心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 848-857 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00848

“以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展”专栏

锚定效应助推国民身心健康:两个现场实验 *

王晓庄,1, 安晓镜2, 骆皓爽3, 徐晟1, 于馨4, 胡施雅1, 王玉涵1

1 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074

2 邢台学院教科部, 河北邢台 054001

3 中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室, 北京 100101

4 天津师范大学学生心理健康教育中心, 天津 300384

Anchoring effect as a nudge on improving public health: Two field experiments

WANG Xiaozhuang,1, AN Xiaojing2, LUO Haoshuang3, XU Sheng1, YU Xin4, HU Shiya1, WANG Yuhan1

1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China

2 Department of Education Science, Xingtai College, Xingtai 054001, China

3 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

4 Mental Health Education Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300384, China

通讯作者: 王晓庄, E-mail:wangxiaozhuang@tjnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-12-25   网络出版日期: 2018-08-07

基金资助: * 中宣部文化名家暨“四个一批”人才工程专项(2015.12).  14ZDB160
国家社科基金项目.  14ZDB160

Received: 2017-12-25   Online: 2018-08-07

摘要

从高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计思路出发, 在老年人及青少年身心健康领域开展现场助推实验, 探索内部锚与精细锚的设计方法及其有效性。实验1探讨积极怀旧内部锚对老年人情绪状态和幸福感的影响。采用两因素混合设计, 通过10周怀旧故事分享建立老年人积极怀旧内部锚(积极怀旧故事数), 检验积极怀旧内部锚对情绪状态及幸福感的作用。结果显示, 积极怀旧组的积极情绪及幸福感水平显著高于自由怀旧组。实验2探讨精细锚对中学生体育活动坚持性的影响。被试分别阅读精细锚、粗略区间锚和无锚条件的个性化“激励贴士”后进行体育活动测试, 结果发现, 精细锚组坚持激励度自评及成绩提升比均高于其他组。综合分析表明, 内部锚和精细锚设计能够对人们身心健康起到积极助推作用。锚值与个体关联且激发深度加工, 进而引发情绪情感及动机变化是产生影响的机制。本研究对于提升老年人和青少年身心健康及丰富其途径和方法具有现实意义。

关键词: 锚定效应 ; 内部锚 ; 精细锚 ; 助推

Abstract

Anchoring effect refers to the phenomenon that a target estimation was influenced by the numerical anchor value in the way that the final judgment would be close to the anchor value. Previous studies have found that external anchor could improve ones' attitudes and behaviors that may promote their physical and mental health. However, studies about other anchor types were not being found in the literature.

Anchor values ​​that are highly personally relevant can stimulate deep processing. The current study integrated anchor value with prevention science, conducted two on-site experiments that focused on the physical and mental health of older adults and adolescents, and explored design options of internal anchors and fine anchors and their effectiveness in improving outcomes.

Experiment 1 examined the effect of positive nostalgia on the emotional state and well-being of older adults. A two-factor mixed design was adopted. A positive nostalgic internal anchor (the number of positive reminiscences) was built through 10-week nostalgic story sharing. 80 senior citizens participated in 10 weeks’ interventions of compelling narrative life sharing (positive nostalgia condition) and collecting life stories (free nostalgia condition). The subjects shared two stories per week about different topics. The first experiment tested whether the positive nostalgia of internal anchors had any effect on positive emotions and happiness. The results showed that, the number of pleasant and inspirational stories (positive internal anchor) in positive nostalgia group was significantly higher than those in the free nostalgia group. The positive mood and well-being of the positive nostalgia group (intervention group) were significantly higher than those of the free nostalgia group (control).

Experiment 2 examined the influence of fine anchor on persistence of physical activity among middle school students. There were three study conditions: fine anchors, rough interval anchors and no anchors. According to their base line performance in plank and 2 minutes rope skipping, 180 adolescents were divided into 3 groups Individualized “motivation tips” were delivered before the second experiment. It was found that the self-reported persistence levels and improvement rates were higher among students in the fine anchor group than those of the other two groups. Results of comprehensive analysis showed that the designed internal anchors and fine anchors played an active role in promoting physical and mental health among older adults and adolescents.

The study provided evidence that self-generating internal anchor or fine anchor for individual promotes positive attitudes and behaviors on physical and mental health. A possible mechanism of the effect could be that the anchor values were personally relevant and could stimulate deep processing, which in turn triggered changes in feelings, emotions, or motives. Results of the study have implications on practical significance for improving the physical and mental health of older adults and adolescents and for increasing ways and methods to improve their health.

Keywords: anchoring effect ; internal anchor ; fine anchor ; nudge

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本文引用格式

王晓庄, 安晓镜, 骆皓爽, 徐晟, 于馨, 胡施雅, 王玉涵. (2018). 锚定效应助推国民身心健康:两个现场实验 * . 心理学报, 50(8), 848-857

WANG Xiaozhuang, AN Xiaojing, LUO Haoshuang, XU Sheng, YU Xin, HU Shiya, WANG Yuhan. (2018). Anchoring effect as a nudge on improving public health: Two field experiments. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(8), 848-857

1 引言

《“健康中国2030”规划纲要》提出, 要强化对生命不同阶段主要健康问题的干预, 将老年人和青少年列入健康干预的重点群体。对老年人而言, 由于退休后身体状况、经济关系和社会角色的改变, 易产生消极心理活动, 出现抑郁等负性情绪, 影响身心健康与生活质量(李晓敏, 韩布新, 2012)。因此, 应着力改善老年人情绪状态, 促进老年群体的健康老龄化。对青少年而言, 则常出现自控能力差、意志品质薄弱、做事不能坚持到底的问题(聂衍刚, 张卫, 彭以松, 丁莉, 2007)。因此, 实施青少年体育活动促进计划, 应着力加强青少年坚持性的培养, 使之成为磨炼意志品质的重要途径。对重点人群身心健康问题的干预, 从本质上是对其认知、态度和行为的调整。为此, 在推行健康政策、完善设施的同时, 应积极探索改善身心健康的心理助推方法(李纾, 2016)。

锚定效应(anchoring effect)是在不确定情境中, 人们以接触或回忆的数值(锚值)为参照估计目标值, 使估计值接近锚值的现象(Mandera, Keuleers, & Brysbaert, 2017; Tversky & Kahneman, 1975)。锚值从来源上分为两大类, 外部锚(external anchor)来自外部资源; 内部锚(internal anchor)又称自生锚(self- generated anchor), 是个体自发产生的锚值。有研究操纵外部锚提升公共沟通及公共政策接受度(Schläpfer & Schmitt, 2007;Yang & Ma, 2011)、开展健康教育和行为矫正(Thaler & Sunstain, 2008)等, 对锚定效应助推公共管理及民众健康进行了探索。锚定效应助推身心健康的关键在于锚值的设计和运用, 如何运用不同类型锚值?如何进行锚值设计?是通过锚定效应开展心理助推的核心问题。

从态度改变理论视角, 锚定现象类似于一个说服情境:锚值作为有影响力的信息引发态度改变(Wegener, Petty, Detweiler-Bedell, & Jarvis, 2001)。精细加工可能性模型(Elaboration Likelihood Model, 简称ELM; Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)认为, 卷入水平是说服信息产生作用的调节因素, 高卷入水平个体会启动中枢路径、投入更多认知资源进行精细加工。通过评价、回忆、推理判断等认知加工, 产生主动、持久的态度改变。而卷入水平取决于个体的动机、需求和信息理解力等。对锚定现象的研究表明, 无论是内部锚还是外部锚, 个体在较高动机和需求状态下对锚值进行精细加工, 锚定效应就更为持久和不易改变(Wegener, Petty, Blankenship, & Detweiler-Bedell, 2010)。因此, 运用锚定现象助推身心健康, 应设计引发高卷入水平的锚值, 提高锚值与个体关联度, 调动对锚值深度加工的动机, 即将高个体关联且激发深度加工作为锚值设计的基本思路。

从锚值类型视角, 不同角度有不同锚值分类, 锚定效应的程度也存在差异(王晓庄, 2013; Dogerlioglu-Demir & Kocas, 2015; Mandera et al., 2017), 因此, 应针对身心健康干预领域, 根据锚值特点选取相应的锚类型, 将锚值与干预领域的有机结合作为锚值设计的着力点。

内部锚在学习和经验中获得并进入长时记忆。当面临问题情境, 提取内部锚用于思考和判断。如, 估计新疫苗的风险, 会依据记忆中疫苗导致意外的数字来推断, 使估计结果接近记忆的数字。研究认为, 诱发自发锚定效应的内部锚来源于个体自身内部世界, 其确定性程度更高, 信念程度也更强(李斌等, 2012)。由于锚值的内生性, 内部锚与个体经历和体验相联系, 有较高的个体关联(Holst, Hermann, & Musshoff, 2015), 问题情境又会激发个体对锚值回忆、评价等有较高意识投入的加工。如, 一项实验向大学生提问两个问题:第一, 你与朋友约会的频次?第二, 你有多幸福?答题结果显著正相关(Strack, Martin, & Schwarz, 1988; Thaler & Sunstein, 2008)。约会频次作为内部锚, 个体在获得过程中就具有高卷入度, “你与朋友约会的频次?”问题又激发了对约会场景及过程的回忆与加工。高卷入且经深度加工的内部锚影响了随后问题的回答, 使高约会频次被试作出高幸福度估计, 反之, 作出低幸福度估计, 产生了“特征替代”, 即人们用一个具体问题答案的属性特征替代及影响抽象问题回答的思维过程(Kahneman & Frederick, 2002)。对“约会”的数量属性及约会情绪情感体验的回忆和加工, 影响了“你有多幸福”问题的回答。可见, 内部锚具备高个体关联且易激发深度加工的特点。

