ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 746-756.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00746

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同熟练度双语者非语言任务转换的差异 ——来自ERP证据

姜淞秀1;李杰1,2;刘兴宇1;七十三1;杨伊生2   

  1. (1内蒙古师范大学教育科学学院, 呼和浩特 010020) (2内蒙古自治区心理学重点实验室, 呼和浩特 010020)
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-08 出版日期:2015-06-25 发布日期:2015-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 李杰, E-mail: healthlj2004@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(30960106); 内蒙古自然科学研究项目(2014MS0341); 内蒙古心理教育研究中心资助项目(YJS003)。

An ERP Study of Advantage Effect Differences on Task Switching in Proficient and Non-proficient Bilinguals

JIANG Songxiu1; LI Jie1,2; LIU Xingyu1; QI Shisan1; YANG Yisheng2   

  1. (1 College of Education and Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022, China) (2 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Key Laboratory of Psychology, Hohhot 010022, China)
  • Received:2014-04-08 Online:2015-06-25 Published:2015-06-25
  • Contact: LI Jie, E-mail: healthlj2004@163.com

摘要:

考察熟练蒙汉双语者和非熟练汉英双语者在非语言任务转换中优势效应的脑电活动特征。采用线索任务2:1转换范式, 通过操纵线索到刺激间的时间间隔, 比较熟练双语者与非熟练双语者在不同时间间隔的转换代价减小效应, 探索转换能力的优势效应是否源于内源性准备。研究结果显示:熟练双语者在线索到刺激间的时间间隔为250 ms时反应时和转换代价都显著小于非熟练双语者; 熟练双语者在线索到刺激间的时间间隔从0 ms到250 ms的转换代价减小效应更大。脑电数据结果显示:无论转换序列还是重复序列, 非熟练双语者的D-Pos的平均波幅均比熟练双语者更正, 说明非熟练双语者需要更多的心理资源进行重构准备。研究提示不同语言的转换经验促进了熟练双语者执行功能的转换能力, 这种转换能力的优势效应可迁移到相似的非语言任务转换过程中。

关键词: 双语优势效应, 任务转换, 转换代价减小效应

Abstract:

Bilinguals have shown an advantage over monolinguals in cognitive functioning. Likely due to their experience of language switching, bilinguals tend to perform better in task switching. Support for such an advantage effect has been obtained by using the task-cueing paradigm. The paradigm, however, may confuse cue-change with task-change. Therefore researchers have developed a modified task-switching paradigm with a 2:1 mapping between cues and tasks. Using this modified paradigm, the present research investigates brain functioning of proficient and non-proficient bilinguals in task switching, and explores whether endogenous preparation accounts for the bilingual advantage in task switching. Two experiments were reported in the current paper. In a behavioral experiment, by using a task-switching paradigm with a 2:1 mapping between cues and tasks, we explored whether proficient bilinguals who constantly switch between two languages in daily life would show advantage over non-proficient bilinguals due to the endogenous preparation of task switching. This experiment, conducted with E-prime, included 30 proficient bilingual and 30 non-proficient bilingual university students. In an ERP experiment involving 11 proficient bilinguals and 11 non-proficient bilinguals, we examined brain activities by observing the wave of D-Pos, as an index of endogenous preparation. The data collection and analyses were conducted with Vision recorder and analyzer Software produced by Brain Products corporation. The experiments found that the reaction time was faster for proficient bilinguals than for non-proficient bilinguals in both task-change and task-repeat sequences, when the cue-stimulus interval was 250 ms, the reaction time and the switching costs were smaller for proficient bilinguals than for non-proficient bilinguals. Most importantly, we observed stronger RISC (Reduction In Switch Cost) effects among proficient bilinguals than among non-proficient bilinguals when the time interval was from 0ms to 250ms. Used event-related potential, we carried out a further study on time-course features of endogenous preparation with D-Pos as the index. According to the analysis of cue-locked D-Pos component, non-proficient bilinguals presented a more positive component than the proficient bilinguals. We conclude that the experience of using two languages in proficient bilingual improves cognition processing in general, and enhances executive functioning in particular.

Key words: bilingual advantage effect, task-switching, reduction in switch cost effect