心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1711-1723 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01711

主编特邀

环境和生态意识催生的社会许可问题:缘起与应对

张爱荣,1, 陈俊芳2,3, 匡仪2,3, 王晓明2,3, 吴小菊2,3, 杨舒雯2,3, 郑蕊2,3, 李纾2,3

1 Adaptive Urban and Social Systems, Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Qld 4102, Australia

2 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所), 北京 100101

3 中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049

Socio-environmental impacts and social licence: A critical review and future directions

ZHANG Airong,1, CHEN Jun-Fang2,3, KUANG Yi2,3, WANG Xiao-Ming2,3, WU Xiao-Ju2,3, YANG Shu-Wen2,3, ZHENG Rui2,3, LI Shu2,3

1 Adaptive Urban and Social Systems, Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Qld 4102, Australia

2 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

3 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

通讯作者: 张爱荣, E-mail: airong. zhang@csiro.au

责任编辑: 杨玉芳

收稿日期: 2018-05-15   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

Received: 2018-05-15   Online: 2018-10-15

Fund supported: *2016AustralianStudiesProgramjointlyfundedbytheFoundationfortheAustralianStudiesinChinaandtheAustralia-ChinaCouncil..  ABN 23 151 021 037

作者简介 About authors

张爱荣,昆士兰大学社会心理学博士现为澳大利亚联邦科学和工业研究组织(CSIRO)研究员,致力于从心理学的角度探索资源的可持续性开发与管理,为矿业、农业、及相关政府部门提供以实证研究为基础的咨询如为国际采矿和金属理事会提供如何与利益相关者进行沟通与互动的咨询,并为该行业建立在决策过程中与社区互动的方式方法及规范;为澳洲农业系统提供咨询,如何使用大数据来实施可持续性农业活动,以及大数据应用中可能面临的心理障碍对社会许可的跨文化研究受到欧盟委员会可持续性资源部门的关注 , E-mail:zhang@csiro.au

摘要

在经济迅猛发展的今天, 民众的环境和生态意识不断提高, 参与保护环境行为的积极性也不断增强。因此, 项目开发方要想在某地能够顺利地实行一些可能会引发环境问题的项目, 除了必要的法律许可外, 还应获得并维持当地居民的同意与支持, 即社会许可。没有获得社会许可的项目开发面临着多种风险并往往为此付出很大的经济代价。虽然, 社会许可在矿业、化学工业等相关领域已经得到了广泛关注, 但是近年来这一概念才逐渐受到了心理学家的重视。本文回顾了社会许可的概念起源、测量范式, 以及获得和维持社会许可的途径, 并在此基础上总结了社会许可的影响因素和相关政策建议。最后, 针对社会许可测量和获得中存在的问题, 本文从心理学的视角出发, 为未来社会许可的研究方向提出建议和展望。

关键词: 社会许可 ; 社区 ; 利益相关者 ; 心理台风眼效应 ; 环境影响 ; 社区环境

Abstract

Public awareness of environmental issues and engagement in environmental protection has been greatly improved with the rapid economic development. As a result, the deployment of projects with potential impacts on environment and human societies faces substantial challenge from the public. To ensure the success of such projects, receiving only government approval and meeting legal and regulation requirements is no longer enough. Public acceptance becomes essential, that is to acquire a social licence to operate (SLO). Projects without the SLO can be faced with great risks and financial loss. Although having gained widespread attention in mining, chemical industries and other related fields, the concept of SLO has gained attention from psychologists quite recently. The present article reviews the origin and measurement of the concept of SLO, as well as the approaches to obtain and maintain a SLO. We further highlight the fundamental drivers of SLO and the implications for policy makers. Future directions are discussed to address the challenges regarding the measurement and acquisition of SLO.

Keywords: social licence to operate ; community ; stakeholder ; psychological typhoon eye effect ; environmental impact ; community environment

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本文引用格式

张爱荣, 陈俊芳, 匡仪, 王晓明, 吴小菊, 杨舒雯, 郑蕊, 李纾. (2018). 环境和生态意识催生的社会许可问题:缘起与应对. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1711-1723

ZHANG Airong, CHEN Jun-Fang, KUANG Yi, WANG Xiao-Ming, WU Xiao-Ju, YANG Shu-Wen, ZHENG Rui, LI Shu. (2018). Socio-environmental impacts and social licence: A critical review and future directions. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1711-1723

编者按:

经济的迅猛发展导致了对自然资源的过度开发。这些开发活动造成对环境的破坏和社会生活的冲击。同时, 民众的生态意识不断提高, 参与保护环境及民生的积极性也不断增强。民众的抵制使得很多国际矿业开发公司备受挫折, 并付出巨大的经济代价。上世纪90年代末, 针对此状况, “社会许可”的概念在矿业领域中诞生, 并迅速地被其它与自然资源有关的工业领域广泛采纳。社会许可是指涉及自然和民众等的项目及开发, 仅仅通过政府许可及满足相关法规法制的要求, 已不足以保证项目的顺利进行。要取得成功, 必须获得民众及利益相关者的支持与接受。社会许可是一个非常有启发性的概念, 这个概念虽然是由工业界提出的, 但这个概念已经具有学科的基础, 跨学科的探索, 以及大量的社会实践。澳大利亚联邦科学和工业研究组织(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, CSIRO)研究员张爱荣及其同事, 在国际上领先对社会许可现象从社会心理学的角度进行系统化, 理论化及量化的研究, 得到学术界和自然资源行业的广泛关注。中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室李纾及团队对风险认知的系列研究及心理台风眼效应理论的建立, 为对社会许可动态过程的深入研究提供了理论基础。我们希望这篇文章的发表, 将有助于心理学界了解社会许可概念和理论的意义, 并从心理学的视角出发, 为未来社会许可的研究方向及应用提出建议和展望, 并启发心理学界把更多的概念和理念用于社会实践。

在经济迅猛发展的今天, 民众的环境和生态意识不断提高, 参与保护环境行为的积极性也不断增强。十九大报告中也提出, “污染防治”是我国今后需要重点完成的三大攻坚战之一。与此同时, 一些可能引发环境问题的项目开发也越来越受到整个社会的关注和重视。这些项目虽然能促进当地经济的发展, 但同时也会造成当地环境的破坏, 对当地生活和文化带来冲击, 而这些问题如不解决就会导致民众对此类项目的接受度和满意度越来越低, 反对的声音越来越强, 继而导致项目的停滞, 乃至造成巨大的经济损失。例如, 我国民众对于PX项目的担忧和反对, 使得在厦门(2007年)、大连(2011年)、宁波(2012年)、茂名(2013年)等地, 均发生了抵制PX项目的群体性事件, 最终导致这些项目被迫终止。仅以宁波为例, 经估计, PX项目的终止, 共导致约558.73亿人民币的损失。又如, 2013年, 广东江门鹤山核燃料加工厂, 由于遭到当地及周边城市的民众的强烈反对, 最终导致该项目“胎死腹中”, 让当地每年损失税收30亿, 工业产值损失近400亿(王小明, 2013)。在国际上, 仍不乏因民众抗议事件而导致项目终止或重大经济损失的例子, 例如德国民众通过游行迫使政府改变核电政策 (Wittneben, 2012)。一个对50个国际矿业开采项目的分析研究表明, 对于资本在30~50亿美元的开采项目来说, 由社会冲突导致项目暂停会造成高达每星期两千万美元左右的经济损失(Franks et al., 2014)。民众的不满甚至会影响到上市资源开发公司的市场价值。对在多伦多证券交易所上市的19个金矿公司所拥有的26个金矿的分析表明, 当项目与民众发生冲突时, 其市场资本价值往往被大打折扣(Henisz, Dorobantu, & Nartey, 2014)。

上述案例无不说明, 对于那些在一定程度上可能或肯定会影响到周边社区环境、生活等方面的项目, 要想在当地能够顺利的实行, 除了必要的法律许可外, 获得、并维持当地居民的同意与支持, 即社会许可(Social Licence to Operate, SLO), 也是至关重要的。民众对于项目的社会许可已然成为一个项目能否得以实施的关键, 是企业或相关政府部门最为关注的问题之一, 也是影响到社会稳定和未来经济发展的重要问题。

1 社会许可的起源与定义

1.1 概念的起源

有趣的是, 社会许可这一概念并非起源于理论家的探讨, 而是起源于实际的社会需求。20世纪90年代, 在一系列广为人知的化学泄漏、尾矿坝坍塌, 以及勘探开发项目与当地社区不断增长的冲突等事件后, 矿业开发问题受到了公众格外的关注(这时期的综述参见Thomson & Joyce, 2006)。1996年, 加拿大普莱斯多姆金矿公司因为在菲律宾尾矿坝的处理上出现了严重事故, 而遭到了社会的严厉批评(Moffat, Lacey, Zhang, & Leipold, 2016)。该公司的副总裁James Cooney意识到很多矿业公司正是因为居民的抵制而遭受到严重损失。为此, 他首次将“社会许可”作为与“法律许可”相类似的概念引入到矿业领域中来, 以呼吁大家重视民众的意见。此外, 在其他类似领域的项目开发中, 也存在着如何正确处理企业与当地社区之间关系的问题, 因此, “社会许可”作为专有名词不仅在矿业领域流传开来(Boutilier, 2014), 而且也很快扩展到了其它领域, 例如, 造纸业(Gunningham, Kagan, & Thornton, 2004)、林业(Edwards & Lacey, 2014), 可再生能源(Hall, Ashworth, & Shaw, 2012)等产业。社会许可的问题也在全世界范围内得到关注, 如澳大利亚(Moffat & Zhang, 2014; Zhang & Moffat, 2015)、坦桑尼亚(Goldstuck & Hughes, 2010)、加拿大(Knih, 2004; Prno & Slocombe, 2012)、瑞典(Edwards & Lacey, 2014)、芬兰(Litmanen, Jartti, & Rantala, 2016)等地。

