ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (5): 518-528.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00518

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (首都师范大学心理系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-29 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 王争艳, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目“婴儿自我调节能力与多样化养育环境的交互影响:多水平追踪研究” (31470994)和北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室支持。

Multiple attachment relationships and the impacts on children’s socio-emotional development under the background of grandmother co-parenting

XING Shufen; LIANG Xi; YUE Jianhong; WANG Zhengyan   

  1. (Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition and Department of Psychology, Cap ital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
  • Received:2015-07-29 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-25
  • Contact: WANG Zhengyan, E-mail:


采用依恋Q-Set分类程序考察72名幼儿(M = 17.51个月)的母子依恋和祖孙依恋的安全性, 用《婴幼儿社会−情绪性评价量表》(ITSEA)同时评估了幼儿的社会−情绪性(包括外显行为域、内隐行为域、失调域和能力域)的发展状况。结果发现:(1)在祖辈参与共同养育的背景下, 大多数幼儿可以形成安全型的母子依恋和祖孙依恋, 母子依恋的安全性高于祖孙依恋; (2)母子依恋和祖孙依恋存在着中等强度的相关, 36%幼儿的母子依恋和祖孙依恋的安全性水平不一致; (3)回归分析表明, 与祖孙依恋的安全性相比, 母子依恋的安全性对幼儿的社会−情绪性发展的各领域具有更大的相对预测力, 支持主导性假说; (4)拥有高安全性母子依恋和祖孙依恋的幼儿, 其外显行为域和内隐行为域的得分显著低于其他3组, 高安全性母子依恋或祖孙依恋不能补偿对方的低安全性依恋的消极影响。在失调域上, 母子依恋和祖孙依恋的安全性存在着交互效应。

关键词: 多重依恋, 祖辈看护, 共同养育, 幼儿, 社会−情绪性发展


In China, grandparent caring is a very common phenomenon. The quality of the mother-child and grandmother- child attachment relationships has a great impact on the children’s socio-emotional development. Up to now, however, the concurrent relation between children’s socio-emotional competence and the quality of their attachment to the mothers and grandmothers has not been explored. This study separately assessed the quality of children’s attachment to mothers and grandmothers, thus we could examine the quality and concordance of the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment, and could also explore their relative predictive power and joint effects on children’s socio-emotional competence. Participants were recruited from Beijing’s major communities and websites. 72 mothers, grandmothers, and their children (including 38 boys) participated in our project. All the children were the first fetus and in good health. They were taken care of by grandmothers when their mothers were at work. The time of the grandmother caregiving was not less than 10 hours per week. Using Attachment Q-Sort, 72 children’s (M = 17.51 months) attachment security of mother-child and grandmother-child was examined in two successive sessions, and children’s socio-emotional development was simultaneously measured by Infant- toddler social and emotional assessment (containing four domains: Externalizing, Internalizing, Dysregulation and Competence). The results showed that: (1) In the background of grandmother co-parenting, most of the children could form secure attachment relationships with mothers and grandmothers. The security level of the mother-child attachment was higher than that of the grandmother-child attachment. (2) There was a moderate correlation between the mother-child attachment and the grandmother-child attachment. 36 percent of the children’s mother-child attachment security was dis-concordant with the grandmother-child attachment security. (3) Regression analysis showed that compared with the grandmother-child attachment security, the quality of the mother-child attachment had greater relative predictive power on children’s socio-emotional development, supporting the hierarchical organization hypothesis. (4) With two secure attachment relationships, the children’s scores of Externalizing domain and Internalizing domain were significantly lower than those of the other three groups of children. The quality of the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment relationships could not compensate for each other. The mother-child attachment and the grandmother-child attachment had an interactive effect on children’s Dysregulation domain. We firstly examined the effects of the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment for children’s outcomes in the multiple attachments framework, so this study has certain exploration and pioneering. Up to now, studies exploring the effect of the mother-child and father-child attachment on children’s development have found that a secure attachment with at least one parent was a key factor that offset risks for children’s development. But we found that the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment relationships of the present study could not buffer or compensate each other. This shows the effects of the father caregiving and the grandmother caregiving for the children’s development, and they are perhaps essentially different. Therefore the impact of mother and father on children’s development could not be replaced with the grandmother. The influence of the grandmother on the children’s development may be regarded as “icing on the cake”, while the father can play a buffer role or compensate for the children’s disadvantages.

Key words: multiple attachment, grandmother caregiving, co-parenting, child, socio-emotional development