Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (3) : 557-570     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00557
Regular Articles |
Why does a driver can not see a critical event on the road?Interaction between “bottom-up” and “top-down” processing mechanisms
YUAN Luyi,CHANG Ruosong,MA Jinfei()
School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
Download: PDF(1021 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

It causes a significant hazard to traffic safety the car drivers have been looking in the direction where the other road users were but have not perceived the presence of the other parties, which is called ‘looked-but-failed-to-see’ (LBFTS) error. This paper first analyzes the main factors which contribute to LBFTS from the perspective of both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms. That Computational Framework is not able to fully explained circumstances because of its insufficient consideration of driver’s practical experience, expectancy and attentional set. Therefore, the extended model of Computational Framework is proposed to offer comprehensive explanations to the LBFTS using bottom-up and top-down mechanisms.

Keywords sensory conspicuity      mental workload      attentional set      driver schemata      inattentional blindness     
ZTFLH:  B849: U471.3  
Corresponding Authors: Jinfei MA     E-mail: majinfei666@126.com
Issue Date: 22 January 2019
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Luyi YUAN
Ruosong CHANG
Jinfei MA
Cite this article:   
Luyi YUAN,Ruosong CHANG,Jinfei MA. Why does a driver can not see a critical event on the road?Interaction between “bottom-up” and “top-down” processing mechanisms[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 557-570.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00557     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I3/557
  
[1] 张慧, 施建农 . ( 2014). 无意视盲的认知神经机制. 心理科学进展, 22(12), 1867-1874.
url: http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/article/article3188.shtml
[2] Agrawal R., Knodler M., Fisher D. L., & Samuel S . ( 2017, October). Advanced virtual reality based training to improve young drivers' latent hazard anticipation ability. Paper presented at the meeting of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Massachusetts.
[3] Atchley P., Tran A. V., & Salehinejad M. A . ( 2017). Constructing a publically available distracted driving database and research tool. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 99, 306-311.
pmid: 28024203 url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457516304420
[4] Beanland V., Filtness A. J., & Jeans R . ( 2017). Change detection in urban and rural driving scenes: Effects of target type and safety relevance on change blindness. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 100, 111-122.
pmid: 28130981 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/28130981
[5] Beanland V., Lenné M. G., & R??ger L . ( 2015). Psychological factors in seeing motorcycles. In L. R??ger, M. G. Lenné, & G. Underwood (Eds.), Increasing motorcycle conspicuity: Design and assessment of interventions to enhance rider safety( pp. 21-50). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
[6] Beanland V., Lenné M. G., & Underwood G . ( 2014). Safety in numbers: Target prevalence affects the detection of vehicles during simulated driving. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 76( 3), 805-813.
url: http://dx.doi.org/tention Perception
[7] Bergen B., Medeiros-ward N., Wheeler K., Drews F., & Strayer D . ( 2013). The crosstalk hypothesis: Why language interferes with driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142( 1), 119-130.
pmid: 22612769 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xge/142/1/119/
[8] Borowsky A., Shinar D., & Parmet Y . ( 2008). The relation between driving experience and recognition of road signs relative to their locations. Human Factors, 50( 2), 173-182.
pmid: 18516830 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18516830
[9] Briggs G. F., Hole G. J & Turner J. A. J. .,( 2018). The impact of attentional set and situation awareness on dual tasking driving performance. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Behaviour, 57, 36-47.
url: http://dx.doi.org/portation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology
[10] Briggs G. F., Hole G. J., & Land M. F . ( 2016). Imagery-inducing distraction leads to cognitive tunnelling and deteriorated driving performance. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 38, 106-117.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847816000085
[11] Cartwright-finch U. & Lavie N., ( 2007). The role of perceptual load in inattentional blindness. Cognition, 102( 3), 321-340.
pmid: 16480973 url: http://www.europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16480973
[12] Cassarino M. & Setti A., ( 2016). Complexity as key to designing cognitive-friendly environments for older people. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1329.
url: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC5003839/
[13] Cavallo V., Ranchet M., Pinto M., Espié S., Vienne F., & Dang N-T . ( 2015). Improving car drivers' perception of motorcycle motion through innovative headlight configurations. Accident Analysis & Prevention 81, 187-193.
pmid: 25988810 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25988810
[14] Chan E., Pradhan A. K., Pollatsek A., Knodler M. A., & Fisher D. L . ( 2010). Are driving simulators effective tools for evaluating novice drivers’ hazard anticipation, speed management, and attention maintenance skills. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 13( 5), 343-353.
pmid: 20729986 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2923851/
[15] Charlton S.G., & Starkey N.J . ( 2013). Driving on familiar roads: Automaticity and inattention blindness. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 19, 121-133.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847813000326
[16] Ciceri M.R., & Ruscio D. , ( 2014). Does driving experience in video games count? Hazard anticipation and visual exploration of male gamers as function of driving experience. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology & Behaviou, 22, 76-85.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847813001095
[17] Clabaux N., Brenac T., Perrin C., Magnin J., Canu B., &Van Elslande P . ( 2012). Motorcyclists' speed and "looked-but-failed-to-see" accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 49, 73-77.
pmid: 23036384 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036384
[18] Clarke D. D., Ward P., Bartle C., & Truman W . ( 2007). The role of motorcyclist and other driver behaviour in two types of serious accident in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39( 5), 974-981.
pmid: 17854573 url: http://dx.doi.org/cident Analysis
[19] Costa M., Simone A., Vignali V., Lantieri C., Bucchi A., .. Dondi G . ( 2014). Looking behavior for vertical road signs. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 23, 147-155.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847814000126
[20] Crundall D., Clarke D., Ward P., & Bartle C . ( 2008). Car drivers' skills and attitudes to motorcycle safety: A review. Road Safety Research Report NO.85. Department for Transport, London.
[21] Crundall D., Clarke D., & Shahar A . ( 2011). Car drivers' attitudes and visual skills in relation to motorcyclists. Road Safety Research Report No. 121. Department for Transport, London.
url: http://trid.trb.org/view/1148749
[22] Crundall D., Crundall E., Clarke D., & Shahar A . ( 2012). Why do car drivers fail to give way to motorcycles at t-junctions? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 44( 1), 88-96.
pmid: 22062341 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22062341
[23] Crundall D., Howard A., & Young A . ( 2017). Perceptual training to increase drivers’ ability to spot motorcycles at T-junctions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Behaviour, 48, 1-12.
url: http://dx.doi.org/ansportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology
[24] de Craen S., Doumen M. J. A., & van Norden Y . ( 2014). A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 63, 133-137.
pmid: 24291070 url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457513004375
[25] Department for Transport . ( 2016). Reported road casualties Great Britain: main results: 2015 Retrieved from. on14/10/16.
url: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/533293/rrcgb-main-results-2015.pdf
[26] Dingus T. A., Guo F., Lee S., Antin J. F., Perez M., Buchanan-King M., .. Hankey J . ( 2016). Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113( 10), 2636-2641.
pmid: 26903657 url: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC4790996/
[27] Engstr?m J., Markkula G., Victor T., & Merat N . ( 2017). Effects of cognitive load on driving performance: The cognitive control hypothesis. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 59( 5), 734-764.
pmid: 28186421 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28186421
[28] Fisher D. L., Pradhan A., Pollatsek A., & Jr Knodler M . ( 2007, December). Empirical evaluation of hazard anticipation behaviors in the field and on driving simulator using eye tracker. Paper presented at The 86th Transportation Research Board annual meetings. Washington, DC.
[29] Fisher D.L., & Strayer D.L . ( 2014). Modeling situation awareness and crash risk. Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine, 58, 33-39.
pmid: 24776225 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4001668/
[30] Gershon P., Ben-asher N., & Shinar D . ( 2012). Attention and search conspicuity of motorcycles as a function of their visual context. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 44( 1), 97-103.
pmid: 22062342 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062342
[31] Gibbs R., Davies G., & Chou S . ( 2016). A systematic review on factors affecting the likelihood of change blindness. Crime Psychology Review, 2( 1), 1-21, DOI: 10.1080/23744006.2016.1228799.
doi: 10.1080/23744006.2016.1228799 url: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23744006.2016.1228799
[32] Greene C. M., Murphy G., & Januszewski J . ( 2017). Under high perceptual load, observers look but do not see. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31( 4). DOI: 10.1002/acp.3335.
doi: 10.1002/acp.3335 url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3335/pdf
[33] Green M. ( 2004). Inattentional blindness and conspicuity. Retrieved November 10.
url: http://www.visualexpert.com/ Resources/inattentionalblindness.html
[34] Gu E., Stocker C., & Badler N. I . ( 2005). Do you see what eyes see? Implementing inattentional blindness. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3661, 178-190.
url: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1099292
[35] Hancock P. A., Wulf G., Thom D., & Fassnacht P . ( 1990). Driver workload during differing driving maneuvers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 22( 3), 281-290.
pmid: 2393475 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2393475
[36] Harvey A. J., Bayless S. J., & Hyams G . ( 2018). Alcohol increases inattentional blindness when cognitive resources are not consumed by ongoing task demands. Psychopharmacology, 235( 1), 309-315.
url: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC5748406/
[37] Heenan A., Herdman C. M., Brown M. S., & Robert N . ( 2014). Effects of conversation on situation awareness and working memory in simulated driving. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 56( 6), 1077-1092.
pmid: 25277018 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25277018
[38] Hole G. J., Tyrrell L., Langham M . ( 1996). Some factors affecting motorcyclists' conspicuity. Ergonomics, 39( 7), 946-965.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00140139608964516
[39] Jacobsen P. L., Ragland D. R., & Komanoff C . ( 2015). Safety in numbers for walkers and bicyclists: Exploring the mechanisms. Injury Prevention Journal of the International Society for Child & Adolescent Injury Prevention, 21( 4), 217-220.
pmid: 26157109 url: http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/21/4/217
[40] Jehring J. ( 1931). Industrial accident prevention: A scientific approach by H. W. Heinrich. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 4( 4), 609.
url: http://dx.doi.org/dustrial
[41] Koivisto M., Hy?n? J., & Revonsuo A . ( 2004). The effects of eye movements, spatial attention, and stimulus features on inattentional blindness. Vision Research, 44( 27), 3211-3221.
pmid: 15482807 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15482807
[42] Koornstra M. Bijleveld F. & Hagenzicker M. ,( 1997). The safety effects of daytime running lights: A perspective on daytime running lights (DRL) in the EU. ( Tech Rep. R-97-36). The Netherlands: SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.
[43] Kreitz C., Schnuerch R., Furley P. A., & Memmert D . ( 2018). What’s past is past: Neither perceptual preactivation nor prior motivational relevance decrease subsequent inattentional blindness. Consciousness and Cognition, 59, 1-9.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810017304683
[44] Land M.F., & Furneaux S. , ( 1997). The knowledge base of the oculomotor system. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 352( 1358), 1231-1239.
pmid: 1692006 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9304689
[45] Langham M.P . ( 1999). An investigation of the role of vehicle conspicuity in the 'looked but failed to see' error in driving (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). University of Sussex, UK.
url: http://europepmc.org/theses/ETH/297696
[46] Langham M., Hole G., Edwards J., & O'Neil C . ( 2002). An analysis of 'looked but failed to see' accidents involving parked police vehicles. Ergonomics, 45( 3), 167-185.
pmid: 11964202 url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00140130110115363
[47] Lavie N. ( 2005). Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9( 2), 75-82.
pmid: 15668100 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/15668100
[48] Law T. H., Ghanbari M., Hamid H., Abdul-Halin A., & Ng C. P . ( 2016). Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 96, 64-70.
pmid: 27505097 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27505097
[49] Lee Y. M., Sheppard E., & Crundall D . ( 2015). Cross- cultural effects on the perception and appraisal of approaching motorcycles at junctions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 31, 77-86.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847815000637
[50] Mack A. & Rock I., ( 1998). Inattentional Blindness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2( 5), 3244.
[51] MartensM. M.H . ( 2011). Change detection in traffic: Where do we look and what do we perceive? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 14( 3), 240-250.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847811000052
[52] Martens M. H .(2017). The failure to respond to changes in the road environment: Does road familiarity play a role? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour.DOI: 10.1016/j.trf. 2017. 08. 003.
url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf. 2017. 08. 003.
[53] Mccarley J. S., Steelman K. S., & Horrey W. J . ( 2014). The view from the driver's seat: What good is salience? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28( 1), 47-54.
url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.2955/full
[54] Most S.B., & Astur R.S . ( 2007). Feature-based attentional set as a cause of traffic accidents. Visual Cognition, 15( 2), 125-132.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13506280600959316
[55] Murphy G., & Greene C.M . ( 2015). High perceptual load causes inattentional blindness and deafness in drivers. Visual Cognition, 23( 7), 810-814.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13506285.2015.1093245
[56] Musselwhite C. B. A., Avineri E., Susilo Y. O., & Bhattachary D . ( 2012). Public attitudes towards motorcyclists' safety: A qualitative study from the United Kingdom. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 49, 105-113.
pmid: 23036387 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036387
[57] Pammer K., Bairnsfather J., Burns J., & Hellsing A . ( 2015). Not all hazards are created equal: The significance of hazards in inattentional blindness for static driving scenes. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29( 5), 782-788.
