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## 环境和生态意识催生的社会许可问题：缘起与应对

,1, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3

1 Adaptive Urban and Social Systems, Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Qld 4102, Australia

2 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所), 北京 100101

3 中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049

## Socio-environmental impacts and social licence: A critical review and future directions

,1, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3

1 Adaptive Urban and Social Systems, Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Qld 4102, Australia

2 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

3 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

 Fund supported: *2016AustralianStudiesProgramjointlyfundedbytheFoundationfortheAustralianStudiesinChinaandtheAustralia-ChinaCouncil..  ABN 23 151 021 037

Abstract

Public awareness of environmental issues and engagement in environmental protection has been greatly improved with the rapid economic development. As a result, the deployment of projects with potential impacts on environment and human societies faces substantial challenge from the public. To ensure the success of such projects, receiving only government approval and meeting legal and regulation requirements is no longer enough. Public acceptance becomes essential, that is to acquire a social licence to operate (SLO). Projects without the SLO can be faced with great risks and financial loss. Although having gained widespread attention in mining, chemical industries and other related fields, the concept of SLO has gained attention from psychologists quite recently. The present article reviews the origin and measurement of the concept of SLO, as well as the approaches to obtain and maintain a SLO. We further highlight the fundamental drivers of SLO and the implications for policy makers. Future directions are discussed to address the challenges regarding the measurement and acquisition of SLO.

Keywords： social licence to operate ; community ; stakeholder ; psychological typhoon eye effect ; environmental impact ; community environment

ZHANG Airong, CHEN Jun-Fang, KUANG Yi, WANG Xiao-Ming, WU Xiao-Ju, YANG Shu-Wen, ZHENG Rui, LI Shu. (2018). Socio-environmental impacts and social licence: A critical review and future directions. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1711-1723

### 2.2 系统过程法

2010年以后, 尽管社会许可已经扩展到了不同领域, 但研究者显然对于矿业开发领域的探讨更为深入, 他们采用系统的、过程性的方式, 最早提出获得社会许可的“五步过程法” (Wilburn & Wilburn, 2011)。在该方法中, 企业与当地利益群体均需参与其中, 具体步骤如下：

### 3.3 政府管理能力

Zhang和Moffat (2015)研究发现, 在矿业领域, 虽然民众担心开采矿物会导致对环境的不利影响, 但是与那些认为政府对矿业管理力度很弱的社区民众相比, 那些强烈认为现有的法规和立法有能力让矿业对其行为负责的人接受矿业开发的可能性更大。换言之, 社区对政府机构管理能力的信心越强, 社区对矿业的接受度越高(Zhang et al., 2015)。在Pron列举的失败案例中, 由于当地居民缺乏对相关政府机构的信任(e.g., Tambogrande case), 或是由于政府的决策不能平衡社区和企业双方的需求(e.g., Ok Tedi case), 导致了一些冲突的发生, 阻碍了社会许可的获得(Prno, 2013)。当他们意识到政府在社会和环境方面的表现不能让采矿业负起责任时, 就会表现出强烈的反对意见。Zhang, Measham和Moffat (2018)的假设采矿项目的实验研究表明, 当采矿公司表示会严格按照法制法规操作后, 被试对该采矿公司的信任得到进一步提高。

### 4.2 为发生在什么地点的事件颁发社会许可

Wang等人(2015)采用间接投射技术测量了我国城镇化进程中居民住地依恋的状况, 从中发现了一个有趣的“城镇位错”效应(Town-Dislocation effect), 即在控制了性别、年龄和教育程度的影响之后, 处于城镇化进程不同阶段的三地居民在住地依恋上存在着显著差异——城镇居民对住地的依恋显著低于城市和农村居民, 而城市居民和农村居民对于住地的依恋程度差异不显著。如果按照教育、医疗以及经济收入等硬指标来比较, 从农村到城镇再到城市, 各项指标应呈阶梯状上升, 进而推测住地依恋也应该呈现上升趋势。然而, 依据投射测验的结果, 城镇居民对住地的依恋反而“掉”了下来, 显著地低于另外两个区域, 呈现出“软硬”指标的错位以及“常识预期”与“实际测量”的错位, 研究人员将此现象命名为“城镇位错”效应。

### 4.4 颁发“社会许可”还是颁发“社会不许可”

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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The social licence to operate: A critical review

Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 89( 5), 477-488.

