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相对到达时间任务中飞行员对客体特征与运动特征的分离
晏碧华;游旭群
(陕西师范大学心理学院暨陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安, 710062)
Pilots’ Dissociation of Object Properties and Motion Properties in Relative Arrival Time Tasks
YAN Bihua; YOU Xuqun
(School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi´an 710062, China)
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摘要 

相对到达时间任务(RAT)是判断两个运动客体哪个先到达指定目标, 可用来评估个体动态空间能力。采用RAT任务对飞行员与普通被试进行对照研究, 寻求发现两组在运动客体特征和视觉空间运动特征及其相互关系上的处理差异。设计了3个实验分别考察客体颜色、客体大小、运动方向、速率大小、视线方向以及背景特征对判断的影响。结果显示:(1)客体颜色不影响运动客体的相对时间判断, 客体大小、运动方向、速率大小、视线方向以及背景特征影响判断; (2)控制组对显示屏上从左到右的运动客体的相对时间判断好于从右到左任务, 大速率任务判断更好, 对大客体快速行驶而小客体低速行驶时的相对到达时间更易区分, 且与两眼视线方向不一致的运动方向会使控制组判断更难, 运动背景中的目标线特征改变使控制组判断绩效降低; (3)和控制组比, 飞行员反应快正确率高, 其快速判断优势集中体现在从右到左运动以及小速率任务上, 且在不同运动方向和不同速率上的反应时均无差异, 飞行员的处理优势还表现在不受客体大小、视线方向改变和目标线特征改变的影响。结论:飞行员能在变化的空间中准确处理相对速度、相对距离、相对时间等运动信息, 能分离客体大小、背景、运动方向等因素对相对到达时间判断的影响, 在运动空间中飞行员具有较高场独立性认知特征和动态空间处理能力。

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晏碧华
游旭群
关键词 相对到达时间任务 客体特征 运动特征 动态空间能力    
Abstract

The Relative Arrival Time Task, in which participants are asked to judge which of the two moving objects would reach the designated target first, is largely used to assess the dynamic spatial ability. What are the impacts of object properties and motion properties of the two moving items on judgment in this relatively complex task is still unclear. This study focuses on the cognitive processing of experiential variables and visual variables, as well as the individual differences in RAT tasks. Pilot group and non-pilot group were recruited to make a compare in their processing of visuospatial object properties, motion properties and their interrelationship in RAT tasks. Three experiments were designed to extensively and sequentially examine the effects of different properties of objects on judgments. While Experiment 1 focused on the color, movement direction and velocity, Experiment 2 investigated the size and vision direction, exploring the target line which could possibly affect distance representation and spatial configuration into Experiment 3. The processing advantages of the pilot group were also considered in three expeirments, respectively. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the movement direction and velocity of two objects had effects on the judgment of RAT tasks with no such findings concerning color of object. Participants demonstrated better performance on the left-to-right tasks presented on the screen compared to the right-to-left ones, which was more salient on tasks with objects moving in large velocity. Compared to the control group, pilot group exhibited shorter response time and with better accuracy on average, which was largely reflected on the right-to-left tasks and those with small velocity, and there were no significant difference in response time between tasks in opposite direction or in contrasting velocity for pilot group. It was found in Experiment 2 that the size–speed factor affected the judgment of RAT tasks for control group, and non-pilot participants did better in tasks featured by fast-moving large objects or by small objects moving at low speed. In addition, tasks with inconsistency in directions of moving objects and visions of participants seemed more difficult for control group to complete. Processing advantages of pilots were presented in judgments on RAT tasks was not affected by size of objects and the accuracy of the judgments was unbiased despite of moving in different vision lines. Experiment 3 showed that, the judgment of pilot group was not affected by changing the features of target line while a poorer performance occurred in non-pilot group. The judgment of RAT tasks, which is a complicated process of collaborative judgments on a basis of multiple representations of objects, is affected by the two objects’ size, velocity, direction of movement, direction of vision and features of target. However, pilots are able to accurately process such information as relative speed, relative distance, relative time and movement direction in a changing space, dissociating the functions of object size and background in motion judgments. Therefore, it suggests that pilots have a higher field-independent cognitive trait and dynamic spatial processing capabilities.

Key wordsRelative Arrival Time Task    object properties    motion properties    dynamic spatial ability
收稿日期: 2013-12-25      出版日期: 2015-02-25
基金资助:

教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金(14YJA190012)资助。

通讯作者: 游旭群, E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn; 晏碧华, E-mail: yanbihua@snnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
晏碧华;游旭群. 相对到达时间任务中飞行员对客体特征与运动特征的分离[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00212.
YAN Bihua; YOU Xuqun. Pilots’ Dissociation of Object Properties and Motion Properties in Relative Arrival Time Tasks. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(2): 212-223.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00212      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I2/212
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