怀旧是影响老年人情绪状态的重要心理活动之一, 在回忆过去的人和事过程中产生积极或消极的情绪情感体验。积极怀旧具有储藏正性情感、缓解焦虑、提升乐观和归属感等功能(Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006)。怀旧以个体自身为主角, 是一种基于个体记忆提取的社会性情绪(Wildschut et al., 2006)。怀旧事件源于个体经历, 有较大的个体差异性(薛婧, 黄希庭, 2011)。可见, 怀旧心理活动与个体经历和体验相联系, 与内部锚个体关联特征及内部锚建立与回忆的心理加工特征有一定对应性。因此, 调节老年人日常情绪状态, 可发挥内部锚效应的功能, 对怀旧心理活动进行干预。

基于上述分析, 本研究实验1将内部锚与老年人怀旧心理干预相结合, 改进Strack等(1988)的范式, 检验积极怀旧内部锚对老年人情绪状态和幸福感的作用, 探索高个体关联且激发深度加工的内部锚设计方法。首先采用1对1 (1名主试对1名老年被试)干预形式, 进行10周共20个怀旧故事的讲述, 使积极怀旧干预组老年人比自由怀旧组建立更高的积极怀旧内部锚(积极怀旧故事数)。怀旧主题包括三方面:(1)曾经历的愉悦情绪体验; (2)来自家人和朋友的社会支持体验; (3)对生活经历的积极感悟。通过细化故事分享过程, 深化老年人情绪情感体验与认知整合。接着, 通过积极怀旧故事数(即内部锚问题)、怀旧快乐度等答题, 激发老年人对内部锚的加工。从内部锚形成过程, 每个积极怀旧故事讲述都包含老年人情感体验、认知梳理与整合, 是有意识的加工过程。研究表明, 内部锚大小对后续幸福度问题的回答产生显著影响(Strack et al., 1988); 自尊和积极情感在怀旧与乐观之间起中介作用(Austin, 2016); 怀旧通过增强积极情绪间接促进心理健康(Baldwin & Landau, 2014)。因此我们假设:积极怀旧条件老年人积极情绪和幸福感显著高于自由怀旧条件; 积极怀旧内部锚通过引发积极怀旧情绪, 进而改善整体情绪状态, 提升幸福感。

精细外部锚(fine external anchor)和粗略外部锚(coarser external anchor)是从数字特征上对锚的分类。精细锚是精确到个位数或小数的锚值; 反之则为粗略锚 (Janiszewski & Uy, 2008)。研究表明, 相对于粗略锚, 精细锚引发更强的锚定效应(曲琛, 周立明, 罗跃嘉, 2008)。数字加工的心理刻度效应(effectiveness of mental scale)是精细锚效应的内在机制(曲琛等, 2008)。研究表明, 人们是以心理数轴(mental number line)形式对数值进行表征的, 与真实世界的尺子一样, 心理数轴也有不同的刻度(Dollman & Levine, 2016)。精确到个位整数, 心理数轴会以较精细的刻度划分; 精确到十位数或百位数, 心理数轴刻度划分相对更粗糙或更模糊。以精确锚为起点对目标值的估计, 即在心理数轴上从锚值向上或向下调整的幅度更小 (Janiszewski & Uy, 2008)。精细刻度下, 如单位刻度为整数1, 人们思考是以1作为单位刻度一个一个数进行调整; 而粗略刻度下, 如单位刻度为10, 则以10作为单位刻度或模糊刻度进行调整。ERP研究表明, 精细锚比粗略锚条件下LPC (late positive component)波幅更正, 表明精细锚条件下心理运算加工的精细程度更高(曲琛等, 2008)。可见, 精细锚具有易于激发精细加工的特点。

青少年体育活动中坚持性的培养是锻炼意志品质的重要途径, 作业难度调整与诱导激励是培养坚持性的具体方法(黄晓灵, 2006)。为学生设置一定的困难情境及可行的目标, 已成为体育教学的基本模式。作业难度调整与诱导激励来自于外部刺激, 作业调整目标越明确、越精细, 激励诱导方式越恰当, 就越能调动青少年体育活动的动机和行为。因此, 可发挥精细外部锚的功能, 应用于提升青少年体育活动中坚持性的干预。

