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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (4) : 623-635     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00623
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A picture is worth a thousand words: Self-generation drawing for multimedia learning
WANG Yanqing,WANG Fuxing(),XIE Heping,CHEN Jiaxue,LI Wenjing,HU Xiangen()
School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
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Abstract  

Self-generated drawing is a learning strategy in which learners rely on a written text to construct representational drawings that correspond to the main elements and relations described in each portion of the text. Previous studies have examined the role of self-generated drawing in learning by manipulating text, animation and other learning materials. However, it remained various mixed results of the effects of self-generated drawing. From the perspectives of generative theory of drawing construction (GTDC) and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML), self-generated drawing can improve students' cognitive and metacognitive abilities, stimulate the positive emotional state and result in better retention or comprehension. In addition, cognitive load theory (CLT) might predict the opposite result of learning for the reason that drawing brings about an increase of extraneous cognitive load. In general, the self-generated mapping strategy is conducive to learning, the median effect sizes are dretention = 0.13, dcomprehension = 0.46, dtransfer = 0.38. The inconsistent results may be explained by the existence of potential boundary conditions, such as support, test methods, and prior knowledge, to name a few. Future studies should focus on the moderating effects of material manipulation, effectiveness evaluation, and other variables.

Keywords self-generated drawing      generation theory of drawing construction      cognitive theory of multimedia learning      cognitive load theory      multimedia learning     
ZTFLH:  B849:G44  
Corresponding Authors: Fuxing WANG,Xiangen HU     E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn;xiangenhu@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 22 February 2019
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Yanqing WANG
Fuxing WANG
Heping XIE
Jiaxue CHEN
Wenjing LI
Xiangen HU
Cite this article:   
Yanqing WANG,Fuxing WANG,Heping XIE, et al. A picture is worth a thousand words: Self-generation drawing for multimedia learning[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(4): 623-635.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00623     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I4/623
  
研究 样本量 实验操纵 实验材料 内在感知 学习效果d
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Balemans et al., 2016 762 绘图vs阅读 人体组织结构 / R*(#)
Bock et al., 1998, Exp. 2 222 绘图vs提供图画vs阅读 数学单词问题 / R*(#)
Csíkos et al., 2011 244 绘图vs阅读 算术 B*(-) R (-0.049)
Dean & Kulhavey,
1981
, Exp. 1
40 绘图vs阅读 想象的非洲部落 / R*(1.08) T*(1.097)
Edens & Potter, 2003 184 绘图vs复制提供的图vs写作 能量守恒定律 / R (-) C*(-)
Gobert & Clement, 1999 58 绘图vs总结vs阅读 板块构造论 / R*(0.738)T*(0.714)
Hall et al., 1997 92 绘图vs提供图画vs阅读 手动气泵的工作 / C*(0.464)
Lin et al., 2017 60 绘图vs想象vs阅读 人类心血管系统 CL (-) C*(0.461)
Lee, 2017 339 阅读vs列关键词vs绘图vs (列关键词+绘图) 人体骨骼肌系统 / R*(0.066)
Leopold et al., 2013 71 绘图vs总结vs提供图画vs提供总结 水分子及其化学键 / C*(0.245) T(0.053)
Leopold & Leutner,
2012
, Exp. 1
90 绘图vs观点选择vs (绘图+观点选择)vs阅读 水分子 / C*(0.61) T*(0.808)
Leopold & Leutner,
2012
, Exp. 2
71 绘图vs总结vs (绘图+总结)vs阅读 水分子 / C (0.277) T*(0.817)
Lesgold et al., 1975,
Exp. 1
24 绘图vs阅读 散文 / R&(-0.98)
Lesgold et al., 1975,
Exp. 2
72 绘图(提供支持)vs阅读 同上 / R*(0.129)
Lesgold, De Good,
& Levin, 1977
32 绘图vs阅读 故事 / R*(#)
Leutner et al., 2009 111 绘图vs想象vs (绘图+想象)vs阅读 水分子的双极特性 CL*(0.72) C&(-0.37)
Mason et al., 2013 199 绘图vs复制图画vs观看 五球摆动的动画 / R*(0.418)
Ploetzner & Fillisch,
2017
52 绘图vs想象 四冲程引擎动画 / R&(-0.164)
Scheiter et al., 2017 74 绘图vs解释 介绍化学导论的
说明文
/ R (0.414) T(0.211)
Schleinschok et al.,
2017
, Exp. 1
73 绘图vs阅读 关于极光的天文
现象
CL (-0.35) JOL*(-) R (0.063)
Schleinschok et al.,
2017
, Exp. 2
69 绘图vs阅读 同上 CL (-0.066)
JOL*(-)
R (-0.143)
Schmeck et al., 2014,
Exp. 1
48 绘图vs阅读 流感的生物知识 ME*(0.766), PD
(-0.124)
C*(0.85)
Schmeck et al., 2014,
Exp. 2
168 绘图vs提供图画vs (绘图+提供图画)vs阅读 同上 ME (-0.584), PD
(-0.779)
C*(0.5)
Schwamborn et al.,
2011
102 绘图vs提供图画vs (绘图+提供图画)vs阅读 肥皂和水的化学反应 ME*(0.333) R&(-0.169) T&(0)
Schwamborn et al.,
2010
196 绘图vs (绘图+选择)vs(绘图+组织/整合)vs(绘图+选择+组织/整合)vs阅读 肥皂和水的化学反应 / R*(0.87) T*(0.91)
Schmidgall et al., in
press, Exp. 1
121 绘图vs总结vs提供图画vs阅读 人类游泳行为的生物力学研究 / R (0.002) T*(0.174)
研究 样本量 实验操纵 实验材料 内在感知 学习效果d
Schmidgall et al., in
press, Exp. 2
223 绘图vs想象vs观看 同上 PD*(0.643) R& (-0.458)
T (-0.081)
Snowman &
Cunningham, 1975
63 绘图vs问题vs (问题+绘图)vs阅读 描述一个虚构的部落 / R (-)
Stagg & Verde, 2018 41 绘图vs总结 植物物种 L* R (0.009)
van Essen & Hamaker,
1990
, Exp.1
53 绘图vs阅读 算术词问题 / R (-0.047)
T(-0.439)
van Essen & Hamaker,
1990
, Exp.2
50 绘图vs阅读 算术词问题 / R*(0.774) T*(0.67)
van Meter et al., 2006 135 绘图vs提供图画vs提供问题vs阅读 关于鸟的翅膀的文章 / R (0.043) T*(0.234)
van Meter, 2001 100 绘图vs提供图画vs提供问题vs阅读 中枢神经 S-M*(-) R*(0.337)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 1
55 绘图(仔细)vs写作(重复) 单词 / R*(1.23)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 2
49 绘图(重复)vs写作(仔细) 同上 / R*(1.3)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 3
47 绘图vs关键词vs写作 同上 / R*(0.86)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 4
28 绘图vs想象vs写作 同上 / R*(0.87)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 5
37 绘图vs提供图画vs写作 同上 / R*(0.67)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 6
28 绘图vs写作(更长的学习列表, 更短的编码时间) 同上 / R*(2.27)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 7
47 纯绘图vs纯写作 同上 / R*(1.63)
Zhang & Linn,
2013
, Exp. 1
110 绘图vs简单选择 化学反应 S-M*(-) R (-0.139)
T*(0.668)
Zhang & Linn,
2013
, Exp. 2
172 绘图vs复杂选择 化学反应 S-M (-) R (-0.107)
T(-0.256)
Zhang & Linn, 2011 133 绘图vs观看 电池汽车氢气燃烧的过程 / T*(0.516)
Zhang, 2010 73 绘图vs评论 氢气燃烧过程中分子的相互作用 / T(-)
  
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