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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (10) : 1780-1792     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01780
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Perspectives, divergences, and future directions in organizational envy research
LIU Dege1(),ZHU Weichun1,LI Wendong2,ZHU Ting1,LIU Fang
1School of Management, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2Department of Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
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Abstract  

Envying others is a common phenomenon in the life and workplace contexts. Although there are many records about envy in the religion, philosophy, and history books a long time ago, it is until recently that envy has been paid more and more attention by researchers of organizational science. Previous research has deepened researchers’ understanding of envy from multiple perspectives and disciplines, however, there are still some challenges that need to be resolved in organizational envy research. In order to advance research on envy in organizations, in this paper, we begin with an in-depth review about envy from three perspectives (i.e., proper perspective, subtype perspective, and unitary construct perspective), analyze the divergences between these perspectives related to nature of envy, envier’s response, and explain contradictory results. Based on the above analysis, we propose that future research should clarify the nature and measurement of envy, study the dyadic relationship between the envier and being envied, and integrate different perspectives of research on envy in organizations.

Keywords envy      proper perspective of envy      subtype perspective of envy      unitary construct perspective of envy     
ZTFLH:  B849  
  C93  
Corresponding Authors: Dege LIU     E-mail: liudege@mail3.sysu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 19 August 2019
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Dege LIU
Weichun ZHU
Wendong LI
Ting ZHU
Fang LIU
Cite this article:   
Dege LIU,Weichun ZHU,Wendong LI, et al. Perspectives, divergences, and future directions in organizational envy research[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(10): 1780-1792.
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http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01780     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I10/1780
妒忌特有视角 妒忌分类视角 妒忌整体视角
概念 妒忌是一种因消极向上社会比较产生的不愉快情绪, 其核心成分是自卑、敌意和怨恨, 这种情绪使个体产生针对妒忌对象的敌意及其行为意向。 妒忌是一种因消极向上社会比较产生的不愉快和痛苦的情绪。带来消极影响的妒忌被称为恶意妒忌, 其包含要素和妒忌特有视角类似; 产生积极作用的妒忌被称为善意妒忌, 其包含要素为羡慕、自我提升动机、对妒忌物的渴望。 妒忌是一种因消极向上社会比较产生的痛苦的情绪, 是一种涉及消极向上社会比较、痛苦情绪、获得妒忌物的渴望、消除痛苦的动机要素的整体性概念。
核心
观点
敌意是妒忌的核心要素, 带有敌意的妒忌才是真正意义上的妒忌。妒忌会带来反生产行为等诸多消极影响。 存在两种不同性质和动机的妒忌, 即善意妒忌和恶意妒忌, 它们在激发个体选择 “建设性”和“破坏性”行为方面起了不同作用。 不应该将妒忌分为善意妒忌和恶意妒忌, 而应将其视为单维度和整体性概念。妒忌可以激发个体做出一系列反应, 个体会做出哪种具体反应, 会受到个体特征和情景因素的影响。
主要
测量
量表
及其
测量
要素
① 5题目妒忌量表:烦恼、不愉快、自卑、怨恨(Vecchio, 2000, 2005)
② 4题目妒忌:自卑、怨恨、挫败、痛苦(Schaubroeck & Lam, 2004)
③ 4题目妒忌量表:获得妒忌物的渴望、悲伤(van Dijk, Ouwerkerk, Goslinga, Nieweg, & Gallucci, 2006)
④ 21题目妒忌量表:自卑、不公平感、敌意、悲伤、憎恨(Krizan & Johar, 2012)
⑤ 15题目妒忌量表:烦恼、痛苦(Rentzsch & Gross, 2015)
① 善意妒忌:羡慕、提升动机、积极情感、对妒忌对象的积极想法、亲密意向; 恶意妒忌:敌意、挫败、不公平感、羞愧、说妒忌对象的坏话(van de Ven et al., 2009)
② 善意妒忌:提升动机; 恶意妒忌:敌意、挫败(Sterling, 2013)
③善意妒忌:羡慕、对妒忌对象的积极想法和情绪、提升动机; 恶意妒忌:怨恨、痛苦、气愤、敌意(Gallagher, 2013)
④ 善意妒忌:羡慕、挫败、提升动机; 恶意妒忌:敌意、怨恨、痛苦(Ierides, 2014)
⑤ 善意妒忌:羡慕、提升动机、获得妒忌物的渴望、对妒忌对象的积极想法; 恶意妒忌:敌意、对妒忌对象的负面想法(Crusius & Lange, 2014)
⑥ 善意妒忌:提升动机; 恶意妒忌:敌意、对他人的负面想法和情绪(Lange & Crusius, 2015a)
⑦ 善意妒忌:羡慕、提升动机、获得妒忌物的渴望、对妒忌对象的积极想法; 恶意妒忌:敌意、对妒忌对象的负面想法、说妒忌对象的坏话(Lange & Crusius, 2015b)
9题目妒忌量表:怨恨、生气、痛苦、获得妒忌物的渴望、自卑(Cohen-Charash, 2009; Cohen-Charash & Mueller, 2007)
影响
结果
攻击、欺骗、社会破坏、减少帮助、危害群体表现、降低群体满意度和凝聚力等。 善意妒忌会激发个体付出更多努力、挑战自我、提升自我; 恶意妒忌使个体做出破坏性行为, 比如辱虐行为、攻击行为等。 建设性行为、破坏性行为、回避、改变自我认知、焦虑等。
代表
性研
究者
Foster (1972); Smith & Kim (2007); Parrott & Smith (1993); Smith等(1999). van de Ven等(2009); van de Ven (2016); Sterling, Van de Ven, & Smith (2017). Cohen-Charash & Larson, (2017a, 2017b); Tai等(2012); Yu, Duffy, & Tepper (2018).
  
妒忌分类视角 妒忌整体视角
妒忌特有视角 妒忌特有视角认为, (1)善意妒忌缺少敌意这一核心要素, 与“特有妒忌”有本质不同; (2)个体为消减妒忌往往采取破坏性行为。
妒忌分类视角认为, 妒忌特有视角(1)忽略妒忌的积极面及其积极作用; (2)无法有效解释妒忌和幸灾乐祸之间的关系; (3)对个体为消减妒忌而采取行为的认识有其片面性。
妒忌特有视角认为, (1)敌意是妒忌的核心要素; (2)个体为消除妒忌往往采取破坏性行为。

妒忌整体视角认为, 妒忌特有视角(1)强调且测量妒忌的消极面, 从消极结果理解妒忌的性质, 忽视妒忌的积极面及其积极作用; (2)不利于揭示妒忌影响行为的心理机制, 以及个体和情境因素在妒忌和行为之间的作用。
妒忌分类视角 妒忌分类视角认为, 妒忌整体视角(1)未能解释妒忌和幸灾乐祸之间的矛盾结论; (2) 把类似于善意妒忌和恶意妒忌的因素归结到一个整体性概念之中。
妒忌整体视角认为, 妒忌分类视角(1)未厘清妒忌和妒忌结果的关系, 从妒忌的结果界定妒忌的含义和性质, 造成无谓的重复或同义反复; (2) 简化了妒忌情绪、行为意向和行为之间的关系; (3)在一定程度上误导研究结论。
  
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