1.2 概念的界定与测量

自社会许可概念提出至今, 已有20余年, “社会许可”已经成为了矿业等社会经济领域的通用术语, 也成为对企业或行业进行风险评估的一个重要指标(e.g., Ernest & Young, 2016)。大多数研究者从不同角度对社会许可进行了直接界定:Gunningham等人(2004)认为, “社会许可”是“地方的利益相关者以及更广泛的公民群体对于公司如何运作的一系列需求和期望”。Nelsen和Scoble (2007)提出, “社会许可”被定义为“一系列概念、价值观、工具和实践, 代表了一种为行业和利益相关者观察现实的方式” (Nelsen & Scoble, 2007)。Prno和Slocombe (2012)则在总结前人研究的基础上, 从治理和可持续发展角度出发, 提出“社会许可”是 “一系列必须遵守的目标, 规则和制度”。而Owen (2016)则将“社会许可”定义为是“对于矿产中断的恐惧”。他认为只有当“社会许可”没被民众授予, 即民众不许可矿业项目的开发, 出现反对甚至抗议行为时, “社会许可”才能有所体现。相较而言, “社会许可是指受项目影响的地区的利益相关者对于该项目的持续接受和支持程度” 这一定义被学者广为接受(Hall, 2014; Prno & Slocombe, 2012; Moffat & Zhang, 2014)。从上述学者的界定来看, 社会许可的概念具有如下几个特点:(1) 模糊性。主要表现在其概念没有完全统一清晰的界定(Boutilier, 2014; Bunnell, 2013; Moffat et al., 2016); (2) 无形性。与法律许可所不同, 虽然公司总是以已经获得社会许可作为开展项目前提, 但是事实上没有任何文件可以证明一个公司或项目获得了社会许可, 而民众也通常会默认这一标准, 这使得它的约束力大打折扣(Lacey, Parsons, & Moffat, 2012; Yates & Horvath, 2013); (3) 动态性和灵活性。在项目周期中, “社会许可”并非一成不变, 它具有高度情境性, 其标准和实施步骤依据不同的社会规范, 法律制度, 社区群体的变化而变化(Boutilier, 2014; Bunnell, 2013; House, 2013; Lacey et al., 2012; Lynch-Wood & Williamson, 2007; Prno & Slocombe, 2012; Thomson & Boutilier, 2011; Yates & Horvath, 2013)。

此外, Thomson和Boutilier (2011)将社会许可进行了分层界定, 并建立了相应的金字塔模型(the “pyramid” model)。该模型(如图1所示)由三条边界将社会许可划分为了四个水平:第一条边界是“合法边界” (legitimacy boundary), 如果项目未达到该边界, 民众的心态表现为“撤回” (withheld/withdrawn), 即不认可企业的项目开发; 如果项目达到该边界, 民众的心态则表现为“接受” (acceptance); 再往上一个边界为“信誉边界” (credibility boundary), 达到该边界, 民众的心态表现为“支持” (approval); 最高的边界为“信任边界” (trust boundary), 达到该边界, 民众表现为“心理认同” (psychological identification)。金字塔从下往上, 依次表现为利益相关者对企业的由浅入深的接受程度(Thomson & Boutilier, 2011)。

图1

图1   社会许可的“金字塔”模型(Thomson & Boutilier, 2011)


而后, 两位研究者在金字塔模型上进一步修正, 修正后的模型为箭型模型(the “arrow” model)。该模型(如图2所示)也包括四个水平, 分别为:经济立法性(economic legitimacy)、社会政治合法性(socio-political legitimacy)、相互信任(interactional trust)、制度化信任(institutionalized trust)。但在该修正模型中, 水平之间并没有了明确边界。最低水平是经济立法性, 如果企业未对利益相关者提供足够利益, 那么利益相关者将极有可能扣留或者撤销(回)该企业项目的社会许可; 反之, 企业可以进入。社会政治合法性与相互之间的信任处于平等水平, 缺乏其中之一, 企业项目便有可能得不到利益相关者的支持; 如果两者均缺乏, 则公司项目一定得不到利益相关者的支持; 如果达到两个水平的其中之一, 企业项目则可以上升到制度化信任水平。制度化的信任是最高水平, 是指公司与利益相关者对彼此持久尊重, 企业项目只有到达制度化信任的水平才能获得利益相关者的心理认同(Boutilier & Thomson, 2011)。

图2

图2   社会许可的“箭型”模型(Boutilier & Thomson, 2011)


2 获得社会许可的途径

由上可知, 企业如果希望项目能够顺利开展, 就必须先获得民众的社会许可。因此, 研究者就企业如何获得社会许可提出了各种有针对性的步骤, 这些步骤主要可分为两大类:独立法(e.g., Knih, 2004; Warren, 2013)和系统过程法(e.g., Wilburn & Wilburn, 2011)。

2.1 独立法

早在2004年, Knih就针对在矿业领域如何获得社会许可提出了一些独立的、非系统化的方法, 如在企业和社团之间进行有效的沟通, 企业保证项目过程透明以及企业进行文化及价值观宣传等。这些独立方法有利于开展良好的社区关系建设(community relations-building: Knih, 2004), 从而促进社会许可的获得。此外, 联结(extension)作为另一种方法, 与社区关系建设相似, 即广泛地将企业自身和当地社会群体紧密联系起来, 使他们针对项目开展过程中的问题和忧虑协作解决(Warren, 2013)。但随着金字塔模型(Boutilier, Black, & Thomson, 2012)的提出, 社会许可得到了进一步地细化。该模型指出, 社会许可不是企业开展项目前得到的、来自于当地社会群体的永久许可, 而是一个动态的、有不同水平的概念(Boutilier et al., 2012)。因此, 依靠以上的独立法很难同时满足企业和利益相关群体的需求, 获得社会许可也应有层次、分水平, 不断付出努力。

2.2 系统过程法

2010年以后, 尽管社会许可已经扩展到了不同领域, 但研究者显然对于矿业开发领域的探讨更为深入, 他们采用系统的、过程性的方式, 最早提出获得社会许可的“五步过程法” (Wilburn & Wilburn, 2011)。在该方法中, 企业与当地利益群体均需参与其中, 具体步骤如下:

第一步:企业陈述其自身将如何遵守规范。企业在某地开展项目时, 操作需合乎当地规范、不逾越当地的规则秩序是获得社会许可最基本的要素和前提(Bunnell, 2013)。

第二步:企业通过直接与利益相关者(即社区居民)交流, 倾听当地利益相关者的担忧和要求, 了解利益相关者群体内的微观社会契约状况(Boutilier et al., 2012; Harvey, 2014; Knih, 2004; Warren, 2013; Wilburn & Wilburn, 2011)。

第三步:企业需要分析其自身的标准、社会规范、利益相关者这三者之间存在的联系。如果三者之间的联系十分有限, 或程度较弱, 那么企业应当考虑停止手头的项目。

第四步:让利益相关者, 即社会群体, 深入地参与到项目的决策过程。通过能力建设(capacity- building), 即由企业投资, 对相关人员进行相关知识教育, 提升其在本领域的能力, 确保有足够能力进行决策(Boutilier et al., 2012; Buitrago, 2013)。促使利益相关者更好地参与决策。

第五步:企业需要监控项目开展的整个过程, 以保证企业的诺言能够实现(Boutilier et al., 2012), 最后一步事关整个过程的完整性。

作为第一个完整的系统过程, “五步过程法”为后续新的方法提供了一些参考, 例如, 企业同利益相关群体进行沟通、对当地群众进行能力建设, 被后续的系统方法所吸纳(Buitrago, 2013; Harvey, 2014)。Boutilier等人(2012)在“五步过程法”的基础上, 提出更为简练的“三步过程法”。

第一步:企业需要对项目开展所处的环境进行整体评估, 包括确定项目涉及的利益相关者的具体范围, 理清不同利益相关群体的相互关系及其主要诉求;

第二步:企业需通过操作环境整体结构和其中因素, 如通过沟通、能力建设、满足诉求等, 使该环境变得稳固;

第三步:企业保持和利益相关者的良好沟通, 通过获得更高水平的社会许可来稳固项目实施所处的环境。

该方法将利益相关者、相关群体间的社会关系等均归为项目实施的环境因素。进行环境因素的评估、同受项目影响的群体进行直接的、持续的交流, 稳固项目所处的环境, 是该方法中企业执行的最主要内容。除此以外, 企业也要不断投入资本, 持续教育当地的利益相关者, 使他们能够获得该项目相关职位, 从而增强人们在项目中的卷入程度。与“五步过程法”相比, “三步过程法”最大的不同是提出在已获得社会许可的基础上, 企业应当重视并与利益相关者保持持续沟通、共同计划、协同实施, 达成所有相关团体的共识, 争取使民众给予的社会许可达到更高水平。这一观点更加呼应了社会许可动态性的特点, 需引起企业的重视。