基于上述分析, 本研究实验2将精细锚与青少年体育活动中坚持性的干预相结合, 检验精细锚激励对坚持性的作用, 探索高个体关联且激发深度加工的精细锚设计方法。实验选取平板支撑和两分钟跳绳项目, 通过练习获得每位学生的成绩基线值, 基于基线值计算个性化精细锚值, 作为激励提示。相对于粗略锚(数值区间), 精细锚与个体一一对应性更强。精细锚的呈现诱发数字加工心理刻度效应, 产生更高程度的心理运算加工。具体地说, 通过细化成绩努力目标的心理加工, 对目标产生更清晰的认知。目标清晰程度引发坚持性动机, 进而通过一秒一秒(一个一个)的坚持实现成绩提升。研究表明, 坚持性可作为动机现象来考察(Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, & Brière, 2001); 动机对运动坚持性有显著预测作用(Chen, 2015)。个性化指导可使学生接受挑战性活动且有更高的坚持性(Perlman, 2013; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005)。由此我们假设, 相对于粗略锚, 个性化精细锚激励可提升青少年体育活动努力目标的清晰度, 激发坚持性及努力提升成绩的行为。

综上, 本研究以探索锚定效应助推国民身心健康的方法为目标, 基于精细加工可能性模型, 将高个体关联且激发深度加工作为锚值设计的基本思路, 将锚值与干预领域的结合作为着力点。针对老年人及青少年身心健康问题开展干预, 探索内部锚及精细锚设计的有效性。

2 实验1:积极怀旧内部锚对老年人情绪状态和幸福感的影响

2.1 目的

从建立老年人积极怀旧内部锚的设计出发, 检验积极怀旧内部锚提升老年人积极情绪及幸福感的有效性, 探索高个体关联且激发深度加工的内部锚干预方法。

2.2 方法

2.2.1 被试

采用方便抽样选取5省14个社区120名老年人。通过简明心境量表、纽芬兰纪念大学幸福度量表对情绪状态和幸福感进行测量, 回收有效问卷114份。为保证实验前各组被试同质, 情绪状态、幸福感以标准分绝对值大于等于2为标准, 删除34名。将其余80名的幸福感得分从高到低排序, 以2人为单元, 随机分到主题积极怀旧组和主题自由怀旧组。前者年龄为68.22 ± 6.31岁, 男性22人; 后者年龄为66.45 ± 6.39岁, 男性17人。

2.2.2 实验设计

采用2(怀旧类型:主题积极怀旧, 主题自由怀旧)×2(测量:前测, 后测)混合设计, 怀旧类型为被试间变量, 测量为被试内变量。因变量:心境状态、幸福感。

2.2.3 实验材料

(1)怀旧故事分享联系卡

怀旧故事分享联系卡(简称“联系卡”), 用于怀旧故事分享, 共10个怀旧主题(见表1),每个主题有两个故事分享卡构成。主题积极怀旧联系卡为积极表达框架“精彩人生故事联系卡”; 主题自由怀旧联系卡为中性表达框架“人生故事征集联系卡”。

表1   积极怀旧和自由怀旧主题表述对照表

主题积极怀旧 主题自由怀旧
1. 童年生活中最快乐的两件事 1. 童年生活中的两件事
2. 早年家庭生活中经历的最开心的两件事 2. 早年家庭生活中经历的两件事
3. 年轻时听过的最励志的、鼓舞您的两首歌 3. 年轻时听过的两首歌
4. 过去工作中让您最有成就感的两件事 4. 过去工作中的两件事
5. 多年前与朋友交往中让您觉得最愉悦的两件事 5. 多年前与朋友交往中经历的两件事
6. 过去生活中乐观面对和战胜困难的两次经历 6. 过去生活中遇到困难的两次经历
7. 早些年曾经去过的让您最愉悦的两个地方 7. 早些年您曾经去过的两个地方
8. 多年前曾经看过的最喜欢的两部电视剧(或电影) 8. 多年前曾经看过的两部电视剧(或电影)
9. 人生岁月中最能鼓励您、支持您的两个人 9. 人生岁月中接触过的两个人
10. 时代变化过程中让您觉得生活更美好的两件事 10. 时代变化过程中经历的两件事

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为深化被试的怀旧体验, 编制指导语:“请您闭上双眼, 用5分钟或更长的时间回忆这次经历, 尽量回忆每一个细节”。针对场景和人物、情绪和情感体验、认识与感受等, 每张故事卡设置3~4个问题, 用于深化被试的故事回忆。

(2)积极怀旧故事数与怀旧快乐度问卷

借鉴Strack等(1988)的范式, 自编积极怀旧故事数与怀旧快乐度问卷。包括两个项目:“在过去10周中, 您一共回忆了多少件令您快乐和鼓舞的故事?”、“在回忆这些故事过程中您感觉多快乐?”。第一题每1个故事记为1分, 得到积极怀旧故事分数。第二题采用百分制。第一题重测信度为0.95, 第二题重测信度为0.84。

(3)简明心境状态量表

Grove和Prapavessis (1992)修编, 测量情绪状态。共40个项目, 5级评分, 包括正性、负性情绪状态两大维度。情绪状态总分 = 负性情绪得分 - 正性情绪得分 + 100 (祝蓓里, 1995)。分数越高, 情绪状态越差。内部一致性系数为0.84。

(4)纽芬兰纪念大学幸福度量表

由Kozma和Stones (1980)编制, 测量幸福感。24个项目, 正性情感(PA)和负性情感(NA)分别为5个条目; 正性体验(PE)和负性体验(NE)分别为7个条目。总幸福度 = PA - NA + PE - NE + 24, 分数越高, 幸福感越高。内部一致性系数为0.91。

2.2.4 实验程序

(1)采用简明心境量表、纽芬兰纪念大学幸福度量表对情绪状态和幸福感进行测量, 按前述方法筛选出80名被试, 随机分到主题积极怀旧组和主题自由怀旧组。

(2)招募38名志愿者作为主试并进行相关培训。主试与被试对接, 每名主试负责联系1~3名被试, 根据被试意愿, 确定访谈地点(家中或社区活动室)。

(3)每周主试与被试预约, 以1对1形式, 按照联系卡的主题, 每周1个怀旧主题, 被试讲述2个怀旧故事, 主试记录。10个怀旧主题共进行10周。

(4)实验结束后, 于第11周见面, 再测简明心境量表、纽芬兰幸福度量表, 回答积极怀旧故事数与怀旧快乐度问卷。

2.3 结果与分析

2.3.1 变量操纵有效性检验

采用积极怀旧故事分数和怀旧快乐度分数检验并证明了变量操纵的有效性。结果显示, 积极怀旧组的积极怀旧故事分数(M ± SD = 18.38 ± 2.53)显著高于自由怀旧组(M ± SD = 13.67 ± 6.10), t(78) = 4.50, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.99。积极怀旧组的怀旧快乐度分数(M ± SD = 91.59 ± 7.23)显著高于自由怀旧组(M ± SD = 79.68 ± 11.14), t(78) = 5.67, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.28。

2.3.2 各条件下情绪状态和幸福感的比较

各种条件下情绪状态和幸福感的描述统计结果如表2所示。

表2   各种条件下情绪状态和幸福感的描述统计结果
(M ± SD)

因变量 怀旧类型 前测 后测
情绪状态 积极 115.03 ± 7.34 83.70 ± 10.43
自由 116.8 ± 6.98 93.80 ± 14.32
幸福感 积极 31.10 ± 3.47 32.85 ± 3.18
自由 30.30 ± 3.93 30.67 ± 4.82

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情绪状态得分越低说明情绪状态越积极。方差分析表明, 测量的主效应显著, F(1,78) = 273.37, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.78; 后测情绪状态得分(M ± SD = 88.75 ± 13.44)显著低于前测(M ± SD = 115.95 ± 7.17)。怀旧类型的主效应显著, F(1,78) = 14.29, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.16; 积极怀旧组得分(M ± SD = 99.36 ± 18.13)显著低于自由怀旧组(M ± SD = 105.34 ± 16.13)。两者交互作用显著, F(1,78) = 6.29, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.08。简单效应分析:后测条件下, 积极怀旧得分(M ± SD = 83.70 ± 10.43)显著低于自由怀旧组(M ± SD = 93.80 ± 14.32), F(1,78) = 13.00, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.14; 前测条件下, 积极怀旧组(M ± SD = 115.03 ± 7.34)和自由怀旧组(M ± SD = 116.88 ± 6.98)无显著差异, F(1,78) = 1.33, p = 0.25。幸福感的方差分析表明, 测量的主效应显著, F(1,78) = 4.71, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.06, 后测(M ± SD = 31.76 ± 4.20)幸福感显著高于前测(M ± SD = 30.70 ± 3.71)。怀旧类型的主效应显著, F(1,78) = 4.25, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.05, 积极怀旧组(M ± SD = 31.97 ± 3.42)幸福感显著高于自由怀旧组(M ± SD = 30.48 ± 4.37); 交互作用不显著, F(2,78) = 1.97, p = 0.16。上述结果表明, 主题积极怀旧条件下积极情绪及幸福感水平均高于主题自由怀旧条件。

