ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (05): 444-453.

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Development and Initial Validation of the Youth Self-Confidence Inventory

BI Chong-Zeng;HUANG Xi-Ting   

  1. School of Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Social Management, Southwest University; Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality(SWU), Ministry of Education; Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2008-03-12 Revised:1900-01-01 Published:2009-05-30 Online:2009-05-30

Abstract: Self-confidence is a widely used concept rooted in Chinese culture, yet no multidimensional measures of self-confidence have been developed for use within a Chinese cultural context. The primary purpose of this research was to determine the structure of self-confidence from an indigenous perspective, through developing and validating a youth self-confidence inventory.
An initial sample (n = 130) from senior high school and university completed the open-ended questionnaire “Twenty Self-Confidence Statements Test”. Their responses were subjected to content analyses and five domains of self confidence emerged: academic confidence, interpersonal confidence, moral certainty, coping efficacy, and achievement expectations. In a second sample, 391 students (170 males, 221 females) completed 50 items generated to reflect these five dimensions. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) resulted in a five factor solution comprising 33 items that explained 53.32% of the variance in self-confidence and reflected the hypothesized factor structure. In Study 3, 1084 high school and university students (537males, 533 females) completed the YSCI, Self-Doubt Scale (Oleson et al., 2000), Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ (Beck et al, 1996), Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky, & Lepper, 1999), Student Behavioral Inhibition Scale (Wang et al., 2004), and Scale of Self-Worth (Huang & Yang, 1998), with a subset of 67 students completing the YSCI two weeks later. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) replicated the initial factor structure of the YSCI and indicated a satisfactory goodness-of-fit (χ2/df=2.81, RMR=0.07, GFI=0.90, AGFI=0.88, TLI=0.83, RMSEA=0.05, RMSEA LO=0.04, RMSEA HI=0.05, PCLOSE=0.970>0.05). Internal consistencies and retest reliabilities for the subscales were all higher than 0.70, supporting the reliability of the YSCI. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-confidence could explain 13% of the variance in confidence inhibition (F=27.80, p<0.01), 17% of the variance in self-doubt (F=40.26, p<0.01), 29% of the variance in self-worth (F=66.83, p<0.01), 24% of the variance in depression (F=63.19, p<0.01) and 18% of the variance in subjective happiness (F=40.65, p<0.01), indicating the YSCI had satisfactory criterion validity.
In sum, this research resulted in the development of the Youth Self-Confidence Inventory (YSCI), a reliable, comprehensive measure of self-confidence that has promising validity and considerable potential utility in research on adolescent and emerging adult samples within Chinese and non-Chinese cultural contexts.

Key words: Self-confidence, academic confidence, interpersonal confidence, moral certainty, coping efficacy, achievement expectation, Youth Self-Confidence Inventory