综合上述两个典型的系统过程, 并整合其他一些学者的建议(e.g., Bunnell, 2013; Harvey, 2014; Knih, 2004; Smits, Justinussen, & Bertelsen, 2016; Warren, 2013), 我们认为获得社会许可的步骤可以简化成评估环境, 民意咨询, 社会群体卷入, 企业监督等四个重要的过程(如图3所示)。

图3

图3   获得社会许可的过程总结


具体来讲, 环境评估主要包括两个方面的工作:利益相关者的确定(Boutilier et al., 2012)及项目产生的社会影响的评估(Harvey, 2014), 该部分主要由企业独立完成。在完成环境评估后, 企业应对相关民众的意见进行深入的了解——对相关群体提供关于该实施项目真实有效的参考信息, 并对他们进行访谈, 听取并理解其想法, 包括诉求、担忧等(Boutilier et al., 2012; Harvey, 2014; Knih, 2004; Warren, 2013; Wilburn & Wilburn, 2011)。通过形成正式协议, 将规则、角色以及企业与社会群体协商所达成的各自的责任呈现出来(Bunnell, 2013)。同时, 企业可进一步通过能力建设(Boutilier et al., 2012; Smits et al., 2016), 提高相关群体成员的知识水平和决策能力, 从而加深利益相关者在项目中的卷入程度。做好前三部分后, 企业便可以开始实施项目, 并在整个过程中对项目的开展保持监督。这可以保证企业及时应对突发状况并实现自己在协议中许下的诺言(Boutilier et al., 2012)。

3 影响社会许可获得的因素及相关建议

探讨获得和维持社会许可的影响因素, 有助于指导企业更高效地获得社会许可, 增强社区对其项目的接受度和认可程度, 同时也可以为社区及政府部门提供参考与建议。

3.1 利益公平

企业能否给社区提供足够的利益, 利益分配是否公平, 是影响项目能否被社区接受并获得社会许可的重要因素之一(Corscadden, Wile, & Yiridoe, 2012; Prno, 2013; Zhang et al., 2015)。社区民众感知到利益分配公平程度越高, 其对矿业的接受程度也会越高(Zhang et al., 2015)。Prno (2013)结合矿业领域中的案例, 分析了社会许可的影响因素。在其中两项成功获得社会许可的案例(Red Dog case和Minto case)中, 企业均给社区提供了巨大的利益, 为当地的发展做出了重大贡献, 得到了社区的支持(e.g., Buitrago, 2013); 而在Ok Tedi和Tambogrande案例中, 由于企业没有提供足够多的利益给社区, 或存在社区利益相关者的利益分配不均衡问题, 易导致一些冲突或矛盾的产生(Jorgensen, 2006; Kemp, Owen, Gotzmann, & Bond, 2011), 阻碍了社会许可的顺利获得。在其它领域的研究也发现了类似的结果, 例如, Siegrist, Connor和Keller (2012)对转基因生物领域的研究结果表明, 利益分配的公平性是预测公众接受度的一个重要因素。

因此, 为获取社会许可, 要确保利益相关方的收益与成本之间的关系是积极的, 实现利益的公平分配。企业可通过提供就业机会、技能知识培训, 与当地企业和行业组织合作, 完善基础设施建设, 及多种形式的捐赠或补偿等, 助力社区的发展, 从而补偿社区由自然资源开采活动所带来的损失(Boutilier et al., 2012; Buitrago, 2013; Martinez & Franks, 2014; Zhang et al., 2015)。

3.2 过程公平

过程公平是指在制定和实施决策中过程的公平(Tyler, 2015), 即, 在决策过程中, 人们能否感到自己享有合理的发言权(Zhang et al., 2015)。例如, 企业是否能够听取并尊重社区意见, 社区所关注的问题能否得到及时反馈, 企业能否为此适当调整方案。社区对某项决策的接受度, 在很大程度上受到其是否有机会参与到决策的过程中并产生一定作用的影响(Besley, 2010; Tyler, 2000)。Zhang等人(2015)发现, 在矿业领域中, 过程公平这一因素能够直接或间接地预测矿业的社会接受度。在采矿业中, 社区同企业进行有效的对话、沟通, 参与决策等过程公平的活动是该行业能够被社区接受、持续发展的关键, 也是其所在社区的可持续发展的关键(Moffat & Zhang, 2014; Prno, 2013; Solomon, Katz, & Lovel, 2008)。Moffat和Zhang (2014)的社区居民对一个天然气开采项目的态度研究进一步表明, 相对于由开采活动对社区生活导致的负面影响而引发的不满而言, 由过程公平而引发的支持接受程度远远大于前者。Corscadden等(2012)在有关风能项目建设的调查研究显示, 社区更愿意企业能更大程度地征询民众意见, 并且在项目开发初期及时跟社区利益相关者进行对话交流, 这样可以有效地提升项目的社会接受度, 降低冲突。Prno (2013)分析案例发现, 成功获得社会许可的企业与当地社区进行多次沟通, 并对社区关心的问题作出回应, 企业代表会定期分享信息, 并与周围社区进行交流, 以提供信息更新和反馈(e.g., Red Dog case), 有利于提高社区对企业的接受度(Nelsen, 2007); 相反, 由于没有及时或适当地回应当地社区担忧的问题, 从而没有顺利获得社会许可的企业则饱受批评(cf. Prno, 2013)。Zhang, Measham和Moffat (2018)假想采矿项目的实验研究显示, 即使在最初的社区通知的信件中提到采矿公司将听取社区民众看法的意图, 都会提高被试者对该采矿公司的信任。

企业为获取社区的信任和社会许可, 要积极组织与社区成员及利益相关者的交流与协商, 让其有机会切实地参与到决策过程中去, 保证决策过程的公开、透明及实际赋权(Corscadden et al., 2012; Moffat & Zhang, 2014; Yates & Horvath, 2013), 让社区成员获得尊重与价值感(Owen & Kemp, 2013; Zhang et al., 2015)。具体而言, 企业可以公开项目实施及管理计划, 开展大规模的意见咨询, 鼓励当地不同观点和想法的表达, 倾听他们的反对意见及反馈并作出回应, 更好地实现双向沟通和对话, 保证社区在决策过程中发挥切实作用(Lacey, Carr-Cornish, Zhang, Eglinton, & Moffat, 2017; Thomson & Boutilier, 2011; Voyer, Gladstone, & Goodall, 2014; Yates & Horvath, 2013)。

3.3 政府管理能力

Zhang和Moffat (2015)研究发现, 在矿业领域, 虽然民众担心开采矿物会导致对环境的不利影响, 但是与那些认为政府对矿业管理力度很弱的社区民众相比, 那些强烈认为现有的法规和立法有能力让矿业对其行为负责的人接受矿业开发的可能性更大。换言之, 社区对政府机构管理能力的信心越强, 社区对矿业的接受度越高(Zhang et al., 2015)。在Pron列举的失败案例中, 由于当地居民缺乏对相关政府机构的信任(e.g., Tambogrande case), 或是由于政府的决策不能平衡社区和企业双方的需求(e.g., Ok Tedi case), 导致了一些冲突的发生, 阻碍了社会许可的获得(Prno, 2013)。当他们意识到政府在社会和环境方面的表现不能让采矿业负起责任时, 就会表现出强烈的反对意见。Zhang, Measham和Moffat (2018)的假设采矿项目的实验研究表明, 当采矿公司表示会严格按照法制法规操作后, 被试对该采矿公司的信任得到进一步提高。

为提升项目的接受度, 政府部门要增强自身的监测、执行和调控能力, 加强对企业的环境监管, 能够让企业为项目负责(Zhang & Moffat, 2015), 使企业与社区和利益相关者建立正确的合作关系(Thomson & Boutilier, 2011; Yates & Horvath, 2013)。同时, 企业要把如何以法制法规为基准的具体操作与利益相关者进行沟通(Zhang et al., 2018)。

3.4 对企业的信任

在矿业领域, 对矿业公司的信任是当地社区接受采矿作业的一个核心要素(Moffat & Zhang, 2014; Zhang et al., 2015)。社区对企业的信任感越强, 其对该企业的接受度也越高。在一项关于再生能源社会接受度的调查中, 研究人员要求被调查者对可能影响再生能源项目社会接受度的一系列因素的重要性进行评定, 结果发现, 83%的被调查者认为对企业的信任感是影响能源项目社会接受度非常重要的因素之一(Corscadden et al., 2012)。此外, Zhang等人(2015)研究发现, 利益分配、过程公平、政府监管力及企业信任四个因素除了对矿业接受度均有直接的影响外, 利益分配、过程公平及政府监管力还能通过影响社区对企业的信任来间接影响矿业的被接受度。

为提升社区对企业的信任感, 企业需要树立值得信任、值得尊敬、社团利益导向的形象(Boutilier & Thomson, 2011; Prno, 2013)。这就要求企业在进行项目和活动时, 要采取一种为环境、财政、社会负责任的方式(Yates & Horvath, 2013)。具体来说, 企业可以通过采取自愿行动、民事监督、行业治理领导等方式加强对自身监管, 使其项目带来的环境影响能够得到有效治理, 从而获取社区信任和许可(Prno, 2013; Zhang & Moffat, 2015)。同时, 企业也可以通过为当地发展做出贡献来获得社区的认可(Martinez & Franks, 2014)。

