治疗意义重大, 因此今后研究应进一步开展不同病症患者(包括精神分裂症、阿兹海默症、健忘症、脑损伤、焦虑症、抑郁症、创伤后应激障碍等病症患者)与健康群体之间的比较研究。此外, 还应从更多角度丰富个体差异和群体差异研究, 例如, 探究人格特点、受教育程度、心理理论水平和工作记忆能力等因素对相继记忆效应的影响。我们相信, 结合上述角度展开的研究, 必定有助于全面揭示个体和群体等因素影响相继记忆效应的深层机制。

6.5 加强研究成果的应用推广

目前针对相继记忆效应的工作基本停留在实验室研究层面, 其实践应用价值几乎无人问津。鉴于此, 希望相继记忆效应的众多研究者今后至少从如下几方面推广其应用价值:(1)编码任务和提取任务研究可为学习者与教育者提供基于编码和提取的优化记忆方法, 从而达到优化学习和优化教育教学的目的; (2)年龄研究有助于为促进儿童情景记忆发展以及延缓记忆衰老等工作提供科学依据; (3)情绪研究中对情绪项目和情绪背景的关注可在司法领域为包含情绪性事件(如交通事故和杀人)的目击证人证词取证提供参考; (4)通过对病患群体的研究, 不仅可揭示导致患者记忆功能衰减的机制, 还能为疾病的预防、诊断和治疗提供参考。可见, 相继记忆效应研究成果的应用推广是其研究价值的最终体现, 理应成为今后工作中不可或缺的一环。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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URL     PMID:11002349      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract As event-related brain potential (ERP) researchers have increased the number of recording sites, they have gained further insights into the electrical activity in the neural networks underlying explicit memory. A review of the results of such ERP mapping studies suggests that there is good correspondence between ERP results and those from brain imaging studies that map hemodynamic changes. This concordance is important because the combination of the high temporal resolution of ERPs with the high spatial resolution of hemodynamic imaging methods will provide a greatly increased understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the brain networks that encode and retrieve explicit memories. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Galli G., Wolpe N., & Otten L. J . ( 2011).

Sex differences in the use of anticipatory brain activity to encode emotional events

Journal of Neuroscience, 31( 34), 12364-12370.

URL     PMID:3173860      [本文引用: 2]

Women and men differ in the way they experience emotional events. Previous work has indicated that the impact of an emotional event depends on how it is anticipated. Separately, it has been shown that anticipation affects memory formation. Here, we assessed whether anticipatory brain activity influences the encoding of emotional events into long-term memory and, in addition, how biological sex affects the use of such activity. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy men and women while they performed an incidental encoding task (indoor/outdoor judgments) on pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Pictures were preceded by a cue that indicated the valence of the upcoming item. Memory was tested after a 20 min delay with a recognition task incorporating the remember/know procedure. Brain activity before picture onset predicted later memory of an event. Crucially, the role of anticipatory activity depended entirely on the valence of a picture and the sex of an individual. Right-lateralized anticipatory activity selectively influenced the encoding of unpleasant pictures in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that anticipatory processes influence the way in which women encode negative events into memory. The selective use of such activity may indicate that anticipatory activity is one mechanism by which individuals regulate their emotions.

Gao C. J., Hermiller M. S., Voss J. L., & Guo C. Y . ( 2015).

Basic perceptual changes that alter meaning and neural correlates of recognition memory

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 49.

URL     PMID:4324141     

Abstract It is difficult to pinpoint the border between perceptual and conceptual processing, despite their treatment as distinct entities in many studies of recognition memory. For instance, alteration of simple perceptual characteristics of a stimulus can radically change meaning, such as the color of bread changing from white to green. We sought to better understand the role of perceptual and conceptual processing in memory by identifying the effects of changing a basic perceptual feature (color) on behavioral and neural correlates of memory in circumstances when this change would be expected to either change the meaning of a stimulus or to have no effect on meaning (i.e., to influence conceptual processing or not). Abstract visual shapes ("squiggles") were colorized during study and presented during test in either the same color or a different color. Those squiggles that subjects found to resemble meaningful objects supported behavioral measures of conceptual priming, whereas meaningless squiggles did not. Further, changing color from study to test had a selective effect on behavioral correlates of priming for meaningful squiggles, indicating that color change altered conceptual processing. During a recognition memory test, color change altered event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of memory for meaningful squiggles but not for meaningless squiggles. Specifically, color change reduced the amplitude of frontally distributed N400 potentials (FN400), implying that these potentials indicated conceptual processing during recognition memory that was sensitive to color change. In contrast, color change had no effect on FN400 correlates of recognition for meaningless squiggles, which were overall smaller in amplitude than for meaningful squiggles (further indicating that these potentials signal conceptual processing during recognition). Thus, merely changing the color of abstract visual shapes can alter their meaning, changing behavioral and neural correlates of memory. These findings are relevant to understanding similarities and distinctions between perceptual and conceptual processing as well as the functional interpretation of neural correlates of recognition memory.

Gärtner M., & Bajbouj, M. ( 2014).

Encoding-related EEG oscillations during memory formation are modulated by mood state

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscence, 9( 12), 1934-1941.

URL     PMID:24464848      [本文引用: 4]

Mood states have a strong impact on how we process incoming information. It has been proposed that positive mood facilitates elaborative, relational encoding, whereas negative mood promotes a more careful, stimulus-driven encoding style. Previous electrophysiological studies have linked successful information encoding to power increases in slow (30 Hz) gamma oscillations, as well as to power decreases in midrange (8-30 Hz) alpha/beta oscillations. Whether different mood states modulate encoding-related oscillations has not been investigated yet. In order to address this question, we used an experimental mood induction procedure and recorded electroencephalograms from 20 healthy participants while they performed a free recall memory task after positive and negative mood induction. We found distinct oscillatory patterns in positive and negative mood. Successful encoding in positive mood was accompanied by widespread power increases in the delta band, whereas encoding success in negative mood was specifically accompanied by frontal power decreases in the beta band. On the behavioral level, memory performance was enhanced in positive mood. Our findings show that mood differentially modulates the neural correlates of successful information encoding and thus contribute to an understanding of how mood shapes different processing styles.

Geng F., Canada K., & Riggins T . ( 2018).

Age- and performance-related differences in encoding during early childhood: Insights from event-related potentials

Memory, 26( 4), 451-461.

URL     [本文引用: 12]

Ghetti S., DeMaster D. M., Yonelinas A. P., & Bunge S. A . ( 2010).

Developmental differences in medial temporal lobe function during memory encoding

Journal of Neuroscience, 30( 28), 9548-9556.

URL     PMID:2937832      [本文引用: 4]

The ability to recollect details about past events improves during childhood. Most researchers favor the view that this improvement depends largely on the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is thought to have a protracted course of development relative to the medial temporal lobes (MTL). The primary goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the development of detail recollection is also associated with changes in MTL function. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data during an incidental encoding task in 80 participants, divided equally across four age groups: 8-year-olds, 10- to 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and young adults. Developmental differences in MTL activation profiles were observed. Fourteen-year-olds and adults engaged regions of the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus selectively for subsequent detail recollection, whereas 8- and 10- to 11-year-olds did not. In 8-year-olds, these regions were recruited indiscriminately for detail recollection and item recognition; in 10- to 11-year-olds, activation in these regions did not consistently predict subsequent memory. These results suggest there are changes in the functional organization of the MTL, such that the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus become increasingly specialized for recollection; these changes may be in part responsible for long-term memory improvements during childhood.

Guo C., Duan L., Li W., & Paller K. A . ( 2006).

Distinguishing source memory and item memory: Brain potentials at encoding and retrieval

Brain Research, 1118( 1), 142-154.

URL     PMID:16978588     

Vivid memory for an episode generally includes memory for a central object or event plus memory for background context or source information. To assess neural differences between source and item memory, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to monitor relevant memory processes at both encoding and retrieval. Participants fluent in Chinese studied Chinese words superimposed on a square or circular background during the study phase, followed by a 1-min delay. Then, memory was tested for both the words (items) and the corresponding background (source), or, in other blocks, tested for the words alone. ERPs to study-phase words differed as a function of whether the word was later remembered. These Dm effects in the interval from 400 to 600 ms, however, did not differ according to whether or not source was remembered. In contrast, ERPs to test-phase words showed clear old/new effects that did differ across conditions. When both item and source were remembered accurately, old/new effects emerged earlier and were larger in amplitude than when source memory was either incorrect or not queried. These results demonstrate that encoding processes indexed by ERPs may have primarily reflected encoding of the visual and semantic properties of these words, stressing item memory over source memory. Retrieval processes indexed by ERPs, in contrast, likely reflected a combination of item retrieval, source retrieval, and related processing engaged when people were remembering words seen earlier.

Hanslmayr S., & Staudigl, T. ( 2014).

How brain oscillations form memories — A processing based perspective on oscillatory subsequent memory effects

NeuroImage, 85, 648-655.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hayes J. M., Tang L., Viviano R. P., Rooden V. S., Ofen N., & Damoiseaux J. S . ( 2017).

Subjective memory complaints are associated with brain activation supporting successful memory encoding

Neurobiology of Aging, 60, 71-80.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hoppstädter M., Baeuchl C., Diener C., Flor H., & Meyer P . ( 2015).

Simultaneous EEG-fMRI reveals brain networks underlying recognition memory ERP old/new effects

NeuroImage, 116, 112-122.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hsieh L. T., Hung D. L., Tzeng O. J. L., Lee J. R., & Cheng S . ( 2009).

An event-related potential investigation of the processing of remember/forget cues and item encoding in item-method directed forgetting

Brain Research, 1250, 190-201.

[本文引用: 4]

Kamp S. M., Bader R., & Mecklinger A . ( 2017).

ERP subsequent memory effects differ between inter-item and unitization encoding tasks

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 30.

URL     PMID:5403928      [本文引用: 7]

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often develop reduced passive range of motion with age. The determining factor underlying this process is believed to be progressive development of contracture in skeletal muscle that likely changes the biomechanics of the joints. Consequently, to identify the underlying mechanisms, we modeled the mechanical characteristics of the forearm flexors acting across the wrist joint. We investigated skeletal muscle strength (Grippit03) and passive stiffness and viscosity of the forearm flexors in 15 typically developing (TD) children (10 boys/5 girls, mean age 12 years, range 8–18 yrs) and nine children with CP Nine children (6 boys/3 girls, mean age 11 ± 3 years (yrs), range 7–15 yrs) using the NeuroFlexor03 apparatus. The muscle stiffness we estimate and report is the instantaneous mechanical response of the tissue that is independent of reflex activity. Furthermore, we assessed cross-sectional area of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle using ultrasound. Age and body weight did not differ significantly between the two groups. Children with CP had a significantly weaker (6165%,p< 0.01) grip and had smaller cross-sectional area (6143%,p< 0.01) of the FCR muscle. Passive stiffness of the forearm muscles in children with CP was increased 2-fold (p< 0.05) whereas viscosity did not differ significantly between CP and TD children. FCR cross-sectional area correlated to age (R2= 0.58,p< 0.01), body weight (R2= 0.92,p< 0.0001) and grip strength (R2= 0.82,p< 0.0001) in TD children but only to grip strength (R2= 0.60,p< 0.05) in children with CP. We conclude that children with CP have weaker, thinner, and stiffer forearm flexors as compared to typically developing children.

Kamp S. M., Potts G. F., & Donchin E . ( 2015).

On the roles of distinctiveness and semantic expectancies in episodic encoding of emotional words

Psychophysiology, 52( 12), 1599-1609.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Kiefer M., Schuch S., Schenck W., & Fiedler K . ( 2007).

Emotion and memory: Event-related potential indices predictive for subsequent successful memory depend on the emotional mood state

Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 3( 3), 363-373.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Kim H., ( 2011).

Neural activity that predicts subsequent memory and forgetting: A meta-analysis of 74 fMRI studies

NeuroImage, 54, 2446-2461.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Kontaxopoulou D., Beratis I. N., Fragkiadaki S., Pavlou D., Yannis G., Economou A., .. Papageorgiou S. G . ( 2017).

Incidental and intentional memory: Their relation with attention and executive functions

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 32( 5), 519-532.

URL     PMID:28383645      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of gender and age on incidental and intentional memory in healthy participants and to explore the strength of the association of incidental and intentional memory with attentional and executive functioning. Method: A total number of 47 participants underwent a driving simulation experiment and went through detailed neuropsychological testing. Incidental memory was assessed with a questionnaire that evaluated the memorization of information related to the driving simulator task while intentional memory was assessed using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: The analysis revealed a greater impact of age on incidental as compared to intentional memory. Gender did not appear to have such an effect on either incidental or intentional memory. Finally, attentional and executive functioning were more strongly associated with incidental memory than the intentional memory measures that were utilized in the current study. Conclusions: Ageing appears to affect incidental rather than intentional memory to a greater extent. In addition, attentional and executive functioning seem to play a more important role in incidental than intentional encoding and consolidation processes.

Kuo M. C. C., Liu K. P. Y., Ting K. H ., & Chan, C. C. H. ( 2012).

Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm

Brain Research, 1486, 82-91.

[本文引用: 5]

Leventon J. S., & Bauer, P. J . ( 2016).

Emotion regulation during the encoding of emotional stimuli: Effects on subsequent memory

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 142, 312-333.

URL     PMID:26597138     

In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Furthermore, we implemented a reappraisal instruction to manipulate (down-regulate) emotional arousal at encoding to examine the relation between emotional arousal and subsequent memory. Participants (8-year-old girls) viewed emotional scenes as electrophysiological (EEG) data were recorded and participated in a memory task 1 to 5days later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. The reappraisal instruction successfully reduced emotional arousal responses to negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. Similarly, recognition performance in both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavior was impaired for reappraised negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. The findings indicate that ERPs are sensitive to the reappraisal of negative stimuli in children as young as 8years. Furthermore, the findings suggest an interaction of emotion and memory during the school years, implicating the explanatory role of emotional arousal at encoding on subsequent memory performance in female children as young as 8years.

Liang J. C., & Preston, A. R . ( 2017).

Medial temporal lobe reinstatement of content-specific details predicts source memory

Cortex, 91, 67-78.

URL     PMID:28029355     

Abstract Leading theories propose that when remembering past events, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures reinstate the neural patterns that were active when those events were initially encoded. Accurate reinstatement is hypothesized to support detailed recollection of memories, including their source. While several studies have linked cortical reinstatement to successful retrieval, indexing reinstatement within the MTL network and its relationship to memory performance has proved challenging. Here, we addressed this gap in knowledge by having participants perform an incidental encoding task, during which they visualized people, places, and objects in response to adjective cues. During a surprise memory test, participants saw studied and novel adjectives and indicated the imagery task they performed for each adjective. A multivariate pattern classifier was trained to discriminate the imagery tasks based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses from hippocampus and MTL cortex at encoding. The classifier was then tested on MTL patterns during the source memory task. We found that MTL encoding patterns were reinstated during successful source retrieval. Moreover, when participants made source misattributions, errors were predicted by reinstatement of incorrect source content in MTL cortex. We further observed a gradient of content-specific reinstatement along the anterior-posterior axis of hippocampus and MTL cortex. Within anterior hippocampus, we found that reinstatement of person content was related to source memory accuracy, whereas reinstatement of place information across the entire hippocampal axis predicted correct source judgments. Content-specific reinstatement was also graded across MTL cortex, with PRc patterns evincing reactivation of people and more posterior regions, including PHc, showing evidence for reinstatement of places and objects. Collectively, these findings provide key evidence that source recollection relies on reinstatement of past experience within the MTL network. Copyright 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu Y., Rosburg T., Gao C., Weber C., & Guo C . ( 2017).

