ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (9): 1968-1980.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01968

• 元分析 • 上一篇    下一篇


陈必忠, 孙晓军()   

  1. 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室;华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2021-11-29 出版日期:2022-09-15 发布日期:2022-07-21
  • 通讯作者: 孙晓军
  • 基金资助:

Cross-temporal changes of college students' time management disposition in the mainland of China during 1999~2020

CHEN Bizhong, SUN Xiaojun()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University (CCNU), Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2021-11-29 Online:2022-09-15 Published:2022-07-21
  • Contact: SUN Xiaojun


根据社会生态系统理论, 历时系统和宏观系统可能对个体时间管理倾向的发展具有重要意义, 但间接证据表明我国大学生时间管理倾向的发展趋势不明朗, 且相关研究缺乏从社会宏观视角的切入。基于此局限, 运用横断历史元分析的方法对1999到2020年间采用青少年时间管理倾向量表(ATMDI)的215篇文献进行分析(N = 103876)。结果发现:(1)我国大学生时间管理倾向水平总体呈缓慢下降趋势, 其中时间价值感保持稳定, 时间监控观和时间效能感呈下降趋势; (2)来自社会经济因素(GDP、居民消费水平、城镇化率)、就业因素(城镇登记失业率、普通高校毕业生人数)和网络因素(互联网普及率、网民每周互联网使用时长)的7项社会指标能显著预测大学生时间管理倾向的下降; (3)我国大学生时间管理倾向在性别和高校所在地上的差异不显著。研究结果为我国大学生时间管理倾向的时代变迁提供了证据支持, 从社会宏观因素的视角扩宽了大学生时间管理倾向的影响机制模型。

关键词: 时间管理倾向, 大学生, 青少年时间管理倾向量表, 横断历史元分析, 社会变迁


In an era with surging time pressure, time management disposition is playing an increasingly important role in the psychological and social adaptation of college students experiencing psychological moratorium. Time management disposition refers to individuals' psychological and behavioral patterns of time arrangement when dealing with the functions and values of time. It covers three dimensions, namely sense of time value, sense of time control and sense of time efficacy. The socio-ecological modle highlighted the important role of diachronic systems and macro systems in the mental health of the yonth. But indirect evidence suggested that there was no clear trend in the time management disposition of Chinese college students. The enhancement of skills related to time management may help boost time management disposition while increasing interference and time pressure may weaken the time management skills. Moreover, existing research focued on the impact of individual factors and micro systems on the time management disposition of college students. No research from the macro-perspectives has been made.

This research, therefore, adopted the cross-temporal meta-analysis method, a newly developed but extensively applied method of quantitative literature review, to analyze 215 papers published between 1999 and 2020 applying the Adolescence Time Management Disposition Inventory (ATMDI) (N = 103876). Our results showed that: (1) The time management disposition of Chinese college students has declined steadily in the past 22 years, among which the sense of time value stayed stable while the sense of time control and the sense of time efficacy were on the decline; (2) Seven social indicators, namely socioeconomic factors (GDP, household consumption level and urbanization rate), employment factors (the number of college graduates and registered urban unemployment rate) and Interet factors (Internet availability and weekly Internet using hours of netizens), significantly predicted the decline in the time management disposition of college students; (3) there were no significant gender and regional differences in the time management disposition of college students in China.

This research explored the time management disposition of college students, a micro psychological variable, from the macro-perspective. Guided by the social ecosystem theory, the research pioneered to verify the declining trend in the time management disposition of college students from the mainland of China. It is revealed that their judgement of time functions and values remained stable over 22 years, but their time planning competence and confidence were declining. In other words, college students admitted the value of time but could not make efficient use of it, which led to a contradiction between attitude and behavior. In addition, this research proved that economy, employment and Internet (three social macro factors) predicted the time management disposition of college students, which elevated the macro significance of time management disposition. Based on existing findings, this research came up with a influencing mechanism model on the time management disposition of college students including the social macro factors. According to the model, the changes in objective macro systems, such as economy, employment and Internet, resulting in changed subjective macro systems, such as social mentality. Both types of macro systems function on individuals and micro systems at the same time. Meanwhile, individual factors and micro systems interact with each other. Futhermore, time change or social transformation has a controlling effect on the whole system. Time change and social transformation can trigger the changes of the above two macro systems, affecting individual factors and micro systems, and further exert an effect on the time management disposition of college students. The model provided theoretical and practical references for future research on time psychology in the social sense.

Key words: time management disposition, the Adolescense Time Management Disposition Inventory, college students, cross-temporal meta-analysis, social change