ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 344-356.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00344

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇

恐惧管理中死亡焦虑不同防御机制之间的关系

陆可心1, 王旭2, 李虹1()   

  1. 1清华大学心理学系
    2清华大学学生心理发展指导中心, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-19 出版日期:2019-02-15 发布日期:2018-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 李虹 E-mail:lhong@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 清华大学自主科研计划项目(2015THZWYY10)

The relationship of death anxiety defense mechanisms in terror management theory

LU Kexin1, WANG Xu2, LI Hong1()   

  1. 1 Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University of China, Beijing 100084, China
    2 Center for Student Psychological Development, Tsinghua University of China, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2018-03-19 Online:2019-02-15 Published:2018-12-25
  • Contact: Hong LI E-mail:lhong@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

摘要:

根据恐惧管理理论, 个体主要通过世界观、自尊和亲密关系三种防御机制来应对必死性意识引发的死亡焦虑。主流观点认为三种防御机制在防御死亡焦虑时的地位是平等的, 符合“流动补偿机制”。本文讨论了流动补偿机制的局限性, 提出三种防御机制之间关系的新观点: 优先级假设, 认为三种防御机制地位并非平等, 而是存在优先级: 亲密关系优先于世界观和自尊, 世界观优先于自尊。在梳理了支持证据后, 本文尝试从发展性视角对优先级假设提出可能的解释, 认为这种优先级来源于防御机制的发展顺序和衍生关系。

关键词: 恐惧管理理论, 死亡焦虑, 防御机制, 流动补偿机制

Abstract:

According to terror management theory (TMT), individuals assuage the death anxiety that is rooted in their awareness of mortality mainly through three defense mechanisms: worldview, self-esteem and close relationship. Previous studies supported the view that the three defense mechanisms functioned equally when individuals managed death anxiety, which was described as fluid compensation. In this paper, we will discuss the basis and limitations of fluid compensation. Based on related opinions and research, a new viewpoint, priority hypothesis, is proposed to describe the relationship of death anxiety defense mechanisms. We believe that the three defense mechanisms do not function equally when individuals manage death anxiety. Instead, close relationship defense takes priority, then worldview defense, and lastly self-esteem. This priority may be rooted in the developmental sequence and derivative relation of the three defense mechanisms. Further directions will also be discussed.

Key words: terror management theory, death anxiety, defense mechanism, fluid compensation

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