2.3.3 中介效应分析

为检验积极怀旧内部锚对情绪状态和幸福感的作用机制。以积极怀旧故事分数为自变量, 怀旧快乐度与心境状态为中介变量, 幸福感为因变量, 采用Bootstrap程序进行链式中介效应分析(Preacher & Hayes, 2008)。结果表明, 怀旧快乐度与情绪状态在故事分数与主观幸福感之间起完全链式中介作用(见图1), CI为0.01~0.09,中介效应占总效应的19.55%。结果表明, 从积极怀旧故事分数的上升到怀旧快乐度提升, 再到情绪状态改善, 最终到幸福感的提升, 是一个一环扣一环的过程, 具有顺序性和逐级传递效应。

图1

图1   链式中介模型检验


综上, 实验1证明了积极怀旧内部锚提升老年人积极情绪及幸福感的作用。积极怀旧条件的积极情绪和幸福感水平均高于自由怀旧组, 验证了实验假设。积极怀旧内部锚建立在对怀旧故事的情绪情感体验与认知整合基础上; 关于内部锚值问题的回答, 又激发老年人对积极怀旧过程的回忆、评价等认知加工, 进而对情绪状态、幸福感产生了影响。可见, 高个体关联且激发深度加工的内部锚干预方法是有效的。可采用内部锚设计, 以个性化怀旧故事讲述形式应用于老年人心理健康服务。

3 实验2:精细锚对中学生体育活动坚持性的影响

3.1 目的

从个性化精细锚设计出发, 检验精细锚激励提升中学生体育活动坚持性的有效性, 探索高个体关联且激发深度加工的精细锚干预方法。

3.2 方法

3.2.1 被试

采用方便取样选取天津市3所中学高一学生180名, 年龄16.22 ± 0.83, 男生94名。平板支撑实验被试分组方法:测量每位被试3次练习成绩, 取均值(基线值)并从高到低排序, 以3人为单元, 随机分到精细锚、粗略锚、无锚三组中, 每组各60人。跳绳分组方法同上

3.2.2 实验设计

采用单因素设计, 自变量:激励锚值类型(精细锚、粗略锚、无锚), 因变量:成绩提升比、目标清晰度、坚持激励度。根据体育运动成绩提升幅度的规律, 本实验选用成绩提升比为主要因变量指标。成绩提升比 = (测试成绩 - 基线成绩)/基线成绩。

3.2.3 实验材料

(1)个性化“激励贴士”

设计制作平板支撑、跳绳项目的个性化“激励贴士”, 分为精细锚激励贴士、粗略锚激励贴士、无锚激励贴士。精细锚和粗略锚的设计方法为, 分别取平板支撑和两分钟跳绳项目各三次练习成绩均值作为基线值。平板支撑精确到秒, 跳绳精确到个数。研究人员与参与实验的体育教师讨论确定精细锚和区间锚的计算方法。平板支撑项目精细锚值 = 基线值 × 1.1, 精确到秒; 跳绳项目上精细锚值 = 基线值 × 1.2, 精确到个数。粗略锚组被试的区间锚是上下限为整十的区间, 选取方法是:先按精细锚计算方法求得数值, 之后确定包含这个值的锚值区间。如某被试跳绳基线值163个, 精细锚为196

个(195.6取整), 粗略锚则为190~200个。“激励贴士”样例如图2所示。

图2

图2   三种锚值类型激励贴士样例


(2)目标清晰度问卷

借鉴杨剑、苏玉金(2009)Schnake等(1984)的设计自编单项问卷, “在刚才的测试过程中, ‘激励贴士’提示信息使你感受到的努力目标清晰程度是多少?”。采用百分制答题。两个活动项目上, 问卷重测信度分别为0.84和0.87。以成绩提升比为外部效标, 问卷分数与成绩提升比的相关系数在两个活动项目上分别为0.72和0.82。

(3)坚持激励度问卷

借鉴Desharnais等(1986)的设计自编单项问卷, “在刚才的测试过程中, ‘激励贴士’对于你努力坚持以取得好成绩的激励程度是多少?”。采用百分制答题。两个活动项目上, 问卷重测信度分别为0.81和0.86。以成绩提升比为外部效标, 问卷分数与成绩提升比的相关系数在两个活动项目上分别为0.79和0.81。

3.2.4 实验程序

(1)被试分组及计算锚值。按前述方法进行两个活动项目的被试分组, 精细锚、粗略锚、无锚每组各60人, 并计算精细锚组、粗略锚组的锚值。

(2)测试与问卷答题。制作个性化“激励贴士”。测试前, 发放“激励贴士”, 被试阅读后, 进行项目测试, 记录测试成绩。之后, 被试填写目标清晰度问卷和坚持激励度问卷。