Differentiation of subsequent memory effects between retrieval practice and elaborative study

Biological Psychology, 127, 134-147.

URL     PMID:28552619      [本文引用: 4]

Retrieval practice enhances memory retention more than re-studying. The underlying mechanisms of this retrieval practice effect have remained widely unclear. According to the elaborative retrieval hypothesis, activation of elaborative information occurs to a larger extent during testing than re-studying. In contrast, the episodic context account has suggested that recollecting prior episodic information (especially the temporal context) contributes to memory retention. To adjudicate the distinction between these two accounts, the present study used the classical retrieval practice effect paradigm to compare retrieval practice and elaborative study. In an initial behavioral experiment, retrieval practice produced greater retention than elaboration and re-studying in a one-week delayed test. In a subsequent event-related potential (ERP) experiment, retrieval practice resulted in reliably superior accuracy in the delayed test compared to elaborative study. In the ERPs, a frontally distributed subsequent memory effect (SME), starting at 300 ms, occurred in the elaborative study condition, but not in the retrieval practice condition. A parietal SME emerged in the retrieval practice condition from 500 to 700 ms, but was absent in the elaborative study condition. After 700 ms, a late SME was present in the retrieval practice condition, but not in the elaborative study condition. Moreover, SMEs lasted longer in retrieval practice than in elaboration. The frontal SME in the elaborative study condition might be related to semantic processing or working memory-based elaboration, whereas the parietal and widespread SME in the retrieval practice condition might be associated with episodic recollection processes. These findings contradict the elaborative retrieval theory, and suggest that contextual recollection rather than activation of semantic information contributes to the retrieval practice effect, supporting the episodic context account.

Maillet D., & Rajah, M. N . ( 2014 a).

Age-related differences in brain activity in the subsequent memory paradigm: A meta-analysis

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 45, 246-257.

URL     PMID:24973756      [本文引用: 1]

Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. This reduction is thought to be due in part to age-related differences in encoding-related processes. In the current study, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies assessing age-related differences in the neural correlates of episodic encoding. Only studies using the subsequent memory paradigm were included. We found age-related under-recruitment of occipital and fusiform cortex, but over-recruitment in a set of regions including bilateral middle/superior frontal gyri, anterior medial frontal gyrus, precuneus and left inferior parietal lobe. We demonstrate that all of the regions consistently over-recruited by older adults during successful encoding exhibit either direct overlap, or occur in close vicinity to regions consistently involved in unsuccessful encoding in young adults. We discuss the possibility that this overall pattern of age-related differences represents an age-related shift in focus: away from perceptual details, and toward evaluative and personal thoughts and feelings during memory tasks. We discuss whether these age-related differences in brain activation benefit performance in older adults, and additional considerations.

Maillet D., & Rajah, M. N . ( 2014 b).

Dissociable roles of default-mode regions during episodic encoding

NeuroImage, 89, 244-255.

URL     PMID:24315838      [本文引用: 8]

We investigated the role of distinct regions of the default-mode network (DMN) during memory encoding with fMRI. Subjects encoded words using either a strategy that emphasized self-referential (pleasantness) processing, or one that emphasized semantic (man-made/natural) processing. During encoding subjects were intermittently presented with thought probes to evaluate if they were concentrated and on-task or exhibiting task-unrelated thoughts (TUT). After the scanning session subjects performed a source retrieval task to determine which of two judgments they performed for each word at encoding. Source retrieval accuracy was higher for words encoded with the pleasantness vs. the man-made/natural task and there was a trend for higher performance for words preceding on-task vs. TUT reports. fMRI results show that left anterior medial PFC and left angular gyrus activity was greater during successful vs. unsuccessful encoding during both encoding tasks. Greater activity in left anterior cingulate and bilateral lateral temporal cortex was related successful vs. unsuccessful encoding only in the pleasantness task. In contrast, posterior cingulate, right anterior cingulate and right temporoparietal junction were activated to a greater extent in unsuccessful vs. successful encoding across tasks. Finally, activation in posterior cingulate and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was related to TUT across tasks; moreover, we observed a conjunction in posterior cingulate between encoding failure and TUT. We conclude that DMN regions play dissociable roles during memory formation, and that their association with subsequent memory may depend on the manner in which information is encoded and retrieved.

Malejka S., & Bröder, A. ( 2016).

No source memory for unrecognized items when implicit feedback is avoided

Memory & Cognition, 44, 63-72.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In a recent empirical study, Starns, Hicks, Brown, and Martin ( Memory & Cognition , 36, 1–8 2008 ) collected source judgments for old items that participants had claimed to be new and found residual source discriminability depending on the old-new response bias. The authors interpreted their finding as evidence in favor of the bivariate signal-detection model, but against the two-high-threshold model of item/source memory. According to the latter, new responses only follow from the state of old-new uncertainty for which no source discrimination is possible, and the probability of entering this state is independent of the old-new response bias. However, when missed old items were presented for source discrimination, the participants could infer that the items had been previously studied. To test whether this implicit feedback led to second retrieval attempts and thus to source memory for presumably unrecognized items, we replicated Starns et al.’s ( Memory & Cognition , 36, 1–8 2008 ) finding and compared their procedure to a procedure without such feedback. Our results challenge the conclusion to abandon discrete processing in source memory; source memory for unrecognized items is probably an artifact of the procedure, by which implicit feedback prompts participants to reconsider their recognition judgment when asked to rate the source of old items in the absence of item memory.

Martínez-Galindo J. G., & Cansino, S. ( 2015).

Positive and negative emotional contexts unevenly predict episodic memory

Behavioural Brain Research, 291, 89-102.

URL     PMID:26003944      [本文引用: 11]

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the recognition of faces with neutral expressions differs when they are encoded under different emotional contexts (positive, negative or non-emotional). The effects of the emotional valence context on the subsequent memory effect (SME) and the autonomic responses were also examined. Twenty-eight participants performed a betting-game task in which the faces of their virtual opponents were presented in each trial. The probability of winning or losing was manipulated to generate positive or negative contexts, respectively. Additionally, the participants performed the same task without betting as a non-emotional condition. After the encoding phase, an old/new paradigm was performed for the faces of the virtual opponents. The recognition was superior for the faces encoded in the positive contexts than for the faces encoded in the non-emotional contexts. The skin conductance response amplitude was equivalent for both of the emotional contexts. The N170 and P300 components at occipital sites and the frontal slow wave manifested SMEs that were modulated by positive contexts; neither negative nor non-emotional contexts influenced these effects. The behavioral and neurophysiological data demonstrated that positive contexts are stronger predictors of episodic memory than negative or non-emotional contexts.

Nie A., Guo C., Wu Y., Qu N., & Ding J . ( 2004).

Picture encoding and retrieval: An event-related potential study

Chinese Science Bulletin, 49( 20), 2148-2154.

URL    

Osipova D., Takashima A., Oostenveld R., Fernández G., Maris E., & Jensen O . ( 2006).

Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory

Journal of Neuroscience, 26( 28), 7523-7531.

URL     PMID:16837600      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a magnetoencephalography study using pictorial stimuli, we have now identified oscillatory activity in the gamma (60-90 Hz) and theta (4.5-8.5 Hz) band during declarative memory operations in healthy participants. Both theta and gamma activity was stronger for the later remembered compared with the later forgotten items (the "subsequent memory effect"). In the retrieval session, theta and gamma activity was stronger for recognized items compared with correctly rejected new items (the "old/new effect"). The gamma activity was also stronger for recognized compared with forgotten old items (the "recognition effect"). The effects in the theta band were observed over right parietotemporal areas, whereas the sources of the effects in the gamma band were identified in Brodmann area 18/19. We propose that the theta activity is directly engaged in mnemonic operations. The increase in neuronal synchronization in the gamma band in occipital areas may result in a stronger drive to subsequent areas, thus facilitating both memory encoding and retrieval. Alternatively, the gamma synchronization might reflect representations being reinforced by top-down activity from higher-level memory areas. Our results provide additional insight on human declarative memory operations and oscillatory brain activity that complements previous electrophysiological and brain imaging studies.

Ozubko J. D., & Sel, P. ( 2016).

Forget all that nonsense: The role of meaning during the forgetting of recollective and familiarity-based memories

Neuropsychologia, 90, 136-147.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Paller K. A., Kutas M., & Mayes A. R . ( 1987).

Neural correlates of encoding in an incidental learning paradigm

Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 67( 4), 360-371.

URL     PMID:2441971      [本文引用: 2]

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an incidental learning paradigm. Recall and recognition were better for words initially presented in tasks requiring semantic decisions (i.e., ‘is it living?’ or ‘is it edible?’) than for words in tasks requiring non-semantic decisions. ERPs elicited during performance of these tasks were predictive of subsequent memory performance. A late positive ERP elicited by words later recalled or recognized was larger than that elicited by words later forgotten. This enhanced positivity for to-be-remembered words could be accounted for, in part, by the fact that words in semantic tasks were remembered better and elicited larger ERPs than did words in non-semantic tasks. Similarly, words followed by affirmative rather than negative decisions were associated both with better recognition and with larger ERPs. However, ERPs were sensitive to processes that influenced later memory performance even within an individual semantic task and within the affirmative decision condition. In addition, results showed that the ERP differences base on later memory performance did not necessarily arise from amplitude variation in P3 waves that occurred at the same time.

Park H., Kennedy K. M., Rodrigue K. M., Hebrank A., & Park D. C . ( 2013).

An fMRI study of episodic encoding across the lifespan: Changes in subsequent memory effects are evident by middle-age

Neuropsychologia, 51( 3), 448-456.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

Park H., Uncapher M. R ., & Rugg, A. M. D. ( 2008).

Effects of study task on the neural correlates of source encoding

Learning & Memory, 15( 6), 417-425.

