Advances in Psychological Science ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 216-229.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00216
• Regular Articles •
DAI Yufang1, ZHANG Xiangqian2, ZHENG Wenzhi1
Most research on the relationship between supervisors and subordinates focuses on the actual characteristics of the relationship but lacks discussion on the implicit characteristics or patterns of the relationship. In contrast, the supervisor-subordinate relational schema focuses on the implicit cognition of the supervisor-subordinate relationship. This relational schema helps reveal the interaction process between supervisor and subordinate and advances theory in this area, providing theoretical guidance on how to promote supervisors' and subordinates' positive psychology and behaviors. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this paper defines the supervisor-subordinate relational schema as an individual's implicit cognition of the pattern or characteristics of the relationship between supervisors and subordinates. This cognitive structure can serve as role expectations and evaluative standards to assess the quality of supervisor-subordinate relationships consciously or unconsciously and as an interactive guide for individual behavior. In addition, this paper lists the measurement of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema and distinguishes the supervisor-subordinate relational schema from the related concepts. Both the supervisor-subordinate relational schema and the implicit theories of relationships belong to the domain-specific relational schemas, but the supervisor-subordinate relational schema focuses on the supervisor-subordinate relationship, while the implicit theories of relationships focus on the romantic relationship. The followership schema and the supervisor-subordinate relational schema are both schema structures. However, the cognitive object of the followership schema is followers (individual-level), while the cognitive object of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema is the supervisor-subordinate relationship (dyad-level). Relational self, relational identity, and the supervisor-subordinate relational schema all relate to relational cognition, but the definition objects are quite different. Relational self and relational identity define "Self" by relational cognition, while the supervisor-subordinate relational schema defines "Relationship." Individual traditionality and modernity, attachment style, leadership behavior, and cultural factors can predict the supervisor-subordinate relational schema. This relational schema can influence a leader's attitude and behavior and subordinates' loyalty, job performance, extra-role behavior, leader evaluation (ethical leadership), and supervisor-subordinate relationship evaluation. Meanwhile, the social-cognitive model of transference, pan familism, social learning theory can explain the antecedent influence to the supervisor-subordinate relational schema. Information processing theory is the leading theory to explain the consequences of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema. Future research is encouraged to identify the predictive factors of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema, expand its consequences, and explore its mediating mechanism.
relational sch ema,
DAI Yufang, ZHANG Xiangqian, ZHENG Wenzhi. What characteristics should the supervisor-subordinate relationship have? The supervisor-subordinate relational schema[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2022, 30(1): 216-229.
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