3.5 文化和社会背景

在矿业领域, 除了经济利益、程序公平等因素以外, 能否获得社会许可也会受到当地社区一些特定的社会环境和文化因素的影响, 例如, 当地的文化价值观, 以往对矿业的经验和感知等等(Nelsen, 2007; Prno, 2013)。Wittneben (2012) 就英国和德国对日本福岛第一核电站发生事故后的反应为例——英国当地仍然支持核能源开发, 而德国由于遭到当地民众的反对而决定暂缓核能源开发或关闭旧的核电站——分析了欧洲两个国家对同一事件做出不同反应的原因。他指出, 德国与日本的文化相似性, 以及德国当时的社会政治环境是影响其核能源开发受阻的重要原因之一。Zhang等人(2015)在不同国家的社会背景下, 考察不同因素对矿业接受度的影响中发现, 在不同地区和国家中, 影响社会许可的关键要素之间的关系存在着显著的差异。例如, 中国被试对于矿业项目中的利益分配公平程度、过程公平程度, 以及对政府的信任度的感知水平均高于智利被试, 但其最终对矿业的接受程度却低于智利。在不同的环境或文化背景下, 不同因素对社会许可的影响程度被赋予的权重不一样(Prno, 2013; Zhang et al., 2015)。

各地区的条件、需求和习俗各不相同, 且往往不透明, 但这对信任关系的建设有着重大影响。因此, 需要采用一种灵活和响应性的方法, 来开发和实施有效的策略以获得和维护社会许可(Bunnell, 2013; Lacey et al., 2017; Yates & Horvath, 2013)。企业必须尽早了解社区特定情况, 包括当地背景, 社区成员的需求、期望以及他们的文化和价值观, 从而发展能够反映当地情况的关系管理策略, 并时刻关注社会、文化, 经济及政治动态, 产生适应性的调整工具及指导方针, 以应对在实际中遇到的不同情况(Prno, 2013)。

此外, 社会许可的获得并非是永久的。即使企业在项目早期得到社区民众的支持, 当企业有损信誉的行为发生时, 仍可能造成社会许可的撤销。因此, 企业要注意维持与社区的信任关系 (Whiteman & Mamen, 2002)。Lacey等人(2017)提出社区关系和社会许可的成功维持的关键在于真正去承诺保持, 并依赖于长期持续的交流与协商(Boutilier et al., 2012)。这意味着, 企业做到言行一致, 不要轻易提出做不到的承诺, 并可通过制定管理标准与流程来加强必要行为和纠正不正当行为, 从而获取社区及利益相关方的认可(Boutilier et al., 2012)。在项目实施过程中, 企业需要发展反馈机制、重复社会许可的结果评估, 并根据评估结果制定相应的应对措施。同时, 关注情况的动态变化, 灵活地根据实时情况变化做出适当的回应与调整也尤为重要(Prno, 2013)。

4 展望:心理学与社会许可

社会许可的概念虽然是由工业界所提出, 然而, 在实施中, 如果仅遵从工业化的步骤, 而忽视利益相关群体需求的多样化, 则可能会增加获得社会许可的难度。解决这一问题的关键则是心理学界的助力。这里, 我们用心理学家的工作, 来说明在今后的社会许可研究中重要的四个关键科学问题。这四个科学问题有待心理学家来回答, 也只有心理学家能够回答:即社会许可应由谁颁发?为发生在什么地点的事件颁发?为发生在什么时间的事件颁发?颁发社会许可, 还是社会不许可?

4.1 由谁颁发社会许可

颁发“社会许可”的主体因人而异, 当地民众受到项目开展的直接影响, 征求其意见并获得其许可无可厚非; 政府相关部门在民众和企业之间起到监管、调节的作用, 获得政府相关部门的许可是项目得以顺利开展的保障; 在网络信息发达的现代, 社会群体的力量不容小视。因此, 当地民众、政府相关部门、社会群体等均可能作为决策者颁发“社会许可”。具体而言, 当地民众在为项目颁发“社会许可”时, 实则表明其接受该项目在本地开展, 即为自己做决策; 政府相关部门、社会群体等为项目颁发“社会许可”, 一定程度上是为当地居民(他人)做决策。在心理学的研究领域, 为自己或为他人决策存在差异, 研究者基于建构水平理论(Construal Level Theory, CLT)、情绪卷入度、调节聚焦理论(regulatory-focus theory, RFT) (Higgins, 1997)等对自己-他人决策差异的机制进行解释(刘翠翠, 陈彬, 刘磊鑫, 原献学, 汪祚军, 2013)。虽然“自己-他人决策差异”的成因与机制仍有待考证(Garcia-Retamero, Okan, & Maldonado, 2015; Hsee & Weber, 1997; Polman, 2012; Stone, Yates & Caruthers, 2002), 但是研究者发现, 人们为他人做决策时会寻找更多的参考信息, 提出更多的正性理由, 为自己做决策时提出更多的负性理由, 相对于为他人决策表现出更强的损失规避(Polman, 2010, 2012), 即人们在遇到损失时, 有规避损失的倾向, 而等量的损失产生的心理效用大于获益产的心理效用, 从而证明了“为自己决策”不同于“为他人决策”。因此, 由谁作为颁发“社会许可”的主体需要综合现实情况及其意义进行考虑, 不可冒然下定论。例如, 以“不能在我家后院”为主题的一系列研究表明, 人们虽然会在原则上支持一定的项目开发如风力发电, 但是, 当这些项目发生在自己所居之处时, 其态度却往往发生大转变(Guo, Ru, Su, & Anadon, 2015; Petrova, 2016)。

4.2 为发生在什么地点的事件颁发社会许可

民众之所以吝于给出社会许可, 往往是由于他们害怕矿业等资源开发活动可能带来的潜在风险。在现实生活中, 客观危险与主观害怕之间的关系存在一种名为“心理台风眼” (psychological typhoon eye)的效应(Zheng et al., 2015)。心理台风眼效应, 即在时间维度上, 越接近高风险时段, 心理越平静; 在空间维度上, 越接近高风险地点, 心理越平静。在与社会许可息息相关的矿业开发、核电应用等领域也存在着心理台风眼效应。以往研究发现, 与远离核反应堆居住的居民相比, 住在核反应堆附近的居民不仅对核反应堆的风险认知更低, 而且也更不担心核反应堆的负面影响; 他们对核设施安全性的评价甚至要显著地高于远离核反应堆居住的居民的安全评价(Guedeney & Mendel, 1973; Maderthaner, Guttmann, Swaton, & Otway, 1978; Nealey, Melber, & Rankin, 1983)。

在铅锌矿污染问题中, 一个令人疑惑的现状是:坚决反对无保护性措施的铅锌开采的(即, 三令五申严禁个人私自开矿) 是那些健康没有受到直接威胁的群体(如政策制定者或公共事务管理者); 而健康直接受到威胁的群体(如矿主或矿工)却无视法规法律的禁止, 仍坚持“顶风”开采私人铅锌矿。“心理台风眼”效应卷入变式为此做出了解释:不同卷入度村民的风险认知水平存在显著差异, 风险认知水平从低到高依次为矿主、矿工、矿主和矿工的家属、未参与开矿的村民, 表现出明显的心理台风眼效应(Zheng et al., 2015)。

在评估民众的社会许可时, 不能仅从经济获益与否出发, 也应对当地居民的心理状态予以充分了解。在上面论述的所有获得社会许可的步骤中, 都强调了与当地居民的沟通。然而, 不容忽视的是, 在沟通过程中我们有必要了解民众的背景信息, 特别是客观社会经济地位之外, 民众与地区之间的关系。心理学中, 研究者往往用当地居民对其住地的评价, 即“住地依恋”这一指标来评估人们与其居住地之间的情感联结。住地依恋可以预测民众参与本地区有关活动的积极性(Rollero & Piccoli, 2010; Van Vugt, 2001), 以及对当地环境的保护性行为(Kyle, Graefe, Manning, & Bacon, 2004; Stedman, 2002; Vorkinn & Riese, 2001)。因此, 在争取获得社会许可的时候, 相关人员应该采用心理学手段深入了解民众与他们所生活的这片土地之间的感情, 即住地依恋。

Wang等人(2015)采用间接投射技术测量了我国城镇化进程中居民住地依恋的状况, 从中发现了一个有趣的“城镇位错”效应(Town-Dislocation effect), 即在控制了性别、年龄和教育程度的影响之后, 处于城镇化进程不同阶段的三地居民在住地依恋上存在着显著差异——城镇居民对住地的依恋显著低于城市和农村居民, 而城市居民和农村居民对于住地的依恋程度差异不显著。如果按照教育、医疗以及经济收入等硬指标来比较, 从农村到城镇再到城市, 各项指标应呈阶梯状上升, 进而推测住地依恋也应该呈现上升趋势。然而, 依据投射测验的结果, 城镇居民对住地的依恋反而“掉”了下来, 显著地低于另外两个区域, 呈现出“软硬”指标的错位以及“常识预期”与“实际测量”的错位, 研究人员将此现象命名为“城镇位错”效应。

心理台风眼效应(Li et al., 2010; Li et al., 2009; Wei, Tao, Liu, & Li, 2017; Zheng et al., 2015)、城镇位错效应(Wang et al., 2015; Wei et al., 2017)等系列研究表明, 政府或企业开展的项目所处的地理位置, 以及项目所处位置与民众居住地之间的距离与人们的感受之间并非简单的线性关系。心理台风眼效应卷入变式的发现对环境问题中的风险沟通与风险管理具有积极的借鉴意义。当前, 在获得社会许可的过程中广泛征求民意已经成为风险沟通的必备流程, 然而心理台风眼效应卷入变式的存在却有可能使人们在表达民意时受到所处状态与所获利益的影响, 出现行为偏差。因此, 相关政府部门应该更加重视决策前进行的多方意见征求, 并谨慎开展调查。

4.3 为发生在什么时间的事件颁发社会许可

对项目进行社会许可评估时, 在已有的案例中, 有些评估在项目实施当下进行, 而有些则在项目实施之前一段时间进行, 评估时间在学界内与行业内并没有形成统一的标准。然而, 针对相同的项目, 不同评估时间可能造成不同结果。例如, Okeke和Armour (2000)的研究发现当垃圾处理厂建成几年后, 原本在建厂之前, 对垃圾处理厂可能的潜在环境污染非常担心与害怕的民众, 已经不再关心这个问题了。此外, 不同时间评估也涉及到跨期决策的问题。心理学研究者把人们对发生在不同时间的结果做出判断或选择称为跨期决策(Frederick, Loewenstein, & O’Donoghue, 2002)。跨期决策的研究发现, 在面对“获得”领域的跨期决策行为时, 存在一个时间折扣过程, 人们会根据将来获益的延迟时间对其效用进行折扣, 得到的折扣后效用会小于当前获益的效用, 即相对于未来获得, 人们偏爱于现在获得(Samuelson, 1937); 而在面对“损失”领域的跨期决策行为, 出现则是相反的负折扣现象, 即相对于未来损失, 人们更偏爱于现在损失(孙红月, 2014)。以建立核电站的项目为例, 民众希望建立核电站能够使其获得直接利益而并不会对其生态环境造成威胁, 若民众为当下建立核电站或为十年后建立核电站颁发“社会许可”, 由于时间折扣及负折扣, 民众做出的决策将会有所不同。由此看出, 社会许可存在评估时间的选择问题, 且对这一问题的研究与解决需要心理学家参与其中。

4.4 颁发“社会许可”还是颁发“社会不许可”

在“社会许可”现有的体制中, 评估形式是颁发“社会许可”, 对应“接受”或“撤销”两种反应模式, 一般的理解为选择“撤销”, 则代表不许可, 可事实并非完全如此。Shafir (1993)在其研究中, 设计了以下情境:假如您现在是一名法官, 正在审判离婚案件中独生子的完全监护权。由于所涉及的经济、社会以及情感方面的因素太复杂, 您决定只根据以下少量观察从而做出您的决定。父母A是个各方面都表现平平的人, 而父母B则是优缺点都很多的人。有趣的是, 当问及“您会授予哪一位父母对孩子的监护权?”时, 大部分假想的“法官” (64%)选择了父母B; 而当问及“您会剥夺哪一位父母对孩子的监护权?”时, 仍然有大部分假想的“法官” (55%)选择了B父母。结果显示, B父母被授予或剥夺监护权的可能性都更高, 其和大于100% (64% + 55% = 119%, z = 2.48, p < 0.02)。

离婚案件中, 父母双方常常对孩子的抚养权归属存在争议。大部分情况是双方都希望抚养子女, 并为争夺孩子的抚养权归属而不惜展开零和博弈。电影《克莱默夫妇》(Kramer vs. Kramer)就讲述了这种争夺战的无奈。可决策研究的结果意味着, 在类似离婚案件里子女监护权的审判中, 这艰难的判决是很容易被人为操控的。如果你希望A父母胜出, 你只要在法庭以“剥夺哪一位父母对孩子的监护权?”的方式提问; 如果你希望B父母胜出, 你只要在法庭以“授予哪一位父母对孩子的监护权?”的方式提问。哪位父母能胜出, 似乎可以“一语定乾坤”。据此, 我们可以认为在“社会许可”体制中, 颁发“社会许可”与颁发“社会不许可”所收到的效果是不一样的。那么, 我们应该颁发“社会许可”, 还是“社会不许可”?这一问题需要心理学家进行研究以给出回答。同时, 心理学的研究发现, 设置默认选项、选项顺序、“迫选”设计等决策选项设计都会对决策结果产生影响(e.g., 梁哲 等, 2008; Li & Lee Wong, 2005)。这些有关判断与决策的研究结论已在众多领域得到证实和应用, 其在“社会许可”评估中的适应性及其应用性有待进一步发展。

上述这些心理学的方法都可以为社会许可获得过程中评估民众的背景信息提供独特的评价视角, 或能帮助我们了解、确认诸多与地域有关的真实认同感, 从而为后续的沟通过程制定针对性的方案。同时, 采用心理学方法对社会管理进行助推(nudge)的独到之处在于:它既不必取道行政命令, 也无需借助经济杠杆, 而是通过提供简约且低成本的选择架构, 使人们的行为朝着预期的方向改变, 从而获得更多的财富、健康和幸福(李纾, 2016; 何贵兵, 李纾, 梁竹苑, 2018)。

致谢:本文作者李纾和郑蕊受Australian Studies in China Program grant资助与Adaptive Urban and Social Systems, Land and Water, of CSIRO开展合作, 特此致谢。同时, 感谢澳大利亚James Cook University的Wendy Li博士和中国社会科学院王俊秀研究员在文章审校过程中给予给与的意见与建议。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Securing a social licence to operate? From stone age to new age mining in Tanzania. Research Report 7: Governance of Africa’s resources programme. South African Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg

South Africa.

[本文引用: 1]

Guedeney, C ., & Mendel , G. ( 1973).

L'angoisse atomique et les centrales nucléaires: Contribution psychanalytique et sociopsychanalytique à l'étude d'un phénomÈne collectif

Payot.

[本文引用: 1]

Gunningham N., Kagan R. A., & Thornton D . ( 2004).

Social license and environmental protection: Why businesses go beyond compliance

Law & Social Inquiry, 29( 2), 307-341.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract This article examines the concept of the corporate “social license,” which governs the extent to which a corporation is constrained to meet societal expectations and avoid activities that societies (or influential elements within them) deem unacceptable, whether or not those expectations are embodied in law. It examines the social license empirically, as it relates to one social problem–environmental protection–and as it relates to one particular industry: pulp and paper manufacturing. It shows try the social license is important, the circumstances in which it may encourage companies to go “beyond compliance” with regulation, how its terms are monitored and enforced, and how it interacts with what we term the regulatory and economic licenses. Overall, this research demonstrates that corporate environmental behavior cannot be explained purely in terms of instrumental threats and moral obligations to comply with the law, and that the increasing incidence of “beyond compliance” corporate behavior can be better explained in terms of the interplay between social pressures and economic constraints.

Guo Y., Ru P., Su J., & Anadon L. D . ( 2015).

Not in my backyard, but not far away from me: Local acceptance of wind power in China

Energy, 82, 722-733.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Local acceptance of wind energy technology has become an important factor to consider when designing local and national wind energy technological innovation policies. Previous studies have investigated the factors that shape the local acceptance of wind power in high-income countries. However, to the best of our knowledge, these factors had not been investigated in China. Utilizing a survey and quantitative analysis, we have identified the factors that are correlated with local acceptance of wind power in China. We conducted our study in the city of Jiuquan, Gansu Province, which currently possesses the largest installed capacity for wind power generation in China. Two factors, namely, perceived economic benefits and perceived environmental costs, influence local acceptance of wind power in China most significantly. Local acceptance of wind power in China can be described as “not in my backyard, but not far away from me”. In other words, the acceptance rate is lowest when the source of wind power is located in their village or community, highest when the project is located in their county and city and decreases for projects that are constructed further away.

Hall, N. L . ( 2014).

The discourse of “social licence to operate”: case study of the Australian wind industry

AIMS Energy, 2( 4), 443-460.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Social Licence to Operate is a concept from the mining industry that reflects the ongoing acceptance or approval for a development granted by local stakeholders. It is now being applied by wind farm developers. Using the Australian wind industry as a case study, this discourse analysis examined how Social Licence to Operate is perceived and operationalised, and the key themes in this conceptual and applied discourse. Discourse analysis acknowledges that language choices are not accidental and discourse reflects power relationships. The wind industry representatives interviewed considered power over the Social Licence to Operate was shared with community stakeholders. They recognised the stakeholders' power to delay or prevent projects, but rejected the notion that every stakeholder group should have veto power. Social Licence to Operate is seen by the wind industry through a business-oriented perspective, with an emphasis on business risk, and they describe the opposition to wind farms by invoking a metaphor of "battle". The industry respondents described Social Licence to Operate as incorporating the values of trust, transparency and participation hich all contribute to creating "authentic" relationships. These findings can inform Social Licence to Operate research, engagement practices, and also encourage reflection by industry representatives on their implicit intentions for stakeholder engagement.

Hall N. L., Ashworth P., & Shaw H . ( 2012).

Exploring community acceptance of rural wind farms in Australia: A snapshot

Brisbane: CSIRO Science into Society Group.

[本文引用: 1]

Harvey, B. ( 2014).

Social development will not deliver social licence to operate for the extractive sector

The Extractive Industries and Society, 1( 1), 7-11.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

In the past decade the extractive sector has embraced social responsibility, and more recently extractive companies have extended this to include contributions to social development. A growing number of industry-sponsored, consultancy and academic publications describe how the sector can contribute to the economic and social development of host communities. However, despite its good intentions and frequent focus on confronting issues, the social development approach is fundamentally flawed. It frequently fails to communicate to intended audiences and it asks extractive companies to adopt policies, such as ‘contributing to reducing poverty’, which do not sit comfortably with the remit, capabilities and business imperatives of the extractive sector. This article argues that the approach encourages company priorities and behaviours which blur appropriate boundaries between firms, governments and communities; and may lead to unintended consequences which ultimately result in poorer community outcomes, and thence dilution of the ‘social licence’ eagerly sought. An argument is made for limiting social development ‘outreach’ and focusing more on ‘in-reach’, whereby extractive companies prioritise activities aimed at behavioural (and consequently, attitudinal) change across the whole of their organisation to secure trust and support from host communities.