URL     PMID:2414252      [本文引用: 5]

The present study investigated whether the neural correlates of source memory vary according to study task. Subjects studied visually presented words in one of two background contexts. In each test, subjects made old/new recognition and source memory judgments. In one study test cycle, study words were subjected to animacy judgments, whereas in another cycle the study task required syllable judgments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to contrast the neural activity elicited by study words that attracted accurate source judgments on the later memory test, as opposed to words for which source judgments were incorrect or for which source information was unavailable. In both tasks, relative to words for which source memory failed, study words that were later assigned to the correct source elicited enhanced activity in ventral extrastriate cortex. In addition to these common effects of subsequent source memory, additional effects were observed that were selective for each study task. The present findings add weight to the proposal that neural activity supporting successful episodic memory encoding is a reflection of both the online processing engaged by an episode as it is experienced, and the demands imposed by the later retrieval task.

Proberbio A. M., La Mastra F., & Zani A . ( 2016).

How negative social bias affects memory for faces: An electrical neuroimaging study

PLoS One, 11( 9), e0162671.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Righi S., Marzi T., Toscani M., Baldassi S., Ottonello S., & Viggiano M. P . ( 2012).

Fearful expressions enhance recognition memory: Electrophysiological evidence

Acta Psychologica, 139( 1), 7-18.

URL     PMID:22036588      [本文引用: 6]

Overall, these results suggest that face recognition is modulated by top-down influences from brain areas associated with emotional memory, enhancing encoding and retrieval in particular for fearful emotional expressions.

Rollins L., & Riggins, T. ( 2013).

Developmental changes in memory encoding: Insights from event-related potentials

Developmental Science, 16( 4), 599-609.

URL     PMID:23786477      [本文引用: 7]

The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes between 6-year-old children and adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although episodic memory (090004EM090005) effects have been reported in both children and adults at retrieval and subsequent memory effects have been established in adults, no previous ERP studies have examined subsequent memory effects in children. This represents a critical gap in the literature because encoding processes, and changes in neural correlates supporting encoding, partially account for age-related improvements in children's memory performance. Results revealed that subsequent memory effects differed between children and adults temporally, directionally, and topographically. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that encoding processes and their neural correlates are an important source of change in memory development.A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://youtu.be/sH83_qVimgc.

Rollins L., & Riggins, T. ( 2018).

Age-related differences in subjective recollection: ERP studies of encoding and retrieval

Developmental Science, 21( 3), e12583.

URL     PMID:28677331      [本文引用: 9]

Abstract The ability to mentally re-experience past events improves significantly from childhood to young adulthood; however, the mechanisms underlying this ability remain poorly understood, partially because different tasks are used across the lifespan. This study was designed to address this gap by assessing the development of event-related potential (ERP) correlates associated with subjective indices of recollection. Children, adolescents, and adults performed Tulving's () remember/know paradigm while ERPs were recorded during memory encoding (Experiment 1) and retrieval (Experiment 2). Behaviorally, children recognized fewer items than adolescents and adults. All age groups reliably made subjective judgments of recollection, although the ability to make these judgments improved with age. At encoding, the ERP effect associated with recollection was present and comparable across age groups. In contrast, the ERP effect associated with recollection at retrieval differed as a function of age group; specifically, this effect was absent in children, topographically widespread in adolescents, and, consistent with previous literature, maximal over left centro-parietal leads in adults. These findings suggest that encoding processes associated with the subsequent subjective experience of recollection may be similar among children, adolescents, and adults and that age-related improvement in recollection may be primarily attributable to the development of processes that follow the initial encoding of stimuli (i.e., consolidation, storage, retrieval). 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ross R. S., Medrano P., Boyle K., Smolen A., Curran T., & Nyhus E . ( 2015).

Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene influences ERP old/new effects during recognition memory

Neuropsychologia, 78, 95-107.

URL    

Sanquist T. F., Rohrbaugh J. W., Syndulko K., & Lindsey D. B . ( 1980).

Electrocortical signs of levels of processing: Perceptual analysis and recognition memory

Psychophysiology, 17( 6), 568-576.

URL     PMID:7443924      [本文引用: 2]

The electrocortical manifestations of levels of perceptual processing and memory performance were investigated by recording event related potentials (ERPs) during a verbal comparison task and a subsequent test of recognition memory. Two words were judged, on each trial, to be the same or different according to an orthographic, phonemic, or semantic criterion. Orthographic processing of words led to poor performance on a test of recognition memory whereas phonemic and semantic processing led to increasingly better performance. "Same" judgments led to better memory performance for phonemically and semantically processed items. The ERP waveforms included a late positive component (LPC) and a slow wave, both of which were responsive to the comparison criterion and the type of judgment. Further, the LPC appeared to index recognition accuracy in the memory test. The ERP data are interpreted as reflecting associative activation in the human memory system.

Schwarz N., ( 2010).

Feelings-as-information theory

In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology( pp. 289-308). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

[本文引用: 1]

Shing Y. L., Brehmer Y., Heekeren H. R., Bäckman L., & Lindenberger U . ( 2016).

