ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (1): 73-83.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00073

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

削弱效应是否存在:工作场所中内外动机的关系

张剑;宋亚辉;刘肖   

  1. (北京科技大学东凌经济管理学院; 国土资源人才评价开放实验室, 北京 100083)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-16 出版日期:2016-01-25 发布日期:2016-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 宋亚辉, E-mail: songyahui2011@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(71071017);教育部人文社会科学研究规划项目(15YJA630099)。

Undermining effect exists or not: Relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in workplace

ZHANG Jian; SONG Yahui; LIU Xiao   

  1. (Dongling School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology Beijing;
    Laboratory of Talent Evaluation of Land and Resources, Beijing 100083, China)
  • Received:2015-01-16 Online:2016-01-25 Published:2016-01-25
  • Contact: SONG Yahui, E-mail: songyahui2011@163.com

摘要:

外部动机是否削弱内部动机?已有研究结论并不一致。澄清这一问题的有效途径是对外部动机的恰当分类。研究以165名企业员工为研究对象, 针对动机的动态性特点, 采用两时点纵向研究的方法, 以自我决定理论对外部动机的分类为基础, 探讨3种不同内化程度的外部动机——外在动机、内射动机和认同动机与内部动机的关系及外部动机内化程度与自主支持的关系。研究结果表明:(1)控制性、非内化的外部动机, 即外在动机和内射动机削弱员工的内部动机; (2)自主性、内化的外部动机, 即认同动机不会削弱员工的内部动机, 而是促进和保护内部动机; (3)自主支持环境促进员工外部动机内化的程度(即认同动机的增加)。最后, 研究对所取得结果的管理意义进行了讨论。

关键词: 外部动机, 内部动机, 削弱效应, 外部动机内化, 认同动机

Abstract:

In economics, we assume incentives promote effort and performance, and a lot of empirical evidences suggest they often do. Initiating extrinsic motivation is commonly used to provide incentive in modern enterprises. Nonetheless, some well-established enterprises run into problems with the use of extrinsic rewards. Some psychological researchers call this the “undermining effect” of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation. Other researchers have a different view and question whether undermining effect really exists or not, and this debate becomes a core issue for organizations and researchers. The effective way of clarifying this debate should be an appropriate classification of extrinsic motivation. Based on the self-determination theory, firstly, the present study explored the relationships between intrinsic motivation and three types of extrinsic motivations ——external, introjected and identified regulations which differ in their degree to internalization. This study would then explore the relationship between internalization of extrinsic motivation and autonomy support.
In order to understand the dynamic of motivation, a two-time-point longitudinal method was used in the present study. By interviewing the managers of enterprises, we found that the performance appraisal cycles were usually one year, half a year and one month, while the performance goal had to be achieved usually in a month. So the kind of work employees would not change within this one month period. The task and content during the investigation period should be controlled in order that the change of work passion caused by the change in the kind of work could be eliminated. Therefore, one month was chosen to be the time interval for this longitudinal study. We sampled 165 employees from several companies in Beijing and Shandong. Employees filled in the questionnaires to measure their demographics, work motivation and perceived autonomy support in both Time 1 and 2.
Results of multiple regression on Time 1 and 2 constructs showed that external and introjected regulations in Time 1 negatively predicted the change of intrinsic motivation between Time 1 and 2. In contrast, identified regulation in Time 1 positively predicted the change of intrinsic motivation between Time 1 and 2. Furthermore, autonomous support in Time 1 positively predicted the change of identified regulation between Time 1 and 2. These results revealed that external and introjected regulations as controlled or uninternalized motivation would undermine intrinsic motivation of employees; while idendified regulation as autonomous or internalized motivation would promote and protect intrinsic motivation rather than undermining it. Analyses further showed that autonomous support would enhance the internalization of extrinsic motivation (increase in identified motivation) and thus reducing the undermining effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation. Implications for management were discussed.
On the basis of the self-determination theory, the present study explored the undermining effect of extrinsic motivation as well as the relationship between internalization of extrinsic motivation and autonomy support. The findings of this study facilitate our understanding of the undermining effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation in workplace, enrich the empirical literature of internalization of extrinsic motivation in Chinese organizations, and extend the scope of applications of the self-determination theory in organizations in a cross-cultural setting. The study brings some management implications as well. It is necessary for managers to distinguish and choose the appropriate type of extrinsic incentive methods. Autonomy support can be used to promote internalization of extrinsic motivation of employees and identified regulation can be enhanced by training.

Key words: extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, undermining effect, internalization of extrinsic motivation, identified regulation