Henisz W. J., Dorobantu S., & Nartey L. J . ( 2014).

Spinning gold: The financial returns to stakeholder engagement

Strategic Management Journal, 35( 12), 1727-1748.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We provide direct empirical evidence in support of instrumental stakeholder theory's argument that increasing stakeholder support enhances the financial valuation of a firm, holding constant the objective valuation of the physical assets under its control. We undertake this analysis using panel data on 26 gold mines owned by 19 publicly traded firms over the period 1993–2008. We code over 50,000 stakeholder events from media reports to develop an index of the degree of stakeholder conflict/cooperation for these mines. By incorporating this index in a market capitalization analysis, we reduce the discount placed by financial markets on the net present value of the physical assets controlled by these firms from 72 percent to between 37 and 13 percent . Copyright 08 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Higgins, E. T . ( 1997).

Beyond pleasure and pain

American psychologist, 52( 12), 1280-1300.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

House, E. J . ( 2013).

Fractured fairytales: The failed social license for unconventional oil and gas development

Wyoming Law Review, 13( 1), 5-67.

[本文引用: 1]

Hsee, C. K., & Weber, E. U . ( 1997).

A fundamental prediction error: Self-others discrepancies in risk preference

Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 126( 1), 45-53.

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Jorgensen, D. ( 2006).

Hinterland history: The Ok Tedi mine and its cultural consequences in Telefolmin

The Contemporary Pacific, 18( 2), 233-263.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Much of the literature on mining in Papua New Guinea is concerned with the politics of landowner compensation. In the case of the Ok Tedi mine, attention has focused largely on claims for downstream ecological damage and the ensuing settlement on behalf of people living along the Lower Ok Tedi. Like all major mines, however, Ok Tedi has produced a series of large-scale ripple effects throughout the surrounding region, both downstream and upstream. In this article I explore two decades of mine-related transformations among Telefolmin, one of several groups of Min people who are a major source of labor for the Ok Tedi mine. I argue that Ok Tedi provides Telefolmin with the ability to realize a particular form of modernity. For Telefolmin, however, this modernity is rendered insecure by their hinterland status and the prospect of mine closure, sharpening fears that the Telefol experience of modernity may be a fleeting one.

Kemp D., Owen J. R., Gotzmann N., & Bond C. J . ( 2011).

Just relations and company-community conflict in mining

Journal of Business Ethics, 101( 1), 93-109. doi: 10.1007/ s10551-010-0711-y.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This research engages with the problem of company–community conflict in mining. The inequitable distributions of risks, impacts, and benefits are key drivers of resource conflicts and are likely to remain at the forefront of mining-related research and advocacy. Procedural and interactional forms of justice therefore lie at the very heart of some of the real and ongoing challenges in mining, including: intractable local-level conflict; emerging global norms and performance standards; and ever-increasing expectations for the industry to translate high-level corporate social responsibility policy into on-the-ground practice. This research focuses on the “process” aspects of resource conflicts through an examination of existing grievance-handling procedures at six mining operations where company–community conflict was present. In their current form, and on their own, the six mechanisms were found to be insufficient in their capacity to advance justice. The authors argue that if the overall objective of global norms is that companies construct and perform grievance handling in ways that strongly preference just practices, then “mechanisms-in-practice” must be better understood and constructively critiqued along all justice dimensions.

Knih, D. ( 2004).

Community engagement as conflict prevention: Understanding the social license to operate (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation)

Canada University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://dspace.library.uvic.ca// handle/1828/4338

[本文引用: 6]

Kyle G., Graefe A., Manning R., & Bacon J . ( 2004).

Effect of activity involvement and place attachment on recreationists’ perceptions of setting density

Journal of Leisure Research, 36( 2), 209-231.

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Lacey J., Carr-Cornish S., Zhang A., Eglinton K., & Moffat K . ( 2017).

The art and science of community relations: Procedural fairness at Newmont's Waihi Gold operations, New Zealand

Resources Policy, 52, 245-254.

[本文引用: 3]

Lacey, J., Parsons, R. &Moffat K. , ( 2012).

Exploring the concept of a Social Licence to Operate in the Australian minerals industry: Results from interviews with industry representatives

EP125553. CSIRO, Brisbane.

[本文引用: 2]

Li, S., & Lee Wong, S. M . ( 2005).

A study on Singaporeans’ perceptions of sexual harassment from a crosscultural perspective

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35( 4), 699-717.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This paper addresses the question of whether culture and language in Singapore affect the interpretation of sexual harassment; that is, whether speakers from a different language and ethnic background will interpret the discourse domain of sexual harassment differently. Three studies constitute this research. The first study investigates whether certain cues relating to sexual harassment are judged equivalently across the ethnic groups. The second study examines how verbal space is conceptualized and ruled by the use of different languages used by different ethnic groups. The third study explores whether English, as a medium of communication, is a low-context language. Results show that different ethnic groups perceived the cues differently; that ethnicity affects the interpretation of a single English phrase; and that English as used by Singaporeans is a high-context language, which complicates the understanding of victims coping responses.

Li S., Rao L.-L., Bai X.-W., Zheng R., Ren X.-P., Li J.-Z., .. Zhang K . ( 2010).

Progression of the “psychological typhoon eye” and variations since the Wenchuan earthquake

PLoS One, 5( 3), e9727.

[本文引用: 1]

Li S., Rao L.-L., Ren X.-P., Bai X.-W., Zheng R., Li J.-Z., .. Liu H . ( 2009).

Psychological typhoon eye in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

PLoS One, 4( 3), e4964.

URL     PMID:2654756      [本文引用: 1]

On May 12, 2008, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale jolted Wenchuan, China, leading to 69,227 deaths and 374,643 injured, with 17,923 listed as missing as of Sept. 25, 2008, and shook the whole nation. We assessed the devastating effects on people's post-earthquake concern about safety and health. From June 4 to July 15, 2008, we surveyed a convenience sample of 2,262 adults on their post-earthquake concern about safety and health. Residents in non-devastated areas (Fujian and Hunan Provinces, and Beijing) and devastated areas (Sichuan and Gansu Provinces) responded to a questionnaire of 5 questions regarding safety measures, epidemic disease, medical workers, psychological workers, and medication. The ANOVAs showed a significant effect of residential devastation level on the estimated number of safety measures needed, the estimated probability of the outbreak of an epidemic, and the estimated number of medical and psychological workers needed (Ps<0.001). The post-earthquake concern decreased significantly as the level of residential devastation increased. Because of the similarity with the meteorological phenomenon of the eye of a typhoon, we dubbed these findings a “Psychological Typhoon Eye”: the closer to the center of the devastated areas, the less the concern about safety and health a resident felt. Contrary to common perception and ripple effect that the impact of an unfortunate event decays gradually as ripples spread outward from a center, a “Psychological Typhoon Eye” effect was observed where the post-earthquake concern was at its lowest level in the extremely devastated areas. The resultant findings may have implications for Chinese governmental strategies for putting “psychological comfort” into effect.

Litmanen T., Jartti T., & Rantala E . ( 2016).

Refining the preconditions of a social licence to operate (SLO): reflections on citizens’ attitudes towards mining in two Finnish regions

The Extractive Industries and Society, 3( 3), 782-792.

[本文引用: 1]

Lynch‐Wood, G., & Williamson D. , ( 2007).

The social licence as a form of regulation for small and medium enterprises

Journal of Law and Society, 34( 3), 321-341.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Traditional forms of regulation have been criticized for not adequately protecting the environment. Indeed, there is evidence and growing support for the view that societal pressure can act as a social licence which induces 'beyond compliance' behaviour. In exploring this view, the paper (a) outlines the characteristics of the social licence; (b) assesses how these characteristics can influence the environmental behaviour of small and medium enterprises; (c) presents a model which shows that social licence pressures depend on the interplay of a range of factors; and (d) applies the model to explain why societal pressures rarely induce beyond compliance environmental behaviour among small and medium enterprises.

Maderthaner R., Guttmann G., Swaton E., & Otway H. J . ( 1978).

Effect of distance upon risk perception

Journal of Applied Psychology, 63( 3), 380-382.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT 148 Ss were asked to rate the hazard they perceived to be associated with living near 7 different types of public facilities (i.e., nuclear reactor, oil refinery, airport, gas works, prison, district heating facility, and mental hospital). Two respondent groups lived .5 km and 1.4 km from a nuclear research reactor, 2 groups lived at similar distances from a district heating facility, and the control group lived about 10 km from both facilities. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to the item "nuclear reactor," with the group living 1.4 km from the reactor perceiving it to be riskier than the nearer group and the controls, suggesting that frequent contact with potentially threatening objects reduces the perceived hazard. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Martinez, C., &Franks,D. M . ( 2014).

Does mining company-sponsored community development influence social licence to operate? evidence from private and state-owned companies in Chile

Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 32( 4), 294-303.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Moffat K., Lacey J., Zhang A., & Leipold S . ( 2016).