Abstract Changing societal expectations have influenced the way industries involved in the development or extraction of natural resources conduct their operations around the world. Increasingly, communities are demanding more involvement in decision-making around such operations, have expectations of receiving a greater share of the benefits from these operations and require assurances that the industries involved are appropriately regulated. The combination of increasing pressures on industry performance and the associated societal acceptance of such operations has been described as the ocial licence to operate . In many ways, the social licence reflects the evolving nature of the relationships between industries and their communities and other stakeholders. Originally used to describe the social acceptability of mining operations, the term has since been applied to explore the broad acceptance that communities and other stakeholders provide to the activities of the forest, agriculture and energy sectors. This article presents a critical review of the emergence of the concept in industry practice over the last two decades. Recent applied research to measure and model the social licence is also examined to demonstrate how the roles of trust, fairness and governance may underpin the development of more sustainable, trust-based relationships between industry and society.

Moffat, K ., & Zhang A. , ( 2014).

The paths to social licence to operate: An integrative model explaining community acceptance of mining

Resources Policy, 39( 1), 61-70.

Nealey S. M., Melber B. D., & Rankin W. L . ( 1983).

Public opinion and nuclear energy

( No. DOE/NBM-4014414). DC Heath and Company, Lexington, MA.

Nelsen, J. ( 2007).

Social license to operate: Integration into mine planning and development (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia)

Nelsen, J., & Scoble M ., ( 2007, June).

Research studies on building social license within mineral exploration

In 3rd International Conference Sustainable Development Indicators in the Minerals Industry. Heliotopos Publications, Greece( pp. 345-49).

ABSTRACT Social License to Operate continues to emerge as a paradigm fundamental to sustainable mineral resources development. It relates to a set of concepts, values, tools, and best practices that represent the view of reality held by each participant (industry and stakeholders). It enables a forum for negotiation through which all parties involved are heard, understood and respected. The exploration phase of the mine life cycle is generally the initial contact with local communities and forms the cornerstone for effective communication and trust building. This paper presents the development of a mineral exploration template, based on field studies, aimed at assisting exploration personnel to establish effective communications and engagement with local communities within a process to build a Social License. The template aims to provide practical assistance in conducting situational analysis – a process of examining and mapping a situation, its elements and their relations - in order to acquire knowledge and understanding of a project, locale and region. Situational analysis is the ‘full situation of inquiry’, going beyond just ‘knowing the subject’ to being fully situated. It forms the initial foundation for a planning process presented in the paper that prepares for a strategy of initial engagement and consultation.

Okeke,C. U., & Armour, A. ( 2000).

Post-landfill siting perceptions of nearby residents: A case study of Halton landfill

Applied Geography, 20( 2), 137-154.

In 1988, Owen Furuseth and Mark Johnson studied neighbourhood attitudes toward a sanitary landfill site in North Carolina, USA. Surveying residents who lived within 4800 m of the site, they found a strong measure of satisfaction among them regarding the operation of the facility. Since this study was published, there have been no known studies that have attempted to utilize the same approach to investigate the perceptions of nearby residents regarding the impacts of landfills in their community, especially those whose siting process they unsuccessfully opposed. Following the same approach used by Furuseth and Johnson, this study investigated the perceptions of nearby residents regarding the impacts of Halton landfill in Ontario, Canada. It reports that although the residents fought against the siting of the facility, once it had been in operation for a few years, they were only little concerned about most of the anticipated effects, which had formed the basis for their fears and opposition during the proposal stage. Similar to the results obtained by Furuseth and Johnson, operational, traffic and psychological impacts posed the least concerns to the residents, while environmental and economic impacts posed the highest concerns. Also, some of the impacts as perceived by residents appear to be influenced by distance.

Owen,J. R . ( 2016).

Social license and the fear of Mineras Interruptus

Geoforum, 77, 102-105.

This review article offers a critique of the social license concept, and of the debate surrounding it. In order to best understand what is meant by “social license”, one must look beyond its constituent terminology and instead examine the core drivers of contemporary mining practice. The working assumption inside the industry is that if disapproval becomes too intense there is a chance that members of the community will interrupt mining activities. This is what I refer to as ‘the fear of Mineras Interruptus’. If there is any meaning to attribute to the term ‘social license to operate’ – it is to be found in the fear of losing access – because other factors relating to social performance or benefits are considered peripheral. The author argues that the mining industry’s adoption and application of the concept should be viewed critically and not promoted on face value.

Owen,J. R., & Kemp, D. (2013).

Social licence and mining: A critical perspective

Resources Policy, 38( 1), 29-35.

78 Social licence provides limited utility where sensitivity to CSR and mining is considered low. 78 Social licence as currently applied at odds with the objectives of sustainable development. 78 Social licence de-prioritises company led engagement on core development issues.

Petrova, M. A . ( 2016).

