Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (9) : 1556-1563     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01556
Regular Articles |
The automaticity in cognitive processing: From dichotomy to gradual view
CHEN ShengDong,CHEN YongQiang,GAO Wei,LUO Li,YANG JieMin,YUAN JiaJin()
School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Download: PDF(825 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info

Cognitive automaticity is an inevitable road for human learning and progress. The traditional dichotomy view classifies cognitive processes into controlled or automatic processes according to certain features of cognitive processes (e.g., unconsciousness). However, these features are not universal but up to the experimental paradigms used by researchers. New viewpoints based on the attentional resources theory have been developed recently, taking the controlled-automatic process as a continuous dimension and the decreases of attentional resources as the central feature of the development of automaticity. Compared with dichotomy, the gradual view accords better with empirical findings. Further, the gradual view can be appliaed in both cognitive information processing and the stages model of skill acquisition theory, which confirmed the universality of gradual view.

Keywords information processing      skill acquisition      automaticity      implicit      attention      attentional resources theory     
PACS:  B842  
Corresponding Authors: JiaJin YUAN     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 24 July 2019
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
ShengDong CHEN
YongQiang CHEN
Cite this article:   
ShengDong CHEN,YongQiang CHEN,Wei GAO, et al. The automaticity in cognitive processing: From dichotomy to gradual view[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(9): 1556-1563.
URL:     OR
1 傅小兰 . ( 2006). 表征、加工和控制在认知活动中的作用. 心理科学进展, 14( 4), 73-81.
2 高伟, 陈圣栋, 龙泉杉, 杨洁敏, 袁加锦 . ( 2017). 情绪调节研究方法的蜕变: 从有意情绪调节到自动化情绪调节. 科学通报, 63( 4), 415-424.
3 Anderson, J. R . ( 1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 89( 4), 369-406.
4 Bargh, J. A . ( 1989). Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition. In J. S. Uleman & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought(pp. 3-51).New York: Guilford.
5 Bargh, J. A . ( 1992). The ecology of automaticity: Toward establishing the conditions needed to produce automatic processing effects. The American journal of psychology, 105( 2), 181-199.
6 Bargh, J. A . ( 1994). The four horsemen of automaticity: Awareness, intention, efficiency, and control in social cognition. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (pp. 1-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
7 Bargh, J. A . ( 2006). What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36( 2), 147-168. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.336
8 Bargh, J. A . ( 2014). The historical origins of priming as the preparation of behavioral responses: Unconscious carryover and contextual influences of real-world importance. Social Cognition, 32, 209-224.
9 Bargh, J. A., & Morsella, E. ( 2008). The Unconscious Mind. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3( 1), 73-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00064.x
10 Bargh J. A., & Morsella, E. (2010). Unconscious behavioral guidance systems. In C. Agnew, D. Carlston, W. Graziano, & J. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research (pp.89-118). New York: Oxford University Press.
11 Bargh J. A., Schwader K. L., Hailey S. E., Dyer R. L., & Boothby E. J . ( 2012). Automaticity in social-cognitive processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16( 12), 593-605. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.10.002
12 Bargh J. A., & Williams, L. E. (2007). On the Automatic or Nonconscious Regulation of Emotion. In J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation (pp.1-39). New York: Guilford Press.
13 Braunstein L. M., Gross J. J., & Ochsner K. N . ( 2017). Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: A multi-level framework. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12( 10), 1545-1557.
14 DeCoster, J., & Claypool,H. M. ( 2004). A Meta-Analysis of priming effects on impression formation supporting a general model of informational biases. Personality and social psychology review : An official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc, 8( 1), 2-27.
15 Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory (HA Ruger & CE Bussenius, Trans.). New York: Teachers College.(Original work published 1885), 39.
16 Fitts P. M. (1964). Perceptual-motor skill learning. In A. W. Melton (Ed.), Categories of human learning (pp. 243-285). New York, NY: Acadamic Press.
17 Fitzsimons G. M. ,& Bargh, J. A. (2004). Automatic self-regulation. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 151-170). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
18 Gross, J. J . ( 2013). Emotion regulation: taking stock and moving forward. Emotion, 13( 3), 359-365. doi: 10.1037/ a0032135
19 Hassin R. R., Bargh J. A., & Zimerman S . ( 2009). Automatic and Flexible: The case of non-conscious goal pursuit. Social Cognition, 27( 1), 20-36.
20 Hulstijn, J. (2002). Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge. Second Language Research, 18( 3), 193-223.
21 Huang, J. Y., & Bargh, J. A . ( 2014). The Selfish Goal: autonomously operating motivational structures as the proximate cause of human judgment and behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37( 2), 121-135. doi: 10.1017/ S0140525X13000290
22 James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
23 Kim J. W., Ritter F. E., & Koubek R. J . ( 2013). An integrated theory for improved skill acquisition and retention in the three stages of learning. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 14( 1), 22-37.
24 Logan, G. D . ( 1985). Skill and automaticity: Relations, implications, and future directions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 39( 2), 367-386.
25 Logan, G. D . ( 1992). Shapes of reaction-time distributions and shapes of learning curves: A test of the instance theory of automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18( 5), 883-914.
26 Mattiassi A. D., Mele S., Ticini L. F., & Urgesi C . ( 2014). Conscious and unconscious representations of observed actions in the human motor system. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26( 9), 2028-2041. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00619