url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3153/full
[58] Pammer K. & Blink C., ( 2013). Attentional differences in driving judgments for country and city scenes: Semantic congruency in inattentional blindness. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 955-963.
pmid: 22975367 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22975367
[59] Parthemore J., & Morse A.F . ( 2010). Representations reclaimed: Accounting for the co-emergence of concepts and experience. Pragmatics & Cognition, 18( 2), 273-312.
url: http://dx.doi.org/agmatics
[60] Pringle H. L., Irwin D. E., Kramer A. F., & Atchley P . ( 2001). The role of attentional breadth in perceptual change detection. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8( 1), 89-95.
pmid: 11340871 url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/BF03196143
[61] S?nger J. & Wascher E., ( 2011). The influence of extrinsic motivation on competition-based selection. Behavioural Brain Research, 224( 1), 58-64.
pmid: 21645552 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/21645552
[62] Shahar A., van Loon E., Clarke D., & Crundall D . ( 2012). Attending overtaking cars and motorcycles through the mirrors before changing lanes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 44( 1), 104-110.
pmid: 22062343 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062343
[63] Shiferaw B., Stough C., & Downey L . ( 2014). Drivers' visual scanning impairment under the influences of alcohol and distraction: A literature review. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 7( 3), 174-182.
[64] Shinoda H., Hayhoe M. M., & Shrivastava A . ( 2001). What controls attention in natural environments? Vision Research, 41( 25-26), 3535-3545.
pmid: 11718793 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2002-02459-026
[65] Simons D. J, Chabris C. F . ( 1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28( 9), 1059-1074.
pmid: 10694957 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/10694957
[66] Son J. & Park M., ( 2017). Situation awareness and transitions in highly automated driving: A framework and mini review. Journal of Ergonomics, 7(5), 212. DOI: 10.4172/2165-7556.1000212.
doi: 10.4172/2165-7556.1000212 url: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2165-7556.1000212.
[67] Strayer D.L., & Fisher D.L . ( 2015). SPIDER: A framework for understanding driver distraction. Human Factors, 58( 1), 5-12.
pmid: 26715688 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/26715688
[68] SWOV. ( 2017). Motorcyclists: SWOV-Factsheet. SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, The Netherlands.
url: https://www.swov.nl/en/facts-figures/factsheet/ motorcyclists
[69] Thomson G.A . ( 1980). The role frontal motorcycle conspicuity has in road accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 12( 3), 165-178.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001457580900159
[70] Torrez L. ( 2008). Motorcycle conspicuity: Effects of age and daytime running lights, Human Factors, 52( 3), 355-369.
pmid: 21077560 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/21077560
[71] Ward E.J., & Scholl B.J . ( 2015). Inattentional blindness reflects limitations on perception, not memory: Evidence from repeated failures of awareness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22( 3), 722-727.
pmid: 25515671 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25515671
[72] Wells S., Mullin B., Norton R., Langley J., Connor J., Lay-yee R., & Jackson R . ( 2004). Motorcycle rider conspicuity and crash related injury: Case-control study. British Medical Journal, 328( 7444), 857.
pmid: 14742349 url: http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7444/857
[73] Wulf G., Hancock P. A., & Rahimi M . ( 1989). Motorcycle conspicuity: An evaluation and synthesis of influential factors. Journal of Safety Research, 20( 4), 153-176.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002243758990025X
[1] ZHANG Hui; SHI Jiannong. The Cognitive Neural Mechanism of Inattentional Blindness[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2014, 22(12): 1867-1874.
[2] SUN Long; CHANG Ruosong; GAO Yuan; MA Ling. Effect of Visual Attention on Hazard Detection and Its Influencing Mechanism[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2014, 22(11): 1733-1739.
[3] JIA Huibin;ZHAO Qingbai;ZHOU Zhijin. Mental Workload Assessment: From the Perspective of Neuroergonomics[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2013, 21(8): 1390-1399.
[4] ZHANG Ming;WANG Ling-Yun. The Bottleneck Theories of Attentional Blink[J]. , 2009, 17(01): 7-16.
[5] Li Huijie;Chen Chuqiao. The Other Window of Attentional Capture: Inattentional Blindness[J]. , 2007, 15(04): 577-586.
[6] Yang Jiazhong,Zhang Kan. Situation Awareness: Approaches, Measures and Applications[J]. , 2004, 12(06): 842-842~850.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech