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心理学报  2019, Vol. 51 Issue (10): 1079-1090    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01079
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汉语图画命名过程的年老化机制:非选择性抑制能力的影响
杨群,张清芳()
中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872
Aging effect of picture naming in Chinese: The influence of the non-selective inhibition ability
YANG Qun,ZHANG Qingfang()
Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
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摘要 

采用图画-词汇干扰任务考察和比较了青年人和老年人在汉语口语词汇产生中的干扰词频效应, 以及非选择性抑制能力对两组人群干扰词频效应和图画命名潜伏期的影响。结果发现:无关干扰词的词频影响了青年人的图画命名过程, 出现了干扰词频效应, 这一效应更可能发生在反应排除阶段, 且不受非选择性抑制能力的影响; 相比而言, 老年人中未出现干扰词频效应, 这可能是由于老年人的音韵表征衰退导致其不能利用干扰词的词频信息, 支持了口语产生认知年老化的传输不足假设。非选择性抑制能力影响了老年人的图画-词汇干扰任务中图画命名的潜伏期, 非选择性抑制能力减弱, 图画命名时间延长, 表明一般性认知能力的衰退影响了语言产生过程。

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关键词 口语产生年老化图画-词汇干扰任务干扰词频效应词频效应非选择性抑制能力    
Abstract

Older speakers frequently report more linguistic dysfluencies, verbose and even anomia in speech production than young speakers. The transmission deficit hypothesis assumes that normal aging reduces the activation transmission between the meaning and the word form of target words, which results in more failures. By contrast, the inhibition hypothesis assumes that the inhibitive ability about irrelevant information in older adults is decreased in comparison with young adults, thus more word retrieval failures in the old than in young adults. On the other hand, semantic interference effect and distractor word frequency effect have been observed in picture-word interference (PWI) task. Researchers interpreted the two effects via the competitive (i.e., lexical selection competition during lemma retrieval) and the non-competitive hypotheses (i.e., response exclusion hypothesis). The present study aims to investigate the influence of non-selective inhibition ability in picture naming by examining distractor frequency effect in young and older native Chinese speakers.

In the PWI task, participants were instructed to name pictures as quickly and accurately while ignoring distractor words. In experiment 1, we manipulated age (young vs. older), the frequency of distractor words (High vs. Low), and the onset interval between distractors and target pictures (-100 ms, 0 ms, and 100 ms). In experiment 2, we manipulated age, the frequency of distractor words, and the frequency of target names (High, Medium, and Low). The non-selective inhibition ability was measured by stop-signal task in both groups. Distractors and pictures were presented simultaneously.

Results indicated a target name frequency effect in both young and older groups. Importantly, we found distractor word frequency effects in young adults, but non in older adults. The distractor frequency effect in older adults was absent due to weaker phonological activation of distractor words, and thus support the transmission deficit hypothesis. The correlations between the ability of non-selection inhibition and distractor frequency effect were not significant in both groups, indicating this kind of ability did not affect the magnitude of distractor frequency effect. However, the ability of non-selection inhibition positively correlated with mean naming latencies only in older adults, indicating that the decrease of non-selective inhibition ability influences naming latencies in older adults, while the absence in the young due to the small variations of naming latencies, which need to be investigated further by covering a wide age range (18~80 years).

Key wordsaging of speech production    picture-word interference task    distractor frequency effect    word frequency effect    non-selective inhibition
收稿日期: 2018-11-12      出版日期: 2019-08-19
中图分类号:  B842  
基金资助:* 北京市社会科学基金重点项目(16YYA006);国家自然科学基金面上项目(31471074);中国人民大学科学研究基金项目(中央高校基本科研业务费专项)项目资助(18XNLG28)
通讯作者: 张清芳     E-mail: qingfang.zhang@ruc.edu.cn
引用本文:   
杨群, 张清芳. (2019). 汉语图画命名过程的年老化机制:非选择性抑制能力的影响. 心理学报, 51(10): 1079-1090.
YANG Qun, ZHANG Qingfang. (2019). Aging effect of picture naming in Chinese: The influence of the non-selective inhibition ability. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(10), 1079-1090.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01079      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2019/V51/I10/1079
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