27 Mauss I. B., Bunge S. A., & Gross J. J . ( 2007). Automatic emotion regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1( 1), 146-167. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007. 00005.x
28 Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. ( 1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102( 2), 246-268.
29 Moors, A., & De Houwer, J. ( 2006). Automaticity: A theoretical and conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132( 2), 297-326. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.297
30 Newell, A., & Rosenbloom,P. S . ( 1980). Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition(pp. 1-52). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
31 Posner M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R. (2004). Attention and cognitive control. In D. A. Balota & E. J. Marsh (Eds.), Key readings in cognition. Cognitive psychology: Key readings (pp. 205-223). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
32 Schneider, W., & Chein, J. M . ( 2003). Controlled and automatic processing: Behavior, theory, and biological mechanisms. Cognitive Science, 27( 3), 525-559.
33 Schneider W., Dumais S. T., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1984). Automatic and control processing and attention. In R. Parasuraman & D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of Attention (pp. 1-27). San Diego,CA: Academic Press.
34 Shiffrin,R. M., & Schneider, W. ( 1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84( 2), 127-190.
35 Shiffrin,R. M., & Czerwinski, M.P . ( 1988). A model of automatic attention attraction when mapping is partially consistent. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14( 3), 562-569.
36 Snyder M. P. R. R.( 1975). Facilitation and inhibition in the processing of signals. In P. M. A. R. S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and performance. New York, NY: Academic Press.
37 Sutherland C. A. M., Young A. W., & Rhodes G . ( 2017). Facial first impressions from another angle: How social judgements are influenced by changeable and invariant facial properties. British Journal of Psychology, 108( 2), 397-415.
38 Shanks, D. R . ( 2016). Misunderstanding the behavior priming controversy: Comment on payne, brown-iannuzzi, and loersch. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146( 8), 1216-1222.
39 Spunt R. P. ,& Lieberman, M. D. (2014). Automaticity, control, and the social brain. In J. W. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories of the social mind (pp.279-296). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
40 Thorndike, E. L . ( 1913). The psychology of learning (Vol. 2): Teachers College, Columbia University.
41 Tylén K., Philipsen J. S., Roepstorff A., & Fusaroli R . ( 2016). Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain. NeuroImage, 134, 105-112. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.03.056
42 VanPatten, B., & Benati, A. G. (2010). Key terms in second language acquisition. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
43 VanPatten, B., & Williams, J. ( 2014). In B.VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction ( pp.vii-261). New York, NY: Routledge.
44 Willingham, D. B . ( 1998). A neuropsychological theory of motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 105( 3), 558-584.
45 Williams L. E., Bargh J. A., Nocera C. C., & Gray J. R . ( 2009). The unconscious regulation of emotion: Nonconscious reappraisal goals modulate emotional reactivity. Emotion, 9( 6), 847-854. doi: 10.1037/a0017745
[1] LEI Ming, LI Pengbo. Neural mechanism underlying the attentional modulation of auditory sensory gating[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(8): 1232-1245.
[2] Jing JIANG,Yanan DONG,Yan LI,Baiyin YANG. More valuable voice: The antecedent mechanisms of employee voice quality[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(7): 1093-1107.
[3] Xiaozhuang FAN,Xiaobin BI,Yu XIE,Huizhong HE. Attention bias toward threatening emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning autism[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(7): 1172-1186.
[4] NI Yuan,LI Cui. Mechanism of the cross-level interaction between implicit entrepreneurial leadership and proactive followership[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(5): 711-730.
[5] HUANG Zili,DING Yulong,QU Zhe. The global modulation of feature-based attention: Enhancement or suppression?[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(4): 566-578.
[6] YOU Yuan,WANG Li. Cognitive neurological process associated with behavioral inhibition and psychopathology in children[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(4): 612-625.
[7] OU Honglei, SUN Binghai, ZHANG Wenhai, LI Weijian. The psychological mechanism and prevention strategy of slippery slope[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(4): 650-660.
[8] Yanhan ZHU,Guoliang CHEN,Junying XU. Mindfulness in organization: Cognition-oriented dynamic derivative process and interventions[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(3): 510-522.
[9] HE Qi,WANG Haiying. The effects of meditation on attention[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(2): 284-293.
[10] MA Shu,ZHANG Wei,SHI Jinlei,YANG Zhen. The human factors of the take-over process in conditional automated driving based on cognitive mechanism[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(1): 150-160.
[11] LI Taian,ZHANG Yu,LI Jie. The application of multiple object tracking in the evaluation and training of different populations[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(9): 1585-1595.
[12] LI Fangjun,WANG Shuman,LI Aimei,LI Bin. Team voice effectiveness and its mechanism from the perspective of group information processing: The influence of voice quantity and quality[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(6): 965-974.
[13] HAN Haibin,XU Pingping,QU Qingqing,CHENG Xi,LI Xingshan. Cross-modal integration of audiovisual information in language processing[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 475-489.
[14] YUAN Luyi,CHANG Ruosong,MA Jinfei. Why does a driver can not see a critical event on the road?Interaction between “bottom-up” and “top-down” processing mechanisms[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 557-570.
[15] JI Yuzhu,BI Hongyan. The noise exclusion deficit in developmental dyslexia[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(2): 201-208.
Full text



Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech