ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (1): 28-35.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00028

• • 上一篇    下一篇

 自我相关信息对视觉搜索主动抑制的易化作用

 李杨卓1;  钱浩悦1;  朱 敏2;  高湘萍1   

  1.  (1上海师范大学教育学院心理系, 上海 200234) (2南京工业大学法学院, 南京 211800)
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-08 出版日期:2018-01-25 发布日期:2017-11-28
  • 通讯作者: 高湘萍, E-mail: gaoxp@shnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
     

 Self association facilitates attentional inhibition in human visual search

 LI Yangzhuo1; QIAN Haoyue1; ZHU Min2; GAO Xiangping1   

  1.  (1 Department of Psychology, School of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China) (2 Law School, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China)
  • Received:2017-05-08 Online:2018-01-25 Published:2017-11-28
  • Contact: GAO Xiangping, E-mail: gaoxp@shnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  工作记忆表征会以自上而下的方式调控注意选择过程, 其中一种表现就是能够对储存的干扰物表征产生注意的主动抑制, 进而提高对目标的搜索效率。另一方面, 凸显性刺激也会以自下而上的方式优先捕获注意。那么, 当保持在工作记忆中的干扰物为更具社会凸显性特征的刺激(如与自己有关的信息)时, 会对视觉搜索过程中的注意抑制产生怎样的影响, 目前尚不清楚。本研究采用短暂联结任务和工作记忆引导的视觉搜索任务范式, 探讨了自我凸显性对注意主动抑制的影响。结果发现, 相比他人和中性条件, 当工作记忆表征为自我联结刺激时, 目标搜索反应更快。本研究从行为层面为自我相关信息能够易化主动抑制过程提供了证据。

关键词: 自我联结, 知觉凸显性, 视觉搜索, 主动抑制

Abstract:  The stimuli newly associated with the self are apt to gain perceptual saliency and display advantages in attentional attraction. Another line of studies demonstrated that perceptual saliency could facilitate active suppression through a top-down control. Therefore, we hypothesize that, if the WM feature is to be suppressed voluntarily, self-associated stimuli was more easily inhibited compared with other information in the visual search task. In current study, participants first completed an associating learning task to form four pairs of color-label links (e.g., green-self, blue-stranger, red and yellow-neutral). Then, they took a Working Memory-guided visual search task in which they needed to search a target shape among several items. Before searching, participants were asked to memorize a specific color, which was one of the four colors used in the learning task. They were informed that items with this cue color were distractors in the search task. After the search task, participants were asked to recall the memorized cue color. The results showed the RTs of the search task were significantly shorter when the informed distracter color was self-associated compared with when the color was stranger-associated or neutral, no significant difference in searching time between stranger-associated color and neural color condition. Analyses of search accuracy and memory accuracy also revealed no significant difference across conditions. These results conformed the facilitation of search performance when the known distracters were in previously link to self, participants could inhibit the distracters more easily and search target more rapidly. To summarize, although valuable objects such as self-relevant information are attractive in nature, people often encounter situations where they would prefer to aviod such distraction while focusing on the task goal. The present study confirmed our hypothesis that the self-associated information was actively suppressed more easily and thus enhanced participants’ performance in visual research. These findings demonstrate a flexible role of learned self association on cognitive control.

Key words: self-related process, visual search, attention, active inhibition

中图分类号: