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心理科学进展  2020, Vol. 28 Issue (5): 833-843    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00833
     研究前沿 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
稀缺对个体心理和行为的影响:基于一个更加整合视角下的阐释
雷亮(), 王菁煜, 柳武妹
兰州大学管理学院, 兰州 730000
The effect of scarcity on individuals’ psychology and behavior: An explanation from a more integrated perspective
LEI Liang(), WANG Jingyu, LIU Wumei
School of Management, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
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摘要 

稀缺是由资源的真实缺乏或感知缺乏所引起的个体欲望和需求得不到满足的一种状态。稀缺作为一种普遍存在的现象对个体的情感、认知、以及行为方式产生了重要的影响, 但是不同类型的稀缺(以食物、产品、资金为代表的有形资源稀缺vs.以时间为代表的无形资源稀缺)对个体心理和行为的影响是否存在共性与差异?梳理文献发现, 有形资源稀缺会使个体产生珍惜性行为、补偿性行为和趋近性行为, 而无形资源稀缺只会使个体产生珍惜性和补偿性行为。未来研究应关注稀缺影响个体行为的边界条件, 以及时间稀缺对个体心理和行为的影响。

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雷亮
王菁煜
柳武妹
关键词 稀缺有形资源稀缺无形资源稀缺心理感知行为方式    
Abstract

Scarcity is a state due to dissatisfaction of individual desire and demand, which is resulted from real scarcity of resource or perceived scarcity of resource. As a universal phenomenon, scarcity plays an important role in individual emotion, perception and behavior. Tangible resource scarcity is represented by scarcity in food, product and capital, whereas intangible resource scarcity is represented by scarcity in time. Are there any similarities and differences in different kinds of scarcity? This question has not been addressed by past scarcity research. After combing theses, this paper found that tangible resource scarcity led to individual’s cherishing behavior, compensation behavior, and approaching behavior, whereas intangible resource scarcity only led to cherishing behavior and compensation behavior. Future research should focus on the boundary conditions under which scarcity would not affect individuals’ behavior, and the impact of time scarcity on individual psychology and behavior.

Key wordsscarcity    tangible resource scarcity    intangible resource scarcity    perception    behavior
收稿日期: 2019-05-13      出版日期: 2020-03-27
分类号:  B849: C91  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金面上项目(71972092);国家自然科学基金重点项目(71832015, 71832010);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(人文社科类 2020jbkyt d003)
通讯作者: 雷亮     E-mail: leil@lzu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
雷亮, 王菁煜, 柳武妹. (2020). 稀缺对个体心理和行为的影响:基于一个更加整合视角下的阐释. 心理科学进展, 28(5), 833-843.
LEI Liang, WANG Jingyu, LIU Wumei. (2020). The effect of scarcity on individuals’ psychology and behavior: An explanation from a more integrated perspective. Advances in Psychological Science, 28(5), 833-843.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00833      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2020/V28/I5/833
  根据稀缺来源对稀缺的分类
研究阶段 研究领域 研究内容及结论 代表性研究
第一阶段:
20世纪50年代至今
食物稀缺 食物稀缺情况下食物的发放问题 Keys et al., 1950
食物稀缺会使消费者产生不耐烦的情绪 Read & van Leeuwen, 1998
食物稀缺导致对非食物目标的追求 Xu et al., 2015
第二阶段:
20世纪70年代前后至今
产品稀缺 商品理论:稀缺性提高产品的价值 Brock, 1968; Inman, et al., 1997
商品理论在营销中的应用 Lynn, 1991
产品稀缺影响购买意愿 Bozzolo & Brock, 1992
产品稀缺影响支付意愿 Eisend, 2008
产品稀缺影响消费者购买意愿的中介探讨 Wu et al., 2012; 刘建新 & 李东进, 2017
第三阶段:
20世纪90年代至今
资金稀缺 储蓄的缓冲库存理论 Carroll et al., 1992
贫困问题的稀缺理论 Shah et al., 2012
资金稀缺导致稀缺商品的追求 Sharma & Alter, 2012
资金稀缺导致口红效应 Hill et al., 2012
资金稀缺导致压力和消极情绪状态 Haushofer & Fehr, 2014
第四阶段:
20世纪90年代至今
时间稀缺 繁忙使得个体更加关注任务的截止时间 Karau & Kelly, 1992
时间的价值增加了个体的时间压力 Devoe & Pfeffer, 2011
时间稀缺对目标追求的影响 Zhu et al., 2018
时间稀缺对个体幸福感的影响 Layous et al., 2018
  稀缺的研究脉络
  稀缺对个体心理和行为产生影响的概念框架图
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