ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (06): 633-639.

• •    下一篇

学习次数对记忆源检测图片偏向的影响

朱磊;郭秀艳;杨治良   

  1. (1复旦大学心理系, 上海 200433) (2华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海 200062)
  • 收稿日期:2009-09-28 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2010-06-30 发布日期:2010-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 郭秀艳

The Effect of Repeated Exposure on the Picture Preference Bias of Source Monitoring

ZHU Lei;GUO Xiu-Yan;YANG Zhi-Liang   

  1. (1Department of Psychology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China)
    (2School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China)
  • Received:2009-09-28 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2010-06-30 Published:2010-06-30
  • Contact: GUO Xiu-Yan

摘要:

人们总是会根据他们对记忆工作模式的原有假设或图式来进行源检测, 这使得图片—文字源检测测验中出现图片偏向, 即人们更多倾向于将以文字方式呈现的项目错误归源于视觉图像形式呈现, 而不是将图像形式呈现的项目归于文字形式呈现。实验采用标准的源检测范式, 考察了学习次数对记忆源检测图片偏向的影响。结果发现随着学习次数的增加, 记忆源检测的图片偏向越发明显。

关键词: 记忆源检测, 图片偏向, 证人证词, 学习次数

Abstract: People often rely on formal knowledge as well as experience about how memory works when evaluating the source of remembered information (Johnson, Raye, Foley, & Foley, 1981; Johnson, 1997). Such reliance may lead to the picture preference bias, a tendency to misattribute perceived words as pictures rather than misattributing perceived pictures as words in a word-picture monitoring task (Foley, Durso, Wilder, & Friedman, 1991; Riefer, Hu, & Batchelder, 1994; Foley, 1998). Previous research has suggested that picture preference bias in source monitoring may have played a role in the misinformation effect in eyewitness memory research.
In the present study, the effect of repeated exposure on the picture preference bias was examined in a standard source monitoring paradigm. A 2 (Item type: word vs. picture) × 2 (Exposure: once vs. twice) × 2 (Test: source monitoring vs. recognition) within-subjects design was employed. The participants studied 144 words or pictures either once or twice during the study phase. They then completed a mixed source monitoring and recognition test.
The results revealed a significant interaction between source misattribution type and exposure so that the picture preference bias emerged only after repeated exposure: The error of misattributing perceived words to pictures was significantly higher than that of misattributing pictures to words in the repeated exposure condition, but not in the one exposure condition.
Findings from the present study suggest that attempting to enhance eyewitness memory by repeatedly exposing the witnesses to the remnants of the original event could be counterproductive.

Key words: source monitoring, picture preference bias, eyewitness testimony, exposure times