From NIMBY to acceptance: Toward a novel framework — VESPA — for organizing and interpreting community concerns

Renewable Energy, 86, 1280-1294.

Polman, E . ( 2010).

Information distortion in self-other decision making

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46( 2), 432-435.

In both organizational and social arenas, individuals make decisions for themselves and for other individuals. But research in decision making has provided little input into whether or how these decisions are psychologically different. In this paper, I propose that decisions—depending on whom they are for—vary according to the extent of information distortion, such that, individuals who choose for themselves demonstrate more postdecisional distortion, yet less predecisional distortion than individuals who choose on behalf of others. To test this hypothesis, participants in an experiment made a decision between two restaurants. Attributes about each restaurant were presented sequentially, and preferences were measured following each attribute. As expected, participants who chose for themselves experienced more postdecisional distortion. However, among participants who chose on behalf of others, greater distortion of predecisional attribute information was observed. These findings shed light on the differences in self-other decision making, as well as on research concerning information distortion.

Polman, E . ( 2012).

Effects of self-other decision making on regulatory focus and choice overload

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102( 5), 980-993.

URL     PMID:22429272

Abstract A growing stream of research is investigating how choices people make for themselves are different from choices people make for others. In this paper, I propose that these choices vary according to regulatory focus, such that people who make choices for themselves are prevention focused, whereas people who make choices for others are promotion focused. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, in particular work on errors of omission and commission, I hypothesize that people who make choices for others experience a reversal of the choice overload effect. In 6 studies, including a field study, I found that people who make choices for themselves are less satisfied after selecting among many options compared to few options, yet, people who make choices for others are more satisfied after selecting among many options compared to few options. Implications and suggestions for other differences in self-other decision making are discussed.

Prno, J . ( 2013).

An analysis of factors leading to the establishment of a social licence to operate in the mining industry

Resources Policy, 38( 4), 577-590.

Prno, J ., & Slocombe D.S, . ( 2012).

Exploring the origins of ‘social license to operate’ in the mining sector: Perspectives from governance and sustainability theories

Resources Policy, 37( 3), 346-357.

Rollero, C., & Piccoli, N.D . ( 2010).

Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30( 2), 198-205.

The relationship between people and places is characterized by affective and cognitive dimensions, defined, respectively, as place attachment and identification. This paper aims at clarifying differences between place attachment and identification by (1) identifying their predictors in a structural equation model and (2) exploring their association with the environmental perception. To this purpose, we conducted a research on a sample of 328 residents of a city in the north of Italy. Results show that the affective and the cognitive dimensions (1) are directly predicted by different demographical and psychosocial variables and (2) are strictly associated to the perception of the place and its inhabitants. Place attachment and identification are two distinct but correlated components. Semantic contents related to the environmental perception are described in respect to different levels of attachment and identification.

Samuelson, P.A . ( 1937).

A note on measurement of utility

Review of Economic Studies, 4( 2), 155-161.

No abstract is available for this item.

Shafir, E. ( 1993).

Choosing versus rejecting: Why some options are both better and worse than others

Memory & Cognition, 21( 4), 546-556.

URL     PMID:8350746

A previously unobserved pattern of choice behavior is predicted and corroborated. In line with the principle of compatibility, according to which the weighting of inputs is enhanced by their compatibility with output, the positive and negative dimensions of options (their pros and cons) are expected to loom larger when one is choosing and when one is rejecting, respectively. Subjects are presented with pairs of options, one of which—the enriched option—has more positive as well as more negative dimensions than does the other, impoverished , option. Because positive dimensions are weighted more heavily in choosing than in rejecting, and negative dimensions are weighted more heavily in rejecting than in choosing, the enriched option tends to be chosen and rejected relatively more often than the impoverished option. These findings are extended to nonbinary decision problems, and their implications for the rational theory of choice and for everyday decisions are discussed.

Siegrist M., Connor M., & Keller C . ( 2012).

Trust, confidence, procedural fairness, outcome fairness, moral conviction, and the acceptance of GM field experiments

Risk Anal, 32( 8), 1394-1403.

Smits C. C. A., Justinussen J. C. S., & Bertelsen R. G . ( 2016).

Human capital development and a social license to operate: examples from arctic energy development in the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland

Energy Research & Social Science, 16, 122-131.

Solomon F., Katz E., & Lovel R . ( 2008).

Social dimensions of mining: Research, policy and practice challenges for the minerals industry in Australia

Resources Policy, 33( 3), 142-149.

Stedman,R. C . ( 2002).

Toward a social psychology of place: Predicting behavior from place-based cognitions, attitude, and identity

Environment and Behavior, 34( 5), 561-581.

ABSTRACT Sense-of-place writings have proliferated in recent years, yet research suffers from a relative lack of construct clarity and hypothesis testing. This research presents a model of sense of place based in conventional social psychology: cognitions, attitudes, identities, and behavioral intentions located in and fundamentally about place. A survey of property owners in Vilas County, Wisconsin, revealed the importance of symbolic meanings as underpinning both place satisfaction, conceptualized as an attitude toward a setting, and attachment, conceptualized as personal identification with a setting. In turn, attachment, satisfaction, and meanings all have independent effects on willingness to engage in behaviors that maintain or enhance valued attributes of the setting.

Stone E. R., Yates A. J., & Caruthers A. S . ( 2002).

Risk taking in decision making for others versus the self

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32( 9), 1797-1824.

In two studies, we examined people's level of risk taking when making monetary decisions for other people rather than for themselves. Experiment 1 examined the role of regret in these situations; results show that regret concerns led to increased risk avoidance both when participants made decisions for other people as well as when making decisions for themselves. Experiment 2 tested whether skill tasks would lead to greater risk avoidance when the decision was for another person versus for oneself. This hypothesis was not supported, although men were more risk seeking than were women in both situations. Taken together, these studies suggest that many of the findings from risk research on individual decision making regarding financial situations generalize to decision making for others.

Thomson, I., & Boutilier, R.G . ( 2011).

SME Mining Engineering Handbook, 1, 1779-1796.

Thomson I. , & Boutilier, R. G. (2011).

The social licence to operate

In: Darling, P. (Ed.), SME Mining Engineering Handbook. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (pp. 673-690). Colorado, America.

The ‘social licence to operate’ (SLO) is an increasingly heard term that was originally coined to draw the attention of mining companies to stakeholder issues. Drawing on questions and comments voiced in 50 events attended by approximately 900 managers, consultants, academics and students, this article employs the rhetoric device of ‘frequently asked questions’ (FAQs) to articulate conceptual... [Show full abstract]

Thomson I., & Joyce S ., ( 2006).

Changing mineral exploration industry approaches to sustainability

In Doggett, M., Parry, J.( Eds.), Wealth Creation in the Minerals Industry: Integrating Science, Business and Education. Society of Economic Geologists

Tyler, T. R . ( 2000).

Social justice: outcome and procedure

International Journal of Psychology, 35( 2), 117-125.

Abstract A review of recent research demonstrates that people are more willing to accept decisions when they feel that those decisions are made through decision-making procedures they view as fair. Studies of procedural justice judgements further suggest that people evaluate fairness primarily through criteria that can be provided to all the parties to a conflict: whether there are opportunities to participate; whether the authorities are neutral; the degree to which people trust the motives of the authorities; and whether people are treated with dignity and respect during the process. These findings are optimistic and suggest that authorities have considerable ability to bridge differences and interests and values through the use of fair decision-making procedures. The limits to the effectiveness of such procedural approaches are also outlined. Une recension des recherches recentes montre que les gens sont prets a accepter des decisions quand ils sentent que ces decisions sont prises a la suite d'une procedure decisionnelle qu'ils considerent equitable. De plus, les etudes sur les jugements dans les procedure judiciaires suggerent que les gens evaluent l'equite prioritairement sur la base des criteres fournies a toutes les parties en conflit: possibilites de participation: neutralite des autorites; confiance dans les motifs des autorites; et procedure qui traite les personnes avec dignite et respect. Ces resultats optimistes suggerent que les autorites peuvent, par des procedures equitables de prise de decision, concilier des differences, des interets et des valeurs. Les limites a l'efficacite de ces approches procedurales sont aussi soulignees.

Tyler T. R. ( 2015).

Social justice

In: Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P.R., Dovidio, J.F., Simpson, J.A. (Eds.), APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 2: Group processes (pp. 95-122). Washington, D.C., US.

Van Vugt M ., ( 2001).

Community identification moderating the impact of financial incentives in a natural social dilemma: Water conservation

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27( 11), 1440-1449.

Vorkinn, M., & Riese, H. ( 2001).

Environmental concern in a local context: The significance of place attachment

Environment and behavior, 33( 2), 249-263.

Abstract To improve the understanding of environmental concern, considering the context within which individuals develop environmental concerns may be important. One salient contextual variable related to local environmental issues is place attachment, which deals with human bonding to a specific physical environment. In a study in a rural community in Norway, the local attitudes toward a proposal of a major hydropower development, which will cause major environmental impacts, were examined in relation to sociodemographic variables and place attachment. The results from a postal survey show that place attachment explained more of the variances in attitudes than the sociodemographic variables all together.

Voyer M., Gladstone W., & Goodall H . ( 2014).

Understanding marine park opposition: The relationship between social impacts, environmental knowledge and motivation to fish

Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 24( 4), 441-462.

Wang F., Li S., Bai X-W., Ren X-P., Rao L-L., Li J-Z., … Zheng R . ( 2015).

Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization

PLoS ONE, 10( 5), e0125821.

URL     PMID:4431860

Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the own dislocation effect. When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

Warren, B . ( 2013).

The Australian seafood industry: Extension and social licence

. Extension Farming Systems Journal, 9(1), 190-195.

Informit is an online service offering a wide range of database and full content publication products that deliver the vast majority of Australasian scholarly research to the education, research and business sectors. Informit is the brand that encompasses RMIT Publishing's online products: Informit Indexes, Informit Plus Text and Informit Collections.

Wei Z-H., Tao R., Liu H., & Li S . ( 2017).

‘Freedom from fear and want’ and our psychological response to environmental changes

Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 11, e10.

react-text: 374 Current approaches of measuring vulnerability to natural hazards generally use a rather static perspective that focuses on a single point in time?often before a hazardous event occurs. In contrast, the paper argues that vulnerability assessment should also take into account the changing dynamics during and after a disaster. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the situation in Sri... /react-text react-text: 375 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Whiteman, G. &Mamen K. , ( 2002).

Meaningful consultation and participation in the mining sector? A review of the consultation and participation of indigenous peoples within the international mining sector

Wilburn, K. M., & Wilburn, R . ( 2011).

Achieving social license to operate using stakeholder theory

Journal of International Business Ethics, 4( 2), 3-17.

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is gaining support in the global business environment. Some companies are adopting a model, the Social License to Operate (SLO), as part of their CSR strategy. This paper provides background on the concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility and Social License to Operate with examples supporting the business case for them. It proposes a process based on stakeholder theory for identifying and classifying stakeholders that divides stakeholders into two groups: vested and non-vested. Vested stakeholder groups have a vote in the awarding of a social license to operate, while non-vested stakeholder groups have only a voice. By using a process based on alignment of the norms and values of the company, and the stakeholder groups, social licenses to operate can be negotiated that can allow a company to succeed in different countries and cultures.

Wittneben, B. B. F . ( 2012).

The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on European energy policy

Environmental Science & Policy, 15( 1), 1-3.

The disaster that struck the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan has reignited the international debate on the future of nuclear energy. Interestingly, the incident has been used to both justify nuclear power generation and reconsider past decisions made on established or planned nuclear power sites. Geographically removed from the radioactive fallout, Europe's response to the massive nuclear accident differed greatly among the member states. The UK and Germany stand out as examples of the wide spread of policy response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. In the UK, policy makers remained firm on their decision to increase nuclear power generation in the near future, whereas in Germany, the federal government decided to at least temporarily shut down the old generation of nuclear reactors and re-examine the safety of all national nuclear power facilities. Furthermore, a regional voter backlash, fuelled by resentment of the Merkel government's previous commitment to nuclear power, dealt a serious blow to the ruling coalition parties. How can national policy responses to the same event be so divergent in two European countries? This article attempts to answer this question in five arguments. I argue that in contrast to the UK, the German public faced imminent elections, stronger media reporting, increasing trust in renewable technologies, a history of nuclear resistance and a feeling of close cultural proximity to the Japanese.

Yates, B. F. &Horvath, C.L . ( 2013).

Social license to operate: How to get it, and how to keep it

Pacific Energy Summit.

Zhang A., Measham T. G., & Moffat K . ( 2018).

Preconditions for social licence: The importance of information in initial engagement

Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1559-1566.

react-text: 178 There is much existing knowledge about the factors that influence adoption of new practices in agriculture but few attempts have been made to construct predictive quantitative models of adoption for use by those planning agricultural research, development, extension and policy. ADOPT (Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool) is the result of such an attempt, providing predictions of a... /react-text react-text: 179 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Zhang, A., & Moffat, K. ( 2015).

A balancing act: the role of benefits, impacts and confidence in governance in predicting acceptance of mining in Australia

Resources Policy, 44, 25-34.

Zhang A., Moffat K., Lacey J., Wang J., González R., Uribe K., … Dai Y . ( 2015).

Understanding the social licence to operate of mining at the national scale: a comparative study of Australia, China and Chile

Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, 1063-1072.

Zheng R., Rao L-L., Zheng X-L., Cai C., Wei Z-H., Xuan Y-H., & Li S . ( 2015).

The more involved in lead-zinc mining risk the less frightened: A psychological typhoon eye perspective

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 44, 126-134.