3.3 结果与分析

3.3.1 三组被试成绩的比较

采用成绩提升比进行比较。三组的平板支撑成绩提升比差异显著(见图3), F(2,177) = 22.76, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.21。精细锚组(M ± SD = 0.15 ± 0.08)显著高于粗略锚组(M ± SD = 0.04 ± 0.09)和无锚组 (M ± SD = 0.05 ± 0.12), t(118) = 5.31, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.31; t(118) = 7.07, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.98。无锚组和粗略锚组差异不显著t(118) = -0.69, p = 0.49。三组的跳绳成绩提升比差异显著, F(2,177) = 8.48, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.09。精细锚组(M ± SD = 0.24 ± 0.25)显著高于粗略锚(M ± SD = 0.16 ± 0.15)和无锚组(M ± SD = 0.09 ± 0.20), t(118) = 3.71, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.68; t(118) = 2.01, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.37。粗略锚组显著高于无锚组t(118) = 2.40, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.44。该结果表明, 精细锚激励贴士对体育活动成绩提升作用显著。

图3

图3   成绩提升比比较结果


3.3.2 三组被试目标清晰度比较

平板支撑项目, 三组的目标清晰度差异显著(见图4), F(2,177) = 56.88, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.39。精细锚组(M ± SD = 87.55 ± 10.20)显著高于粗略锚组(M ± SD = 76.72 ± 8.50)和无锚组(M ± SD = 71.15 ± 6.62), t(118) = 6.32, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.16; t(118) = 10.45, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.92。粗略锚组显著高于无锚组, t(118) = 4.00, p < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.74。跳绳项目, 三组的目标清晰度差异显著, F(2,177) = 25.17, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.22。精细锚组(M ± SD = 83.50 ± 8.48)显著高于粗略锚组(M ± SD = 78.03 ± 8.49)和无锚组(M ± SD = 72.30 ± 8.96), t(118) = 3.53, p < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.65; t(118) = 7.03, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.29。粗略锚组显著高于无锚组, t(118) = 3.59, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.66。该结果表明, 精细锚激励贴士显著提升对努力目标清晰程度的感受。

图4

图4   目标清晰度分数比较结果


3.3.3 三组被试坚持激励度比较

平板支撑项目, 三组的坚持激励度差异显著(见图5), F(2,177) = 29.74, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.25。精细锚组(M ± SD = 83.27 ± 7.79)显著高于粗略锚组(M ± SD = 78.93 ± 9.29)和无锚组(M ± SD = 70.82 ± 9.73), t(118) = 2.77, p < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.51; t(118) = 7.74, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.43。粗略锚组显著高于无锚组t(118) = 4.67, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.86。跳绳项目, 三组坚持激励度差异显著, F(2,177) = 12.65, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.13。精细锚组(M ± SD = 79.40 ± 8.07)显著高于粗略锚组(M ± SD = 75.67 ± 9.51)和无锚组(M ± SD = 71.42 ± 8.47), t(118) = 2.32, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.43; t(118) = 5.29, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.97。粗略锚组显著高于无锚组, t(118) = 2.59, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.48。该结果表明, 精细锚激励贴士显著提升了对坚持性激励的主观感受。

图5

图5   坚持激励度分数比较结果


3.3.4 中介效应分析

为检验精细锚诱发的目标清晰度对中学生体育活动坚持性的作用机制, 以目标清晰度为自变量, 成绩提升比为因变量, 坚持激励度为中介变量, 采用Bootstrap程序进行中介效应分析。中介路径在两个项目上均显著(见图6图7), CI分别为0.001~ 0.002、0.001~0.004中介效应分别占总效应的38.09%和19.26%。坚持激励度在目标清晰度与成绩提升比之间均具有部分中介作用, 即由精细锚引发的目标清晰度通过坚持激励度影响了体育活动成绩提升。

图6

图6   平板支撑项目变量中介效应检验


图7

图7   跳绳项目变量中介效应检验


综上, 实验2证明了个性化精细锚激励对提升中学生体育活动坚持性的有效性。研究发现, 相对于粗略锚和无锚激励, 精细锚激励条件下对努力目标清晰程度的感受、对坚持性激励的主观体验更强, 体育活动的成绩提升比显著提高。可见, 高个体关联且激发深度加工的精细锚干预方法是有效的。培养中学生在体育活动中的坚持性, 可采用个性化精细锚设计, 以“激励贴士”形式应用于体育教学及活动训练。

4 总讨论

基于态度改变理论对锚定效应的研究, 在运用锚定现象对身心健康开展干预时, 应选择和设计能引发受众高卷入水平的锚值, 激发对锚值深度加工的动机。为此, 我们以高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计为基本思路, 针对老年人怀旧心理及中学生体育活动坚持性, 采用内部锚和精细锚设计, 探索助推老年人和青少年身心健康的操作方法。实验1探讨积极怀旧内部锚对老年人情绪状态及幸福感的影响。研究发现, 通过怀旧故事讲述干预可以使老年人形成更高的积极怀旧内部锚, 进而提升老年人积极情绪及幸福感。实验2探讨精细锚激励对中学生体育活动坚持性的影响。研究发现, 可以采用个性化精细锚设计, 以“激励贴士”形式应用于体育教学及活动训练, 提升学生体育活动中的坚持性。两个实验从不同群体身心健康领域证明, 以高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计思路, 可以在不同类型锚值设计上取得良好效果。

4.1 锚定效应助推国民身心健康的锚值设计

基于态度改变理论视角, 较高的卷入水平(动机和需求状态等)驱动对锚值的深度加工, 产生更为持久的锚定效应 (Russo, 2010;Wegener et al., 2010)。因此, 本研究将高个体关联且激发深度加工作为锚值设计的基本思路, 从不同类型锚值特点出发, 着眼于锚值与干预问题的有机结合, 对具体设计及实施效果进行探索和检验。实验1将内部锚与老年人怀旧心理问题结合, 积极怀旧内部锚与个体高度关联, 在怀旧故事讲述中内部锚的形成以及围绕积极怀旧故事数量和怀旧快乐度的答题, 又激发老年人对锚值的深度加工。实验2将精细锚与中学生体育活动坚持性问题结合, 精细锚的个性化使锚值与个体高度关联, 精细锚诱发的数字加工心理刻度效应, 激发对锚值的深度加工。

两个实验探索得到的启示是, 围绕高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计思路, 首先应针对身心健康领域问题的特点, 选择相应的锚值类型。即确定是采用内部锚还是外部锚, 精细锚还是粗略锚等, 以发挥锚值的优势作用。其次应在锚值的具体设计上, 结合干预问题的特点, 进行细化和创新。实现锚值类型与干预问题有机结合, 找到恰当的锚值设计形式。

4.2 锚定效应助推国民身心健康的机制

从本研究两个实验看, 首先, 无论实验1积极怀旧内部锚的形成及回忆, 还是实验2对精细锚的加工, 锚值产生影响均包含一个共性环节, 即对锚值的深度加工。其次, 正如不同类型锚定效应有不同的内在机制, 锚值产生影响又包含不同的心理过程。实验1对内部锚的深度加工及强化, 使内部锚确立了其影响力, 产生了大小、高低的数量属性。在随后关于情绪状态和幸福感的抽象问题回答, 内部锚的具体数量属性伴随着怀旧情绪情感体验及认知整合, 影响了对情绪状态和幸福感的评价。实验2中, 数字加工的心理刻度效应是精细锚激励产生作用的机制, 精细锚细化了心理尺子刻度, 诱发更高程度的心理运算加工, 对努力目标形成更为清晰的认知。由精细数字锚引发的目标清晰度通过坚持激励度影响了体育活动的成绩提升。

可见, 锚定效应助推国民身心健康的机制是以对锚值深度加工为共性过程, 又与不同类型锚值效应的机制相结合。在采用锚定效应开展助推国民身心健康的设计时, 应澄清不同锚值发生作用的心理过程, 更好地指导实践应用。

4.3 对实际工作的启示

实验1积极怀旧内部锚的干预设计, 为细化老年人健康服务提供思路。如, 在居家养老服务、社区老年人日间照料中心及其他养老机构服务中, 细化心理服务的内容, 引导老年人通过积极怀旧获得更多的愉悦体验, 感受更大的社会支持, 更全面地整合对人生经历的感悟和积极认知。实验2个性化精细锚激励贴士的设计, 为体育教学及活动训练提供借鉴, 从学生体能水平出发, 用具体量化的绩效数值循序渐进地激励学生, 达到强健体魄、锻炼意志的目的。

4.4 不足与展望

首先, 实验1规定了怀旧主题, 自由怀旧组并不是完全真实情境的自由怀旧设计, 有别于自然状态的怀旧心理活动。今后应采用经验取样法等纵向研究方法, 开展更贴近实境的研究。第二, 本研究从高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计思路出发, 采用两种类型锚值, 针对不同群体身心健康典型问题开展实验干预, 今后还需深化一种锚值类型在多种问题上的探索和应用。

5 结论

本研究从高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计思路, 通过两个实验探索内部锚和精细锚效应助推国民身心健康的方法。研究发现, 积极怀旧内部锚有效提升了老年人积极情绪和幸福感; 积极怀旧故事数通过怀旧快乐度和情绪状态影响老年人的幸福感。个性化精细锚激励有效激发了中学生在体育活动中的坚持性; 个性化精细锚使学生感知更高水平的目标清晰度和坚持激励度, 进而提升体育活动绩效。锚值与个体关联且激发深度加工, 进而引发情绪情感及动机变化是助推身心健康的作用机制。对于丰富促进老年人及青少年身心健康的途径和方法具有现实意义。

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