Neural activation patterns of successful episodic encoding: Reorganization during childhood, maintenance in old age

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 59-69.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Shing Y. L., Werkle-Bergner M., Brehmer Y., Müller V., Li S. C., & Lindenberger U . ( 2010).

Episodic memory across the lifespan: The contributions of associative and strategic components

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34( 7), 1080-1091.

URL     PMID:19896974      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The structural and functional brain circuitries supporting episodic memory undergo profound reorganization in childhood and old age. We propose a two-component framework that combines and integrates evidence from child development and aging. It posits that episodic memory builds on two interacting components: (a) the strategic component, which refers to memory control operations, and (b) the associative component, which refers to mechanisms that bind different features of a memory episode into a compound representation. We hypothesize that: (a) children's difficulties in episodic memory primarily originate from low levels of strategic operations, and reflect the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC); (b) deficits in episodic memory performance among older adults originate from impairments in both strategic and associative components, reflecting senescent changes in the PFC and the medio-temporal lobes (MTL). Initial behavioral and neural evidence is consistent with both hypotheses. The two-component framework highlights the specificities of episodic memory in different age periods, helps to identify and dissociate its components, and contributes to understanding the interplay among maturation, learning, and senescence. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sliwa J., & Freiwald, W. A . ( 2017).

A dedicated network for social interaction processing in the primate brain

Science, 356, 745-749.

URL     PMID:5540642      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Primate cognition requires interaction processing. Interactions can reveal otherwise hidden properties of intentional agents, such as thoughts and feelings, and of inanimate objects, such as mass and material. Where and how interaction analyses are implemented in the brain is unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain. Two additional networks, a parieto-premotor and a temporal one, exhibited both social and physical interaction preference, which, in the temporal lobe, mapped onto a fine-grain pattern of object, body, and face selectivity. Extent and location of a dedicated system for social interaction analysis suggest that this function is an evolutionary forerunner of human mind-reading capabilities. Copyright 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Tsoi L., Dungan J., Waytz A., & Young L . ( 2016).

Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition

NeuroImage, 137, 86-96.

URL     PMID:27165762      [本文引用: 1]

How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts.

Vogelsang D. A., Bonnici H. M., Bergström Z. M., Ranganath C., & Simons J. S . ( 2016).

Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new “foil” information

Neuropsychologia, 89, 356-363.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Voss J. L., & Paller, K. A . ( 2009).

Remembering and knowing: Electrophysiological distinctions at encoding but not retrieval

NeuroImage, 46, 280-289.

URL     PMID:19457375      [本文引用: 4]

Contemporary memory theories often distinguish between contextual recollection and acontextual familiarity as two fundamentally different types of recognition memory. It is currently unclear whether recollection and familiarity are supported by two correspondingly distinct retrieval mechanisms, or whether the same type of retrieval processing supports both phenomena. Electrophysiological findings in humans have widely been cited as support for the former, two-process position, in that late-onset parietal “LPC” potentials have been linked to recollection and earlier frontal “FN400” potentials to familiarity. However, recognition memory is generally studied using conceptually rich stimuli such as words, which leaves open an alternative interpretation that one or both of these electrophysiological signals reflect conceptual processing distinct from recollection and familiarity per se. We tested this hypothesis using conceptually impoverished kaleidoscope images, such that opportunities for conceptual processing were minimized. Recollection-based and familiarity-based recognition in a remember/know paradigm were both indexed by LPC potentials. Old/new amplitude differences were greater for recollection compared to familiarity. Despite ample familiarity-based recognition, FN400 old/new effects were not observed, consistent with the contention that these potentials index conceptual processing rather than familiarity. These results cast doubt on interpretations of prior electrophysiological evidence obtained using conceptually rich stimuli as dissociating neural mechanisms of recollection and familiarity. We also found that neural events during encoding differentially predicted later recollection versus later familiarity. Collectively, these findings suggest that the engagement of distinct encoding processes can preferentially lead to recollection or to familiarity even if one type of retrieval process is responsible for both memory expressions.

Wagner A. D., Koutstaal W., & Schacter D. L . ( 1999).

When encoding yields remembering: Insights from event- related neuroimaging

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 354( 1387), 1307-1324.

URL     PMID:1692641      [本文引用: 1]

To understand human memory, it is important to determine why some experiences are remembered whereas others are forgotten. Until recently, insights into the neural bases of human memory encoding, the processes by which information is transformed into an enduring memory trace, have primarily been derived from neuropsychological studies of humans with select brain lesions. The advent of functional neuroimaging methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has provided a new opportunity to gain additional understanding of how the brain supports memory formation. Importantly, the recent development of event-related fMRI methods now allows for examination of trial-by-trial differences in neural activity during encoding and of the consequences of these differences for later remembering. In this review, we consider the contributions of PET and fMRI studies to the understanding of memory encoding, placing a particular emphasis on recent event-related fMRI studies of the Dm effect: that is, differences in neural activity during encoding that are related to differences in subsequent memory. We then turn our attention to the rich literature on the Dm effect that has emerged from studies using event-related potentials (ERPs). It is hoped that the integration of findings from ERP studies, which offer higher temporal resolution, with those from event-related fMRI studies, which offer higher spatial resolution, will shed new light on when and why encoding yields subsequent remembering.