The social licence to operate: A critical review

Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 89( 5), 477-488.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Changing societal expectations have influenced the way industries involved in the development or extraction of natural resources conduct their operations around the world. Increasingly, communities are demanding more involvement in decision-making around such operations, have expectations of receiving a greater share of the benefits from these operations and require assurances that the industries involved are appropriately regulated. The combination of increasing pressures on industry performance and the associated societal acceptance of such operations has been described as the ocial licence to operate . In many ways, the social licence reflects the evolving nature of the relationships between industries and their communities and other stakeholders. Originally used to describe the social acceptability of mining operations, the term has since been applied to explore the broad acceptance that communities and other stakeholders provide to the activities of the forest, agriculture and energy sectors. This article presents a critical review of the emergence of the concept in industry practice over the last two decades. Recent applied research to measure and model the social licence is also examined to demonstrate how the roles of trust, fairness and governance may underpin the development of more sustainable, trust-based relationships between industry and society.

Moffat, K ., & Zhang A. , ( 2014).

The paths to social licence to operate: An integrative model explaining community acceptance of mining

Resources Policy, 39( 1), 61-70.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Nealey S. M., Melber B. D., & Rankin W. L . ( 1983).

Public opinion and nuclear energy

( No. DOE/NBM-4014414). DC Heath and Company, Lexington, MA.

[本文引用: 1]

Nelsen, J. ( 2007).

Social license to operate: Integration into mine planning and development (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia)

Canada Simon Fraser University. Retrieved from . 0081173

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Nelsen, J., & Scoble M ., ( 2007, June).

Research studies on building social license within mineral exploration

In 3rd International Conference Sustainable Development Indicators in the Minerals Industry. Heliotopos Publications, Greece( pp. 345-49).

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Social License to Operate continues to emerge as a paradigm fundamental to sustainable mineral resources development. It relates to a set of concepts, values, tools, and best practices that represent the view of reality held by each participant (industry and stakeholders). It enables a forum for negotiation through which all parties involved are heard, understood and respected. The exploration phase of the mine life cycle is generally the initial contact with local communities and forms the cornerstone for effective communication and trust building. This paper presents the development of a mineral exploration template, based on field studies, aimed at assisting exploration personnel to establish effective communications and engagement with local communities within a process to build a Social License. The template aims to provide practical assistance in conducting situational analysis – a process of examining and mapping a situation, its elements and their relations - in order to acquire knowledge and understanding of a project, locale and region. Situational analysis is the ‘full situation of inquiry’, going beyond just ‘knowing the subject’ to being fully situated. It forms the initial foundation for a planning process presented in the paper that prepares for a strategy of initial engagement and consultation.

Okeke,C. U., & Armour, A. ( 2000).

Post-landfill siting perceptions of nearby residents: A case study of Halton landfill

Applied Geography, 20( 2), 137-154.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In 1988, Owen Furuseth and Mark Johnson studied neighbourhood attitudes toward a sanitary landfill site in North Carolina, USA. Surveying residents who lived within 4800 m of the site, they found a strong measure of satisfaction among them regarding the operation of the facility. Since this study was published, there have been no known studies that have attempted to utilize the same approach to investigate the perceptions of nearby residents regarding the impacts of landfills in their community, especially those whose siting process they unsuccessfully opposed. Following the same approach used by Furuseth and Johnson, this study investigated the perceptions of nearby residents regarding the impacts of Halton landfill in Ontario, Canada. It reports that although the residents fought against the siting of the facility, once it had been in operation for a few years, they were only little concerned about most of the anticipated effects, which had formed the basis for their fears and opposition during the proposal stage. Similar to the results obtained by Furuseth and Johnson, operational, traffic and psychological impacts posed the least concerns to the residents, while environmental and economic impacts posed the highest concerns. Also, some of the impacts as perceived by residents appear to be influenced by distance.

Owen,J. R . ( 2016).

Social license and the fear of Mineras Interruptus

Geoforum, 77, 102-105.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This review article offers a critique of the social license concept, and of the debate surrounding it. In order to best understand what is meant by “social license”, one must look beyond its constituent terminology and instead examine the core drivers of contemporary mining practice. The working assumption inside the industry is that if disapproval becomes too intense there is a chance that members of the community will interrupt mining activities. This is what I refer to as ‘the fear of Mineras Interruptus’. If there is any meaning to attribute to the term ‘social license to operate’ – it is to be found in the fear of losing access – because other factors relating to social performance or benefits are considered peripheral. The author argues that the mining industry’s adoption and application of the concept should be viewed critically and not promoted on face value.

Owen,J. R., & Kemp, D. (2013).

Social licence and mining: A critical perspective

Resources Policy, 38( 1), 29-35.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

78 Social licence provides limited utility where sensitivity to CSR and mining is considered low. 78 Social licence as currently applied at odds with the objectives of sustainable development. 78 Social licence de-prioritises company led engagement on core development issues.

Petrova, M. A . ( 2016).

From NIMBY to acceptance: Toward a novel framework — VESPA — for organizing and interpreting community concerns

Renewable Energy, 86, 1280-1294.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Polman, E . ( 2010).

Information distortion in self-other decision making

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46( 2), 432-435.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In both organizational and social arenas, individuals make decisions for themselves and for other individuals. But research in decision making has provided little input into whether or how these decisions are psychologically different. In this paper, I propose that decisions—depending on whom they are for—vary according to the extent of information distortion, such that, individuals who choose for themselves demonstrate more postdecisional distortion, yet less predecisional distortion than individuals who choose on behalf of others. To test this hypothesis, participants in an experiment made a decision between two restaurants. Attributes about each restaurant were presented sequentially, and preferences were measured following each attribute. As expected, participants who chose for themselves experienced more postdecisional distortion. However, among participants who chose on behalf of others, greater distortion of predecisional attribute information was observed. These findings shed light on the differences in self-other decision making, as well as on research concerning information distortion.

Polman, E . ( 2012).

Effects of self-other decision making on regulatory focus and choice overload

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102( 5), 980-993.

URL     PMID:22429272      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract A growing stream of research is investigating how choices people make for themselves are different from choices people make for others. In this paper, I propose that these choices vary according to regulatory focus, such that people who make choices for themselves are prevention focused, whereas people who make choices for others are promotion focused. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, in particular work on errors of omission and commission, I hypothesize that people who make choices for others experience a reversal of the choice overload effect. In 6 studies, including a field study, I found that people who make choices for themselves are less satisfied after selecting among many options compared to few options, yet, people who make choices for others are more satisfied after selecting among many options compared to few options. Implications and suggestions for other differences in self-other decision making are discussed.

Prno, J . ( 2013).

An analysis of factors leading to the establishment of a social licence to operate in the mining industry

Resources Policy, 38( 4), 577-590.

URL     [本文引用: 11]

Prno, J ., & Slocombe D.S, . ( 2012).

Exploring the origins of ‘social license to operate’ in the mining sector: Perspectives from governance and sustainability theories

Resources Policy, 37( 3), 346-357.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Rollero, C., & Piccoli, N.D . ( 2010).

Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30( 2), 198-205.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The relationship between people and places is characterized by affective and cognitive dimensions, defined, respectively, as place attachment and identification. This paper aims at clarifying differences between place attachment and identification by (1) identifying their predictors in a structural equation model and (2) exploring their association with the environmental perception. To this purpose, we conducted a research on a sample of 328 residents of a city in the north of Italy. Results show that the affective and the cognitive dimensions (1) are directly predicted by different demographical and psychosocial variables and (2) are strictly associated to the perception of the place and its inhabitants. Place attachment and identification are two distinct but correlated components. Semantic contents related to the environmental perception are described in respect to different levels of attachment and identification.

Samuelson, P.A . ( 1937).

A note on measurement of utility

Review of Economic Studies, 4( 2), 155-161.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

No abstract is available for this item.

Shafir, E. ( 1993).

Choosing versus rejecting: Why some options are both better and worse than others

Memory & Cognition, 21( 4), 546-556.

URL     PMID:8350746     

A previously unobserved pattern of choice behavior is predicted and corroborated. In line with the principle of compatibility, according to which the weighting of inputs is enhanced by their compatibility with output, the positive and negative dimensions of options (their pros and cons) are expected to loom larger when one is choosing and when one is rejecting, respectively. Subjects are presented with pairs of options, one of which—the enriched option—has more positive as well as more negative dimensions than does the other, impoverished , option. Because positive dimensions are weighted more heavily in choosing than in rejecting, and negative dimensions are weighted more heavily in rejecting than in choosing, the enriched option tends to be chosen and rejected relatively more often than the impoverished option. These findings are extended to nonbinary decision problems, and their implications for the rational theory of choice and for everyday decisions are discussed.

Siegrist M., Connor M., & Keller C . ( 2012).

Trust, confidence, procedural fairness, outcome fairness, moral conviction, and the acceptance of GM field experiments

Risk Anal, 32( 8), 1394-1403.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Smits C. C. A., Justinussen J. C. S., & Bertelsen R. G . ( 2016).

Human capital development and a social license to operate: examples from arctic energy development in the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland

Energy Research & Social Science, 16, 122-131.

[本文引用: 2]

Solomon F., Katz E., & Lovel R . ( 2008).

Social dimensions of mining: Research, policy and practice challenges for the minerals industry in Australia

Resources Policy, 33( 3), 142-149.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Stedman,R. C . ( 2002).

Toward a social psychology of place: Predicting behavior from place-based cognitions, attitude, and identity

Environment and Behavior, 34( 5), 561-581.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Sense-of-place writings have proliferated in recent years, yet research suffers from a relative lack of construct clarity and hypothesis testing. This research presents a model of sense of place based in conventional social psychology: cognitions, attitudes, identities, and behavioral intentions located in and fundamentally about place. A survey of property owners in Vilas County, Wisconsin, revealed the importance of symbolic meanings as underpinning both place satisfaction, conceptualized as an attitude toward a setting, and attachment, conceptualized as personal identification with a setting. In turn, attachment, satisfaction, and meanings all have independent effects on willingness to engage in behaviors that maintain or enhance valued attributes of the setting.

Stone E. R., Yates A. J., & Caruthers A. S . ( 2002).

Risk taking in decision making for others versus the self

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32( 9), 1797-1824.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In two studies, we examined people's level of risk taking when making monetary decisions for other people rather than for themselves. Experiment 1 examined the role of regret in these situations; results show that regret concerns led to increased risk avoidance both when participants made decisions for other people as well as when making decisions for themselves. Experiment 2 tested whether skill tasks would lead to greater risk avoidance when the decision was for another person versus for oneself. This hypothesis was not supported, although men were more risk seeking than were women in both situations. Taken together, these studies suggest that many of the findings from risk research on individual decision making regarding financial situations generalize to decision making for others.

Thomson, I., & Boutilier, R.G . ( 2011).

Social license to operate

SME Mining Engineering Handbook, 1, 1779-1796.

[本文引用: 3]

Thomson I. , & Boutilier, R. G. (2011).

The social licence to operate

In: Darling, P. (Ed.), SME Mining Engineering Handbook. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (pp. 673-690). Colorado, America.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The ‘social licence to operate’ (SLO) is an increasingly heard term that was originally coined to draw the attention of mining companies to stakeholder issues. Drawing on questions and comments voiced in 50 events attended by approximately 900 managers, consultants, academics and students, this article employs the rhetoric device of ‘frequently asked questions’ (FAQs) to articulate conceptual... [Show full abstract]

Thomson I., & Joyce S ., ( 2006).

Changing mineral exploration industry approaches to sustainability

In Doggett, M., Parry, J.( Eds.), Wealth Creation in the Minerals Industry: Integrating Science, Business and Education. Society of Economic Geologists

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Tyler, T. R . ( 2000).

Social justice: outcome and procedure

International Journal of Psychology, 35( 2), 117-125.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A review of recent research demonstrates that people are more willing to accept decisions when they feel that those decisions are made through decision-making procedures they view as fair. Studies of procedural justice judgements further suggest that people evaluate fairness primarily through criteria that can be provided to all the parties to a conflict: whether there are opportunities to participate; whether the authorities are neutral; the degree to which people trust the motives of the authorities; and whether people are treated with dignity and respect during the process. These findings are optimistic and suggest that authorities have considerable ability to bridge differences and interests and values through the use of fair decision-making procedures. The limits to the effectiveness of such procedural approaches are also outlined. Une recension des recherches recentes montre que les gens sont prets a accepter des decisions quand ils sentent que ces decisions sont prises a la suite d'une procedure decisionnelle qu'ils considerent equitable. De plus, les etudes sur les jugements dans les procedure judiciaires suggerent que les gens evaluent l'equite prioritairement sur la base des criteres fournies a toutes les parties en conflit: possibilites de participation: neutralite des autorites; confiance dans les motifs des autorites; et procedure qui traite les personnes avec dignite et respect. Ces resultats optimistes suggerent que les autorites peuvent, par des procedures equitables de prise de decision, concilier des differences, des interets et des valeurs. Les limites a l'efficacite de ces approches procedurales sont aussi soulignees.

Tyler T. R. ( 2015).

Social justice

In: Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P.R., Dovidio, J.F., Simpson, J.A. (Eds.), APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 2: Group processes (pp. 95-122). Washington, D.C., US.

[本文引用: 1]

Van Vugt M ., ( 2001).

Community identification moderating the impact of financial incentives in a natural social dilemma: Water conservation

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27( 11), 1440-1449.

[本文引用: 1]

Vorkinn, M., & Riese, H. ( 2001).

Environmental concern in a local context: The significance of place attachment

Environment and behavior, 33( 2), 249-263.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract To improve the understanding of environmental concern, considering the context within which individuals develop environmental concerns may be important. One salient contextual variable related to local environmental issues is place attachment, which deals with human bonding to a specific physical environment. In a study in a rural community in Norway, the local attitudes toward a proposal of a major hydropower development, which will cause major environmental impacts, were examined in relation to sociodemographic variables and place attachment. The results from a postal survey show that place attachment explained more of the variances in attitudes than the sociodemographic variables all together.

Voyer M., Gladstone W., & Goodall H . ( 2014).

Understanding marine park opposition: The relationship between social impacts, environmental knowledge and motivation to fish

Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 24( 4), 441-462.

[本文引用: 1]

Wang F., Li S., Bai X-W., Ren X-P., Rao L-L., Li J-Z., … Zheng R . ( 2015).

Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization

PLoS ONE, 10( 5), e0125821.

URL     PMID:4431860      [本文引用: 2]

Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the own dislocation effect. When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

Warren, B . ( 2013).

The Australian seafood industry: Extension and social licence

. Extension Farming Systems Journal, 9(1), 190-195.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Informit is an online service offering a wide range of database and full content publication products that deliver the vast majority of Australasian scholarly research to the education, research and business sectors. Informit is the brand that encompasses RMIT Publishing's online products: Informit Indexes, Informit Plus Text and Informit Collections.

Wei Z-H., Tao R., Liu H., & Li S . ( 2017).

‘Freedom from fear and want’ and our psychological response to environmental changes

Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 11, e10.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

react-text: 374 Current approaches of measuring vulnerability to natural hazards generally use a rather static perspective that focuses on a single point in time?often before a hazardous event occurs. In contrast, the paper argues that vulnerability assessment should also take into account the changing dynamics during and after a disaster. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the situation in Sri... /react-text react-text: 375 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Whiteman, G. &Mamen K. , ( 2002).

Meaningful consultation and participation in the mining sector? A review of the consultation and participation of indigenous peoples within the international mining sector

Ottawa, ON: The North-South Institute. Retrieved from

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wilburn, K. M., & Wilburn, R . ( 2011).

Achieving social license to operate using stakeholder theory

Journal of International Business Ethics, 4( 2), 3-17.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is gaining support in the global business environment. Some companies are adopting a model, the Social License to Operate (SLO), as part of their CSR strategy. This paper provides background on the concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility and Social License to Operate with examples supporting the business case for them. It proposes a process based on stakeholder theory for identifying and classifying stakeholders that divides stakeholders into two groups: vested and non-vested. Vested stakeholder groups have a vote in the awarding of a social license to operate, while non-vested stakeholder groups have only a voice. By using a process based on alignment of the norms and values of the company, and the stakeholder groups, social licenses to operate can be negotiated that can allow a company to succeed in different countries and cultures.

Wittneben, B. B. F . ( 2012).

The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on European energy policy

Environmental Science & Policy, 15( 1), 1-3.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The disaster that struck the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan has reignited the international debate on the future of nuclear energy. Interestingly, the incident has been used to both justify nuclear power generation and reconsider past decisions made on established or planned nuclear power sites. Geographically removed from the radioactive fallout, Europe's response to the massive nuclear accident differed greatly among the member states. The UK and Germany stand out as examples of the wide spread of policy response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. In the UK, policy makers remained firm on their decision to increase nuclear power generation in the near future, whereas in Germany, the federal government decided to at least temporarily shut down the old generation of nuclear reactors and re-examine the safety of all national nuclear power facilities. Furthermore, a regional voter backlash, fuelled by resentment of the Merkel government's previous commitment to nuclear power, dealt a serious blow to the ruling coalition parties. How can national policy responses to the same event be so divergent in two European countries? This article attempts to answer this question in five arguments. I argue that in contrast to the UK, the German public faced imminent elections, stronger media reporting, increasing trust in renewable technologies, a history of nuclear resistance and a feeling of close cultural proximity to the Japanese.

Yates, B. F. &Horvath, C.L . ( 2013).

Social license to operate: How to get it, and how to keep it

Pacific Energy Summit.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

Zhang A., Measham T. G., & Moffat K . ( 2018).

Preconditions for social licence: The importance of information in initial engagement

Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1559-1566.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

react-text: 178 There is much existing knowledge about the factors that influence adoption of new practices in agriculture but few attempts have been made to construct predictive quantitative models of adoption for use by those planning agricultural research, development, extension and policy. ADOPT (Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool) is the result of such an attempt, providing predictions of a... /react-text react-text: 179 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Zhang, A., & Moffat, K. ( 2015).

A balancing act: the role of benefits, impacts and confidence in governance in predicting acceptance of mining in Australia

Resources Policy, 44, 25-34.

URL     [本文引用: 12]

Zhang A., Moffat K., Lacey J., Wang J., González R., Uribe K., … Dai Y . ( 2015).

Understanding the social licence to operate of mining at the national scale: a comparative study of Australia, China and Chile

Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, 1063-1072.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Zheng R., Rao L-L., Zheng X-L., Cai C., Wei Z-H., Xuan Y-H., & Li S . ( 2015).

The more involved in lead-zinc mining risk the less frightened: A psychological typhoon eye perspective

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 44, 126-134.

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