Watts S., Buratto L. G., Brotherhood E. V., Barnacle G. E., & Schaefer A . ( 2014).

The neural fate of neutral information in emotion-enhanced memory

Psychophysiology, 51( 7), 673-684.

URL     PMID:24673606      [本文引用: 3]

In this study, we report evidence that neural activity reflecting the encoding of emotionally neutral information in memory is reduced when neutral and emotional stimuli are intermixed during encoding. Specifically, participants studied emotional and neutral pictures organized in mixed lists (in which emotional and neutral pictures were intermixed) or in pure lists (only‐neutral or only‐emotional pictures) and performed a recall test. To estimate encoding efficiency, we used the Dm effect, measured with event‐related potentials. Recall for neutral items was lower in mixed compared to pure lists and posterior Dm activity for neutral items was reduced in mixed lists, whereas it remained robust in pure lists. These findings might be caused by an asymmetrical competition for attentional and working memory resources between emotional and neutral information, which could be a major determinant of emotional memory effects.

Wilding E. L. , & Sharpe, H. ( 2003) .

Episodic memory encoding and retrieval: Recent insights from event-related potentials

In A. Zani, A. M. Proverbio, & M. I. Posner (Eds.), The cognitive electrophysiology of mind and brain (pp. 169-196). San Diego: Academic Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Wong J. X., de Chastelaine M., & Rugg M. D . ( 2013).

Comparison of the neural correlates of encoding item-item and item-context associations

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 436.

URL     PMID:3743067      [本文引用: 2]

fMRI was employed to investigate the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in the encoding of item-item and item-context associations. On each of a series of study trials subjects viewed a picture that was presented either to the left or right of fixation, along with a subsequently presented word that appeared at fixation. Memory was tested in a subsequent memory test that took place outside of the scanner. On each test trial one of two forced choice judgments was required. For the associative test, subjects chose between the word paired with the picture at study and a word studied on a different trial. For the source test, the judgment was whether the picture had been presented on the left or right. Successful encoding of associative information was accompanied by subsequent memory effects in several cortical regions, including much of the LIFG. By contrast, successful source encoding was selectively associated with a subsequent memory effect in right fusiform cortex. The finding that the LIFG was enhanced during successful associative, but not source, encoding is interpreted in light of the proposal that subsequent memory effects are localized to cortical regions engaged by the on-line demands of the study task.

Wong S., Irish M., O’Callaghan C., Kumfor F., Savage G., Hodges J. R., .. Hornberger M . ( 2017).

Should I trust you? Learning and memory of social interactions in dementia

Neuropsychologia, 104, 157-167.

URL     PMID:28811259      [本文引用: 1]

Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neural substrates underpinning performance in 14 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. On a “trust game” task, participants invested virtual money with counterparts who acted either in a trustworthy or untrustworthy manner over repeated interactions. A non-social “lottery” condition was also included. Participants’ learning of trust/distrust responses and subsequent memory for the counterparts and nature of the interactions was assessed. Carer-rated profiles of financial vulnerability were also collected. Relative to controls, both patient groups showed attenuated learning of trust/distrust responses, and lower overall memory for social interactions. Despite poor learning performance, both AD and bvFTD patients showed better memory of social compared to non-social interactions. Importantly, better memory for social interactions was associated with lower financial vulnerability in AD, but not bvFTD. Learning and memory of social interactions was associated with medial temporal and temporoparietal atrophy in AD, whereas a wider network of frontostriatal, insular, fusiform and medial temporal regions was implicated in bvFTD. Our findings suggest that although social relevance influences memory to an extent in both AD and bvFTD, this is associated with vulnerability to financial exploitation in AD only, and is underpinned by changes to different neural substrates. Theoretically, these findings provide novel insights into potential mechanisms that give rise to vulnerability in people with dementia, and open avenues for possible interventions.

Yick Y. Y., Buratto L. G., & Schaefer A . ( 2015).

The effects of negative emotion on encoding-related neural activity predicting item and source recognition

Neuropsychologia, 73, 48-59.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Yonelinas A. P., Aly M., Wang W. C., & Koen J. D . ( 2010).

Recollection and familiarity: Examining controversial assumptions and new directions

Hippocampus, 20( 11), 1178-1194.

URL     PMID:20848606      [本文引用: 1]

It is well accepted that recognition memory reflects the contribution of two separable memory retrieval processes, namely recollection and familiarity. However, fundamental questions remain regarding the functional nature and neural substrates of these processes. In this article, we describe a simple quantitative model of recognition memory (i.e., the dual-process signal detection model) that has been useful in integrating findings from a broad range of cognitive studies, and that is now being applied in a growing number of neuroscientific investigations of memory. The model makes several strong assumptions about the behavioral nature and neural substrates of recollection and familiarity. A review of the literature indicates that these assumptions are generally well supported, but that there are clear boundary conditions in which these assumptions break down. We argue that these findings provide important insights into the operation of the processes underlying recognition. Finally, we consider how the dual-process approach relates to recent neuroanatomical and computational models and how it might be integrated with recent findings concerning the role of medial temporal lobe regions in other cognitive functions such as novelty detection, perception, implicit memory and short-term memory. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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